Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.
Abstract Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the post-prandial state, but mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed identical meals. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of 3 candidate signallers - serum calcium (Sca), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in Sca was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Worcester EM, Bergsland KJ, Gillen D, Coe FL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

An anatomically-unbiased approach for analysis of renal BOLD magnetic resonance images.
We present a semi-automated, anatomically unbiased approach to compartmentalize voxels into two quantitatively related clusters. In control F344 rats, low R2* clustering was located predominantly within the cortex and higher R2* clustering within the medulla (70.96±1.48 versus 79.00±1.50; 3 scans per rat; n=6; P
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Menzies RI, Zammit-Mangion A, Hollis LM, Lennen RJ, Jansen MA, Webb DJ, Mullins JJ, Dear JW, Sanguinetti G, Bailey MA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Thrombospondin 1 mediates renal dysfunction in a mouse model of high fat diet-induced obesity.
Abstract Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for many diseases including renal complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in diabetic kidney diseases. However, whether TSP1 plays a role in obesity-related kidney disease is unknown. In the present studies, the role of TSP1 in obesity-induced renal dysfunction was determined by using a diet-induced obese mouse model. The results demonstrated that TSP1 was significantly up-regulated in the kidney from obese mice. The increased TSP1 was localized in the glomerular mesangium as w...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Cui W, Maimaitiyiming H, Qi X, Norman H, Wang S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renalase regulates renal dopamine and phosphate metabolism.
Abstract Renalase is a kidney secreted catecholamines-degrading enzyme whose expression and activity are down-regulated by increased dietary phosphate. A renalase knockout (KO) mouse model was used to explore the mechanisms mediating renalase's effect on phosphate excretion. Compared to wild type (WT) mice maintained on a regular diet, KO mice show decreased serum PO4- (KO=5.3±0.2 vs WT=6.0±0.1, n= 6, p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sizova D, Velazquez H, Sampaio-Maia B, Quelhas-Santos J, Pestana M, Desir GV Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The inhibitory effect of Gβγ and Gβ isoform specificity on ENaC activity.
The inhibitory effect of Gβγ and Gβ isoform specificity on ENaC activity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Jul 17; Authors: Yu L, Al-Khalili OK, Duke BJ, Stockand JD, Eaton DC, Bao HF Abstract Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) activity, which determines the rate of renal Na(+) reabsorption, can be regulated by G-protein coupled receptors. Regulation of ENaC by Gα mediated downstream effectors has been studied extensively, but the effect of Gβγ dimers on ENaC is unclear. A6 cells endogenously contain high levels of Gβ1 but low levels of Gβ3 ,Gβ4 and Gβ5 were ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yu L, Al-Khalili OK, Duke BJ, Stockand JD, Eaton DC, Bao HF Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Fulvene-5 inhibition of Nadph oxidases attenuate activation of epitehlial sodium channels in A6 distal nephron cells.
Abstract Nadph oxidase 4 is an important cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the kidney. Novel anti-oxidant drugs, such as Nox4-inhibitor compounds, are being developed. There is however, very little experimental evidence for the biological role and regulation of Nadph oxidase isoforms in the kidney. Herein, we show that Fulvene-5 is an effective inhibitor of Nox-generated ROS and report the role of Nox isoforms in activating epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells via oxidant signaling and cell stretch activation. Using single channel patch clamp analysis, we report...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Trac D, Liu BC, Pao AC, Thomas SV, Park M, Downs CA, Ma HP, Helms MN Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Of Diabetic Mice and ACE2: A New Biomarker of Renal Disease?
Abstract editorial Focus F-600-2012. PMID: 23863471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chappell MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Invited Review - Novel Diuretic Targets.
Abstract As the molecular revolution continues to inform a deeper understanding of disease mechanisms and pathways, there exist unprecedented opportunities for translating discoveries at the bench into novel therapies for improving human health. Despite the availability of several different classes of antihypertensive medications, only about half of the 67 million Americans with hypertension manage their blood pressure appropriately. A broader selection of structurally diverse antihypertensive drugs acting through different mechanisms of action would provide clinicians with greater flexibility in developing effect...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Denton JS, Pao AC, Maduke M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Blood pressure - renal blood flow relationships in conscious angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-infused rats.
Abstract Chronic Ang II infusion in rodents is widely used as an experimental model of hypertension, yet very limited data are available describing the resulting BP - RBF relationships in conscious rats. Accordingly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=19) were instrumented for chronic measurements of BP (radiotelemetry) and RBF (Transonic). One week later, 2-3 separate 2 hr recordings of BP and RBF were obtained in conscious rats at 24 hr intervals in addition to separate 24 hr BP recordings. Rats were then administered either Ang II (n=11, 125 ng/kg/min) or phenylephrine (PE, n=8, 50 mg/kg/day) as a control, Ang II-inde...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Polichnowski AJ, Griffin KA, Long J, Williamson GA, Bidani AK Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Induction of AMPK Activity Corrects Early Pathophysiologic Alterations in the Subtotal Nephrectomy Model of Chronic Kidney Disease.
Abstract The rat kidney ablation and infarction (A/I) model of subtotal or 5/6(th) nephrectomy is the most commonly studied model of non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The A/I kidney at one-week exhibits reductions in kidney function as determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and diminished metabolic efficiency as determined by oxygen consumption per sodium transport (QO2/TNa). As renoprotective adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is affected by metabolic changes and cellular stress, we evaluated AMPK activity in this model system. We show that these early pathophysiolo...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Satriano J, Sharma K, Blantz RC, Deng A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Increasing cGMP-dependent protein kinase I activity attenuates cisplatin induced kidney injury through protection of mitochondria function.
Abstract Cisplatin is widely used to treat malignancies. However, its major limitation is the development of dose-dependent nephrotoxicity. The precise mechanisms of cisplatin-induced kidney damage remain unclear, and the renoprotective agents during cisplatin treatment are still lacking. Here we demonstrated that the expression and activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase-I (PKG-I) was reduced in cisplatin treated renal tubular cells in vitro as well as in the kidney tissues from cisplatin treated mice in vivo. Increasing PKG activity by both pharmacological and genetic approaches attenuated cisplatin-induced ki...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maimaitiyiming H, Li Y, Cui W, Tong X, Norman H, Qi X, Wang S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of cellular plasticity in the collecting duct during the recovery of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Abstract The cellular morphology of the collecting duct is altered by chronic lithium treatment. We have previously shown that lithium increases the fraction of type-A intercalated cells and lowers the fraction of principal cells along the collecting duct. Moreover, type-A intercalated cells acquire a long-row distribution pattern along the tubules. In the present study, we show that these morphological changes reverse progressively after discontinuation of lithium, and finally disappear after 19 days from lithium suspension. In this time frame we have identified for the first time, in vivo, a novel cellular type ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Trepiccione F, Capasso G, Nielsen S, Christensen BM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Erythropoietin ameliorates podocyte injury in advanced diabetic nephropathy in the db/db mouse.
Abstract Podocyte damage and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The pathophysiology of AGE-challenged podocytes is closely related to the induction of cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) and to the inhibition of neuropilin 1 (NRP1). We previously demonstrated that treatment with erythropoietin is associated with protective effects for podocytes in vitro. db/db mice with overt DN aged 15-16 weeks were treated with either placebo, or epoetin-β, or CERA (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) for 2 weeks. db/db mice compared with non-diabetic...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Loeffler I, Ruester C, Franke S, Liebisch M, Wolf G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of weight reduction regimens and bariatric surgery on chronic kidney disease in obese patients.
Abstract Increasing evidence nowadays is showing that obesity by itself, independent of other co-morbidities like diabetes and hypertension, is associated with renal structural damage and functional changes. Intentional weight loss demonstrates beneficial reduction in proteinuria and albuminuria in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease, particularly those whose renal damage is directly induced by obesity. The safety of some weight loss interventions, particularly the use of high-protein diets and/or medications, is questionable in this population due to the lack of well-designed randomized controll...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abou Mrad RM, Abu-Alfa AK, Ziyadeh FN Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renal ischemia/reperfusion induces a dysbalance of angiopoietins, accompanied by proliferation of pericytes and fibrosis.
Abstract Endothelial cells (ECs) are highly susceptible to hypoxia and easily affected upon ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) during renal transplantation. Pericytes and angiopoeitins play important roles in modulating EC function. In the present study, we investigate the effect of renal I/R on dynamics of angiopoietin expression and its association with pericytes and fibrosis development. Male Lewis rats were subjected to unilateral renal ischemia for 45 minutes followed by removal of the contralateral kidney. Rats were sacrificed at different time points after reperfusion. Endothelial integrity (RECA-1),pericytes (PDGF...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Khairoun M, van der Pol P, de Vries DK, Lievers E, Schlagwein N, de Boer HC, Bajema IM, Rotmans JI, van Zonneveld AJ, Rabelink TJ, van Kooten C, Reinders ME Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Macrophage-derived TGF-beta in renal fibrosis: not a macro- impact after all.
Abstract editorial focus for F-624-2012. PMID: 23825074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tan RJ, Liu Y Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renal uptake of the antiapoptotic protein survivin is mediated by megalin at the apical membrane of the proximal tubule.
MS Abstract The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin is a bifunctional molecule which regulates cellular division and survival. We have previously shown that survivin protein can be found at high concentrations in the adult kidney, particularly in the proximal tubules. Here, survivin is localized primarily at the apical membrane, a pattern which may indicate absorption of the protein. Several proteins in primary urine are internalised by megalin, an endocytosis receptor, which is in principle found in the same localization as survivin. Immunolabeling for survivin in different species confirmed survivin signal ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jobst-Schwan T, Knaup KX, Nielsen R, Hackenbeck T, Büttner-Herold M, Lechler P, Kroening S, Goppelt-Struebe M, Schloetzer-Schrehardt U, Fuernrohr BG, Voll RE, Amann K, Eckardt KU, Christensen EI, Wiesener MS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Protective effect of zinc-N-acetylcysteine on rat kidney during cold storage.
In this study, Zinc-N-acetylcysteine (ZnNAC) was shown to be a potent endonuclease inhibitor and antioxidant, and it was tested as a potential additive to a cold storage solution for kidney preservation. Exposure of normal rat kidney NRK-52E cells to ZnNAC resulted in zinc delivery to the cells determined by TFL-Zn fluorophore and partial protection of the cells against injury by cold storage in the University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) as measured by propidium iodide assay. Ex vivo, rat kidneys demonstrated time- and temperature-dependent DNA fragmentation assessed by TUNEL assay, indicating irreversible cell death. The ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Singh M, Odenyiy DT, Apostolov EO, Savenka A, Fite T, Wangila GW, Walker RB, Basnakian AG Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Architecture of interstitial nodal spaces in the rodent renal inner medulla.
This study fully supports that hypothesis. We quantified interactions of all structures comprising INSs along the corticopapillary axis for 2 rodent species, the Munich-Wistar rat and the kangaroo rat. Results show remarkable similarities in configurations of INSs, suggesting that the structural arrangement of INSs is a highly conserved architecture that plays a fundamental role in renal function. The number density of INSs along the corticopapillary axis directly correlates with a loop population that declines exponentially with distance below the outer medullary-inner medullary boundary. Axial configurations are consiste...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gilbert RL, Pannabecker TL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Exercising in a hot environment with muscle damage: effects on acute kidney injury biomarkers and kidney function.
Abstract Unaccustomed strenuous physical exertion in hot environments can result in heat stroke and acute kidney injury (AKI). Both exercise-induced muscle damage and AKI are associated with the release of interleukin-6 but whether muscle damage causes AKI in the heat is unknown. We hypothesized that muscle damaging exercise, prior to exercise in the heat would increase kidney stress. Ten healthy, euhydrated males underwent a randomized, crossover trial involving both a 60 minute downhill muscle-damaging run (EIMD), and an exercise intensity-matched non-muscle damaging flat run (CON), in random order separated by ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Junglee NA, Di Felice U, Dolci A, Fortes MB, Jibani MM, Lemmey AB, Walsh NP, Macdonald JH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Involvement of 5-HT3 receptors in pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity in cats.
Abstract The role of the 5-HT3 receptors in pudendal neuromodulation of bladder activity and its interaction with opioid receptors were investigated in anesthetized cats. The bladder was distended with either saline to induce normal bladder activity or with 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to induce bladder overactivity. Pudendal afferent nerves were activated by 5 Hz stimulation at multiples of the threshold (T) intensity for inducing anal twitching. AA irritation significantly reduced bladder capacity to 16.5±3.3% of saline control capacity, while pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at 1.5-2T and 3-4T restored the cap...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Schwen Z, Matsuta Y, Shen B, Wang J, Roppolo JR, de Groat WC, Tai C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

20-hete induces remodeling of renal resistance arteries independent of blood pressure elevation in hypertension.
This study demonstrated that 20-HETE is a key regulator of microvascular remodeling in hypertension; its effect is independent of blood pressure elevation and androgen levels. PMID: 23825080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 3, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ding Y, Wu CC, Garcia V, Dimitrova I, Weidenhammer A, Joseph G, Zhang F, Manthati VL, Falck JR, Capdevila JH, Laniado Schwartzman M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

AMPK couples plasma renin to cellular metabolism by phosphorylation of ACC1.
Abstract Salt reabsorption is the major energy-requiring process in the kidney and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of cellular metabolism. Mice with a targeted deletion of the β1 subunit of AMPK (AMPK β(1-/-) mice) had significantly increased urinary sodium excretion on a normal salt diet. This was associated with reduced expression of the β subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and increased sub-apical tubular expression of the kidney-specific Na-K-2Cl co-transporter NKCC2. AMPK β1(-/-) mice fed a salt-deficient diet were able to conserve sodium but reni...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 19, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fraser SA, Choy SW, Pastor-Soler NM, Li H, Davies MR, Cook N, Katerelos M, Mount PF, Gleich K, McRae JL, Dwyer KM, Van Denderen BJ, Hallows KR, Kemp BE, Power DA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +24 new citations
24 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2013/06/14PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 14, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system, is it key to the developmental origins of enhanced cardiovascular risk?
Abstract n/a. PMID: 23739591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 5, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexander BT, Intapad S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Attenuation of Lithium-induced Natriuresis and Kaliuresis in P2Y2 Receptor Knockout Mice.
Abstract Whole-body knockout (KO) of the P2Y2 receptor (R) results in enhanced vasopressin V2-receptor activity and increased renal sodium conservation. We hypothesized that P2Y2-R KO mice would be less sensitive to Li-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis due to attenuated down-regulation of one or more of the major renal sodium or potassium transporter/channel proteins. KO and wild-type (WT) mice were fed control (C) or Li-added diet (40 mmol/kg food) for 14 days. Li-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis were significantly (>50%) attenuated in the KO mice. The subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) were v...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 5, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang Y, Li L, Kohan DE, Ecelbarger CM, Kishore BK Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Aldosterone acutely stimulates ncc activity via a spak-mediated pathway.
ALDOSTERONE ACUTELY STIMULATES NCC ACTIVITY VIA A SPAK-MEDIATED PATHWAY. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Jun 5; Authors: Ko B, Mistry AC, Hanson LN, Mallick R, Wynne BM, Thai TL, Bailey JL, Klein JD, Hoover RS Abstract Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and disordered sodium balance has long been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aldosterone is perhaps the key regulator of sodium balance and thus blood pressure. The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney is a major site of sodium reabsorption and plays a key role in blood pressure ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 5, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ko B, Mistry AC, Hanson LN, Mallick R, Wynne BM, Thai TL, Bailey JL, Klein JD, Hoover RS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Feline chronic kidney disease is associated with shortened telomeres and increased cellular senescence.
Abstract Telomeres are protective structures at the ends of chromosomes that have important implications for aging. To address the question of whether telomeres contribute to feline chronic kidney disease (CKD), we evaluated kidney, liver and skin samples from 12 cats with naturally occurring CKD, 12 young normal cats and 6 old normal cats. Telomere length was assessed using standard telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization (TEL-FISH) combined with immunohistochemistry (TELI-FISH) to identify proximal (PTEC) and distal tubular epithelial cells (DTEC), while senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SABG) stain...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Quimby JM, Maranon DG, Battaglia CL, McLeland SM, Brock WT, Bailey SM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Lovastatin attenuates effects of cyclosporine A on tight junctions and apoptosis in cultured cortical collecting duct principal cells.
Abstract We used mouse cortical collecting duct principal cells (mpkCCDc14 line) as a model to determine whether statins reduce the harmful effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on the distal nephron. The data showed that treatment of the cells with CsA increased transepithelial resistance and that the effect of CsA was abolished by lovastatin. Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) showed that CsA significantly increased the height of cellular protrusions near tight junctions. In contrast, lovastatin eliminated the protrusions and even caused a modest depression between the cells. Western blots and confocal microsc...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Liu BC, Song X, Lu XY, Fang C, Wei SP, Alli AA, Eaton DC, Shen BZ, Li XQ, Ma HP Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Mitochondria-targeted heme oxygenase-1 decreases oxidative stress in renal epithelial cells.
Abstract Mitochondria are both a source and target of the actions of reactive oxygen species and possess a complex system of inter-related antioxidants which control redox signaling and protect against oxidative stress. Interestingly, the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 is not present in the mitochondria despite the fact that the organelle is the site of heme synthesis. Detoxification of heme is an important protective mechanism since the reaction of heme with hydrogen peroxide generates pro-oxidant ferryl species capable of propagating oxidative stress and ultimately cell death. We therefore hypothesized tha...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bolisetty S, Traylor AM, Zarjou A, Johnson MS, Benavides GA, Ricart K, Boddu R, Moore RD, Landar A, Barnes S, Darley-Usmar VM, Agarwal A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Knockdown of parathyroid hormone related protein in smooth muscle cells alters renal hemodynamics but not blood pressure.
Abstract Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) belongs to vasoactive factors that regulate blood pressure and renal hemodynamics both by reducing vascular tone and raising renin release. PTHrP is expressed in systemic and renal vasculature. Here we wanted to assess the contribution of vascular smooth muscle cell endogenous PTHrP to the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions. We generated a mouse strain (SMA-CreER(T2)/PTHrP(L2/L2) or premutant PTHrP(SM-/-)) which allows temporally-controlled, smooth muscle targeted PTHrP knockdown in adult mice. Tamoxifen treatment induced efficient recombination of...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raison D, Coquard C, Hochane M, Steger J, Massfelder T, Moulin B, Karaplis AC, Metzger D, Chambon P, Helwig JJ, Barthelmebs M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Differential Regulation of Na+ Transporters along Nephron during AngII-Dependent Hypertension: Distal Stimulation Counteracted by Proximal Inhibition.
This study tests the hypothesis that Ang II infusion activates Na(+) transporters in the distal nephron while inhibiting transporters along the proximal nephron. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with AngII (400 ng/kg/min) or vehicle for 2 weeks. Kidneys were dissected (cortex versus medulla) or fixed for immunohistochemistry (IHC). AngII increased mean arterial pressure by 40 mmHg, urine Na(+) by 1.67-fold, and urine volume by 3-fold, evidence for hypertension and pressure natriuresis. Na(+) transporters' abundance and activation (assessed by phosphorylation (-P) or proteolytic cleavage), were measured by immunoblot. ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nguyen MT, Lee DH, Delpire E, McDonough AA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Role of proximal tubule in the hypocalciuric response to thiazide of patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria.
ROLE OF PROXIMAL TUBULE IN THE HYPOCALCIURIC RESPONSE TO THIAZIDE OF PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC HYPERCALCIURIA. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 May 29; Authors: Bergsland KJ, Worcester EM, Coe FL Abstract The most common metabolic abnormality found in calcium (Ca) kidney stone formers is idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH). Using endogenous lithium (Li) clearance, we previously showed that in IH there is decreased proximal tubule (PT) sodium absorption, and increased delivery of Ca into the distal nephron. Distal Ca reabsorption may facilitate the formation of Randall's plaque (RP) by washdown of excess Ca throu...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bergsland KJ, Worcester EM, Coe FL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

High NaCl-induced inhibition of PTG (protein targeting to glycogen) contributes to activation of NFAT5 through attenuation of the negative effect of SHP-1.
Abstract Activation of the transcription factor NFAT5 by high NaCl involves changes in phosphorylation. By siRNA screening we previously found that PTG, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase1 (PP1), contributes to regulation of high NaCl-induced NFAT5 transcriptional activity. The present study addresses the mechanism involved. We find that high NaCl-induced inhibition of PTG elevates NFAT5 activity by increasing NFAT5 transactivating activity, protein abundance, and nuclear localization. PTG acts via a catalytic subunit, PP1γ. PTG associates physically with PP1γ and NaCl reduces both this associ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhou X, Wang H, Burg MB, Ferraris JD Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Functional Expression of Purinergic P2 Receptors and Transient Receptor Potential Channels by Human Urothelium.
Abstract Further to its role as a physical barrier, the urothelium is considered to play an active role in mechanosensation. A key mechanism is the release of transient mediators that activate purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to effect changes in intracellular calcium. Despite the implied importance of these receptors and channels in urothelial tissue homeostasis and dysfunctional bladder disease, little is known about the functional expression by human urothelium. To evaluate expression and function of P2X and P2Y receptors and TRP channels, human ureter and bladder were use...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shabir S, Cross W, Kirkwood L, Pearson JF, Appleby PA, Walker D, Eardley I, Southgate J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Activation of liver X receptors reduces cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated chloride transport in kidney collecting duct cells.
In this report, we demonstrate the ability of LXR ligands, both endogenous (22(R)-hydroxycholesterol) and synthetic (T0901317 and GW3965), to reduce cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated chloride secretion in Marlin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and in murine primary inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, based on measurement of arginine vasopressin (AVP) induced-chloride current (ICl-). However, treatment of MDCK monolayer cells with 5 µM T0901317 for 24 h did not alter ouabain-senstive current or Na+/K+ATPaseα protein content. Furthermore, permeabilization of MDCK m...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 29, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raksaseri P, Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C, Soodvilai S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +201 new citations
201 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2013/05/26PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Netrin-1 regulate colon-kidney cross-talk through suppression of IL-6 function in a mouse model of DSS-colitis.
Abstract Organ cross-talk is increasingly appreciated in human disease, and inflammatory mediators are shown to mediate distant organ injury in many disease models. Colitis and intestinal injury are known to be mediated by infiltrating immune cells and their secreted cytokines. However, its effect on other organs such as kidney has never been studied. In the current study, we examined the effect DSS colitis on kidney injury and inflammation. In addition, we hypothesized that netrin-1 could modulate colon-kidney cross talk through regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Consistent with our hypothesis, dextran sul...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ranganathan P, Jayakumar C, Santhakumar M, Ramesh G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of diuretic stimulation of an insect secretory epithelium by a cGMP-dependent protein kinase.
Abstract The rate of urine secretion by insect Malpighian tubules (MTs) is regulated by multiple diuretic and antidiuretic hormones, often working either synergistically or antagonistically. In the Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule (MT), only diuretic factors have been reported. Two such agents are the biogenic amine tyramine (TA) and the peptide drosokinin (DK), both of which act on the stellate cells of the tubule to increase transepithelial chloride conductance. In the current study, TA and DK signaling was quantified by microelectrode recording of the transepithelial potential (TEP) in isolated Drosoph...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ruka KA, Miller AP, Blumenthal EM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Direct assessment of tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness in connexin 40-deficient mice.
Abstract Participation of connexin40 (Cx40) in the regulation of renin secretion and in the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) component of renal autoregulation suggest that gap junctional coupling through Cx40 contributes to the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. In the present experiments we determined the effect of targeted Cx40 deletion in C57Bl/6 and FVB mice on TGF responsiveness. In C57Bl/6 mice, stop flow pressure (PSF) fell from 40.3 ± 2 to 34.5 ± 2 mm Hg in WT and from 31 ± 1.06 to 26.6 ± 0.98 mm Hg in Cx40-/-. PSF changes of 5.85 ± 0.67 Hg in wild type and of 4.3 ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Oppermann M, Carota I, Schiessl I, Eisner C, Castrop H, Schnermann JB Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Chronic Regulation of the Renal Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE3 by Dopamine: Translational and Post-Translational Mechanisms.
Abstract The intrarenal autocrine/paracrine dopamine (DA) system contributes to natriuresis in response to both acute and chronic Na(+) loads. While the acute DA effect is well described, how DA induces natriuresis chronically is not known. We used an animal and a cell culture model to study the chronic effect of DA on a principal renal Na(+) transporter, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-3 (NHE3). Intraperitoneal injection of gludopa in rats for 2 days elevated DA excretion and decreased total renal cortical and apical brush border NHE3 antigen. Chronic treatment of an opossum renal proximal cell line with DA decreased NHE3 a...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 20, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hu MC, Di Sole F, Zhang J, McLeroy P, Moe OW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Neonatal hyperoxia: Effects on nephrogenesis and long-term glomerular structure.
Abstract Preterm neonates are born while nephrogenesis is ongoing and are commonly exposed to factors in the extrauterine environment that may impair renal development. Supplemental oxygen therapy exposes the preterm infant to a hyperoxic environment which may induce oxidative stress. Our aim was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of exposure to hyperoxia, during the period of postnatal nephrogenesis, on renal development. Newborn mice (C57BL/6J) were kept in a normoxic (room air, 21% oxygen) or a controlled hyperoxic (65% oxygen) environment from birth to postnatal day 7 (P7d). From P7d, animals wer...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 20, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sutherland MR, O'Reilly M, Kenna K, Ong K, Harding R, Sozo F, Black MJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Meprin A metalloproteinase and its role in acute kidney injury.
Abstract Meprin A, comprised of α and β subunits, is a membrane-associated neutral metalloendoprotease that belongs to the astacin family of zinc endopeptidases. It was first discovered as an azocasein and benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase in the brush-border membranes of proximal tubules and intestines. Meprin isoforms are now found to be widely distributed in various organs (kidney, intestines, leukocytes, skin, bladder, and a variety of cancer cells) and are capable of hydrolyzing and processing a large number of substrates including extracellular matrix proteins, cytokines, adherens ju...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 20, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kaushal GP, Haun RS, Herzog C, Shah SV Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Loss of WNK3 is Compensated for by the WNK1/SPAK Axis in the Kidney of the Mouse.
Abstract WNK3 kinase is expressed throughout the nephron and acts as a positive regulator of NKCC2 and NCC in vitro. Here we addressed the in vivo relevance of WNK3 using WNK3-deficient mice. The net tubular function was similar in WT and WNK3-/- mice as assessed by determination of 24-hr urine output (1.63±.06 in WT and 1.55±.1 mL in WNK3-/-, n=16; p=.42) and ambient urine osmolarity (1804±62 in WT vs. 1819±61 mosmol/kg in WNNK3-/-, n=40; p=.86). Water restriction increased urine osmolarity similarly in both genotypes to 3440±220 and 3200±180 mosmol/kg in WT and WNK3-/- m...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 20, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mederle K, Mutig K, Paliege A, Carota I, Bachmann S, Castrop H, Oppermann M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renal Protective Effects of Alpha-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Deoxycorticosterone- Salt Hypertension.
Abstract Deoxycorticosterone salt (DOC-salt) hypertension -induced renal damage is enhanced in α-CGRP KO compared to WT mice. However, since the α-CGRP KO mice have a 15-20 mmHg higher baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) than WT mice, they also have a higher MAP than WT mice throughout the course of DOC-salt hypertension. To determine the mechanism by which the absence of α-CGRP enhances hypertension-induced renal damage, DOC-salt hypertension was induced in telemetry probe implanted α-CGRP KO and WT mice. To equalize the blood pressure (BP) to that of DOC-salt WT mice, an additional grou...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Li J, Carnevale KA, Dipette DJ, Supowit SC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Resistance To Blockade In The Opossum Proximal Tubule Cell Due To Variations In The Binding Pocket.
Abstract Blockade of the angiotensin (Ang) II receptor Type 1 (AT1R) with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, ARBs are variably effective in reducing blood pressure, likely due, in part, to polymorphisms in the ARB binding pocket of the AT1R. Therefore, we need a better understanding of variations/polymorphisms that alter binding of ARBs in heterogeneous patient populations. The opossum proximal tubule cell (OKP) line is commonly used in research to evaluate renal sodium handling and therefore blood pressure. Investigating this issue, we found natural sequ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nistala R, Andresen BT, Pulakat L, Meuth A, Sinak C, Mandavia C, Thekkumkara T, Speth RC, Whaley-Connell AT, Sowers JR Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of Notch pathway attenuates the progression of human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy.
In this study, we examined Notch signaling in the well-established Tg26 mouse model of HIVAN. Notch signaling components were distinctly upregulated in the kidneys of these mice, as well as in immortalized podocytes derived from these mice. Notch1 and Notch4 were upregulated in the Tg26 glomeruli, and Notch4 was also expressed in tubules. Notch ligands Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like1, and Delta-like4 were all upregulated in the tubules of Tg26 mice, but glomeruli showed minimal expression of Notch ligands. To examine a potential pathogenetic role for Notch in HIVAN, Tg26 mice were treated with GSIXX, a gamma secretase inhibi...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sharma M, Magenheimer LK, Home T, Tamano KN, Singhal PC, Hyink DP, Klotman PE, Vanden Heuvel GB, Fields TA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Dietary iron restriction inhibits progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice.
Abstract Excess iron causes oxidative stress through hydroxyl-radical production via Fenton/Haber-Weiss reactions. Recently, body iron reduction has been found to ameliorate diabetes. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of dietary iron restriction against diabetic nephropathy in the db/db mouse model of diabetic nephropathy using db/m mice as controls. The db/db mice were divided into 2 groups and fed a normal diet (ND) or a low iron diet (LID). Increasing urinary albumin excretion was observed in the ND db/db mice, but this was suppressed in db/db mice with LID. Histologically, the db/db mice ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ikeda Y, Enomoto H, Tajima S, Izawa-Ishizawa Y, Kihira Y, Ishizawa K, Tomita S, Tsuchiya K, Tamaki T Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells mediates RhoA-induced fibronectin upregulation in glomerular podocytes.
Abstract Glomerulosclerosis is featured by accumulation of the extracellular matrices in the glomerulus. We showed previously that activation of the small GTPase, RhoA, in podocytes induces heavy proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in mouse. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism by which RhoA stimulates the production of one of the extracellular matrices, fibronectin, by podocytes, specifically testing the role of nuclear factor of T-cells (NFAT). Expression of constitutively active RhoA in cultured podocytes activated the fibronectin promoter, upregulated fibronectin protein, and activated NFAT. Expr...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhu L, Qi XY, Aoudjit L, Mouawad F, Baldwin C, Nattel S, Takano T Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Tamm-Horsfall Protein Translocates to the Basolateral Domain of Thick Ascending Limbs, Interstitium and Circulation during Recovery from Acute Kidney Injury.
Abstract Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a glycoprotein normally targeted to the apical membrane domain of the kidney's thick ascending limbs (TAL). We previously showed that THP of TAL confers protection to proximal tubules against acute kidney injury (AKI) via a possible cross-talk between the two functionally distinct tubular segments. However, the extent, timing, specificity and functional effects of basolateral translocation of THP during AKI remain unclear. Using an ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) model of murine AKI, we show here that, while THP expression in TAL is down-regulated at the peak of injury, it is sig...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: El-Achkar TM, McCracken R, Liu Y, Heitmeier MR, Bourgeois S, Ryerse J, Wu XR Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research