Sodium-Sensitive Elevation in Blood Pressure is ENaC Independent in Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance.
Abstract The majority of patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome have hypertension, but the mechanisms of hypertension are poorly understood. In these patients, impaired sodium excretion is critical for the genesis of sodium-sensitive hypertension, and prior studies have proposed a role for the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in this syndrome. We characterized high fat-fed mice as a model in which to study the contribution of ENaC-mediated sodium reabsorption in obesity and insulin resistance. High fat-fed mice demonstrated impaired sodium excretion and elevated blood pressure that w...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nizar JM, Dong W, McClellan RB, Labarca M, Zhou Y, Wong J, Goens DG, Zhao M, Velarde N, Bernstein D, Pellizzon M, Satlin LM, Bhalla V Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Resistant Starch Alters Gut Microbiome and Metabolomics Profiles Concurrent with Amelioration of Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats.
Abstract Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xeno-metabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber-high amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2)-has been shown to alter the gut milieu, and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the current study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function, in order to i...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kieffer DA, Piccolo BD, Vaziri ND, Liu S, Lau WL, Khazaeli M, Nazertehrani S, Moore ME, Marco ML, Martin RJ, Adams SH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A computational model of flow and species transport in the mesangium.
We present a computational model of convection and diffusion within the porous mesangial matrix and apply this model to the specific instance of immunoglobulin A (IgA) transport in IgA nephropathy. We examine the influence of physiological factors including glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness and mesangial matrix density on the total accumulation of IgA. Our results suggest that IgA accumulation can be understood by relating convection and diffusion, thus demonstrating the importance of intrinsic glomerular factors. PMID: 26831339 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hunt SE, Dorfman KD, Segal Y, Barocas VH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Impact of nitric-oxide-mediated vasodilation and oxidative stress on renal medullary oxygenation: a modeling study.
Abstract The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation in preventing medullary hypoxia, as well as the likely pathways by which superoxide (O2 (-)) conversely enhances medullary hypoxia. To do so, we expanded a previously developed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla that accounts for the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), NO, and O2 (-) to include the vasoactive effects of NO on medullary descending vasa recta. The model represents the radial organization of the vessels and tubules, centered around vascular bundles in the outer med...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - February 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fry BC, Edwards A, Layton AT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Sequential activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the progression of hypertensive nephropathy in Goldblatt rats.
This study evaluated how various intrarenal RAS components contributed to hypertension not only in maintenance time (5w; 5 week after operation) but also in early time (2w; 2week after operation). We inserted a 2.5mm-sized clip into the left renal artery of the Sprague-Dawley rats and sacrificed them at 2w and 5w following operation. Systolic blood pressure increased within one week after operation and left ventricular hypertrophy was occurred in 2K1C rats. At 2w, juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) and collecting duct (CD) renin increased in CK. The tubular angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was not changed, but peritubula...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kim YG, Lee SH, Kim SY, Lee A, Moon JY, Jeong KH, Lee TW, Lim SJ, Sohn IS, Ihm CG Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

B7-1 Biomarker Bites the Dust.
PMID: 26823280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: D'Agati VD Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Acquired resistance to rechallenge injury after acute kidney injury in rats is associated with cell cycle arrest in proximal tubule cells.
Abstract Rats that have recovered from severe proximal tubule (PT) injury induced by uranyl acetate (UA), a toxic stimulus, developed resistance to subsequent UA treatment. We investigated cell cycle status and progression in PT cells in relation to this acquired resistance. Fourteen days after pretreatment with saline (vehicle group) or UA [acute kidney injury (AKI) group], rats were injected with UA or lead acetate (a proliferative stimulus). Cell cycle status (G0/G1/S/G2/M) was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of cell cycle markers, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and phenotypic markers were exami...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Iwakura T, Fujigaki Y, Fujikura T, Ohashi N, Kato A, Yasuda H Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Modulation of the Myogenic Mechanism:Concordant effects of NO Synthesis Inhibition and O2- Dismutation on Renal Autoregulation in the Time and Frequency Domains.
Abstract Renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation was investigated in anesthetized C57Bl6 mice using time- and frequency-domain analyses. Autoregulation was reestablished by 15 sec in two stages after a 25 mmHg step increase in perfusion pressure (RPP). The renal vascular resistance (RVR) response did not include a contribution from the macula densa tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (MD-TGF). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) reduced the time for complete autoregulation to 2 sec and induced 0.25 Hz oscillations in RVR. Quenching of superoxide (O2-) (SOD mimetic tempol) during L-NAME normalized the ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Moss NG, Kopple TE, Arendshorst WJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

An Immunoassay for Urinary Extracellular Vesicles.
Abstract Although nanosized urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) are increasingly used for biomarker discovery, their isolation currently relies on time-consuming techniques hindering high-throughput application. To navigate this problem, we designed an immunoassay to isolate, quantify and normalize uEV-proteins. The uEV-immunoassay consists of a biotinylated CD9 antibody to isolate uEVs, an antibody against the protein of interest, and two conjugated antibodies to quantify the protein of interest and CD9. As a proof of principle, the immunoassay was developed to analyze the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and t...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Salih M, Fenton RA, Knipscheer J, Janssen JW, Vredenbregt-van den Berg MS, Jenster G, Zietse R, Hoorn EJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of Type II Diabetes on Rat Bladder Contractility.
Abstract Type II diabetes is the most prevalent form of diabetes. One of the primary complications of diabetes that significantly affects quality of life is bladder dysfunction. Many studies on diabetic bladder dysfunction have been performed in models of Type I diabetes; however, few have been performed in animal models of Type II diabetes. Using the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat model of Type II diabetes we examined the contractility and sensitivity of bladder smooth muscle in response to mediators of depolarization-induced contraction, muscarinic-receptor mediated contraction, ATP-induced contraction, and neu...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kendig DM, Ets HK, Moreland RS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Nedd4-2 but not Nedd4-1 is Critical for Protein Kinase C-Regulated Ubiquitination, Expression and Transport Activity of Human Organic Anion Transporter 1.
In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that both Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2 are important regulators for hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and function. Yet they play distinct roles, as Nedd4-2 but not Nedd4-1 is a critical mediator for PKC-regulated hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity. PMID: 26823285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Xu D, Wang H, Zhang Q, You G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and endothelial cilia in EPC-mediated postischemic kidney protection.
GA Abstract Renal ischemia induces peritubular capillary rarefication and fibrosis, the latter partly resulting from Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EndoMT). Endothelial cilia transmit blood flow-associated forces into the cell. Early EPCs (eEPCs) have been shown to protect mice from AKI in the short-term. Aim of the study was to analyze mid-term consequences of eEPC treatment in the context of endothelial cilia and EndoMT. Male C57/Bl6N mice were subjected to unilateral renal ischemia post-uninephrectomy. Syngeneic murine eEPCs were systemically injected at the time of reperfusion. Animals were investigat...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Patschan D, Schwarze K, Henze E, Patschan S, Müller GA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Recent advances in immunosuppression and acquired immune tolerance in renal transplants.
PMID: 26792063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Casiraghi F, Cortinovis M, Perico N, Remuzzi G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Luts in pelvic ischemia: a new concept in voiding dysfunction.
LUTS IN PELVIC ISCHEMIA: A NEW CONCEPT IN VOIDING DYSFUNCTION. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Jan 20;:ajprenal.00333.2015 Authors: Thurmond P, Yang JH, Azadzoi KM Abstract Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a group of voiding symptoms affecting both genders as they age. Traditionally, LUTS in men were commonly attributed to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostatic enlargement. It was later shown that, in approximately one third to more than one half cases, LUTS in men are not associated with BOO. Urodynamic changes in the male bladder and symptom scores in the aging men were fou...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thurmond P, Yang JH, Azadzoi KM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Dosage-dependent Role of RAC1 in Podocyte Injury.
Abstract Activation of small GTPase Rac1 in podocytes is associated with rodent models of kidney injury and familial nephrotic syndrome. Induced Rac1 activation in podocytes in transgenic mice results in rapid transient proteinuria and foot process effacement, but not glomerular sclerosis. Thus it remains an open question whether abnormal activation of Rac1 in podocytes is sufficient to cause permanent podocyte damage. Using a number of transgenic zebrafish models, we showed that moderate elevation of Rac1 activity in podocytes did not impair glomerular filtration barrier but aggravated metronidazole-induced podoc...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wan X, Lee MS, Zhou W Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.
Abstract Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi, USA. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorised by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Des...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Puelles VG, Cullen-McEwen LA, Taylor GE, Li J, Hughson MD, Kerr PG, Hoy WE, Bertram JF Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

New perspective of ClC-Kb/2 chloride channel physiology in the distal renal tubule.
Abstract Since its identification as the underlying molecular cause of Bartter's syndrome type 3, ClC-Kb (ClC-K2 in rodents, henceforth it will be referred as ClC-Kb/2) is proposed to play an important role in systemic electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation by controlling basolateral Cl- exit in the distal renal tubular segments from the cortical thick ascending limb to the outer medullary collecting duct. Considerable experimental and clinical effort has been devoted to the identification and characterization of disease-causing mutations as well as control of the channel by its co-factor, barttin. Howe...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zaika O, Tomilin V, Mamenko M, Bhalla V, Pochynyuk O Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +23 new citations
23 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2016/01/15PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 15, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Paricalcitol modulates ace2 shedding and renal adam17 in nod diabetic mice beyond proteinuria.
PARICALCITOL MODULATES ACE2 SHEDDING AND RENAL ADAM17 IN NOD DIABETIC MICE BEYOND PROTEINURIA. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Dec 23;:ajprenal.00082.2015 Authors: Riera M, Anguiano L, Clotet S, Roca-Ho H, Rebull M, Pascual J, Soler MJ Abstract Circulating and renal ACE2 activity is increased in the NOD diabetic mice. Because paricalcitol has been reported to protect against diabetic nephropathy, we investigated the role of paricalcitol in modulating ACE2 in these mice. In addition, renal ADAM17 a metalloprotease implied in ACE2 shedding was assessed. Diabetic NOD females and non-diabetic controls we...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Riera M, Anguiano L, Clotet S, Roca-Ho H, Rebull M, Pascual J, Soler MJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Pentosan Polysulfate Preserves Renal Microvascular P2X1 Receptor Reactivity and Autoregulatory Behavior in DOCA-salt Hypertensive Rats.
Abstract Inflammation contributes to Ang II-associated impairment of renal autoregulation and microvascular P2X1 receptor signaling, but its role in renal autoregulation in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension is unknown. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized-control rats (UNx) by subcutaneous implantation of a deoxycorticosterone acetate pellet plus 1% NaCl to drink (DOCA-salt) for 3 weeks. DOCA-salt rats developed hypertension that was unaltered by anti-inflammatory treatment with pentosan polysulfate (DOC...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Guan Z, Singletary ST, Cha H, Van Beusecum JP, Cook AK, Pollock JS, Pollock DM, Inscho EW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

G protein, 12 (Gα12) is a negative regulator of kidney injury molecule-1-mediated efferocytosis.
G protein, 12 (Gα12) is a negative regulator of kidney injury molecule-1-mediated efferocytosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Dec 23;:ajprenal.00169.2015 Authors: Ismail O, Zhang X, Bonventre JV, Gunaratnam L Abstract Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a receptor for the "eat me" signal, phosphatidylserine, on apoptotic cells. The specific upregulation of KIM-1 by injured tubular epithelial cells (TECs) enables them to clear apoptotic cells (also known as efferocytosis) thereby protecting from acute kidney injury. Recently, we uncovered that KIM-1 binds directly to the alpha subun...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ismail O, Zhang X, Bonventre JV, Gunaratnam L Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Impaired excitability of renal afferent innervation after exposure to the inflammatory chemokine cxcl1.
IMPAIRED EXCITABILITY OF RENAL AFFERENT INNERVATION AFTER EXPOSURE TO THE INFLAMMATORY CHEMOKINE CXCL1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Dec 23;:ajprenal.00189.2015 Authors: Ditting T, Freisinger W, Rodionova K, Schatz J, Lale N, Heinlein S, Linz P, Ott C, Schmieder RE, Scrogin KE, Veelken R Abstract Recently, we showed that renal afferent neurons exhibit a unique firing pattern, i.e. predominantly sustained firing, upon stimulation. Pathological conditions such as renal inflammation likely alter excitability of renal afferent neurons. Here, we tested whether the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1 alters...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ditting T, Freisinger W, Rodionova K, Schatz J, Lale N, Heinlein S, Linz P, Ott C, Schmieder RE, Scrogin KE, Veelken R Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Glt1 glutamate receptor mediates the establishment and perpetuation of chronic visceral pain in an animal model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia.
Abstract Psychological stress exacerbates interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a lower urinary tract pain disorder characterized by increased urinary frequency and bladder pain. Glutamate (Glu) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter modulating nociceptive networks. Glt1, an astrocytic transporter responsible for Glu clearance, is critical in pain signaling termination. We sought to examine the role of Glt1 in stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia and urinary frequency. In a model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia with high construct validity to human IC/BPS, female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats w...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ackerman AL, Jellison FC, Lee UJ, Bradesi S, Rodriguez LV Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Systemic and renal lipids in kidney disease development and progression.
Abstract Altered lipid metabolism characterizes proteinuria and chronic kidney diseases. While it is thought that dyslipidemia is a consequence of kidney disease, a large body of clinical and experimental studies support that altered lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. In fact, accumulation of renal lipids has been observed in several conditions of genetic and non-genetic origins, linking local fat to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Statins, which target cholesterol synthesis, have not been proven beneficial to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. T...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wahl P, Ducasa GM, Fornoni A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A noninvasive method to study regulation of extraceullular fluid volume in rats using nuclear magnetic resonance.
A NONINVASIVE METHOD TO STUDY REGULATION OF EXTRACEULLULAR FLUID VOLUME IN RATS USING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Dec 23;:ajprenal.00405.2015 Authors: Gordon CJ, Phillips P, Johnstone AF Abstract Time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based measurement of body composition of rodents is an effective method to quickly and repeatedly measure proportions of fat, lean, and fluid without anesthesia. TD-NMR provides a measure of free water in a living animal, termed percent fluid, and is a measure of unbound water in the vascular and extracellular spaces. We hypothes...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gordon CJ, Phillips P, Johnstone AF Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Evidence for a Mitochondrial Angiotensin-(1-7) System in the Kidney.
Abstract Evidence for an intracellular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in various cell organelles now includes the endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and mitochondria (Mito). Indeed, angiotensin (Ang) AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes were functionally linked to Mito respiration and nitric oxide production, respectively in previous studies. We undertook a biochemical analysis of the Mito RAS from male and female sheep kidney cortex. Mito -were isolated by differential centrifugation followed by a discontinuous Percoll gradient and were co-enriched in Mito membrane markers VDAC and ATP synthase, but not β-actin or cath...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wilson BA, Nautiyal M, Gwathmey TM, Rose JC, Chappell MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Activation of ENaC in Collecting Duct Cells by Prorenin and Its Receptor PRR: Involvement of Nox4-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide.
Abstract The collecting duct (CD) has been recognized as an important source of prorenin/renin and it also expresses (pro)renin receptor (PRR). The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that prorenin or renin via PRR regulates epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity in mpkCCD cells. Transepithelial Na(+) transport was measured by using a conventional epithelial volt-ohmmeter and was expressed as the calculated equivalent current (Ieq). Amiloride-inhibitable Ieq was used as a reflection of ENaC activity. Administration of prorenin in the nanomolar range induced a significant increase in Ieq that was det...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lu X, Wang F, Liu M, Yang KT, Nau A, Kohan DE, Reese VR, Richardson RS, Yang T Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Any value of podocyte B7-1 as a biomarker in human MCD and FSGS?
In conclusion, since B7-1 is not induced in podocyte of MCD and FSGS patients, the antiproteinuric action of abatacept -if confirmed- may not be the result of an effect on podocyte B7-1. PMID: 26697986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Novelli R, Gagliardini E, Ruggiero B, Benigni A, Remuzzi G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +49 new citations
49 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/12/18PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

PTH Modulation of NCC Activity Regulates TRPV5 Calcium Reabsorption.
Abstract Since parathyroid hormone (PTH) is known to increase TRPV5 activity and decrease NCC activity, we hypothesized that decreased NCC-mediated sodium reabsorption contributes to the enhanced TRPV5 calcium reabsorption seen with PTH. To test this, we implemented mDCT15 cells expressing functional TRPV5 and ruthenium red sensitive 45Ca2+ uptake. PTH increased 45Ca2+ uptake to 8.8±0.7 nmol/mg/min (n=4, p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hoover RS, Tomilin V, Hanson LN, Pochynyuk O, Ko B Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Vasopressin/V2 receptor stimulates renin synthesis in the collecting duct.
Abstract Renin is synthesized in the principal cells of the collecting duct (CD) and its production is increased via cAMP in angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension, despite suppression of juxtaglomerular (JG) renin. Vasopressin, one of the effector hormones of the RAS via the type 2-receptor (V2R), activates cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway and aquaporin-2 expression in principal cells of the CD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that activation of V2R increases renin synthesis via PKA/CREB, independent of Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation in CD cells. Desmopressin (DDAVP 10(-6) M), a selective V2R agonist, increased r...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gonzalez AA, Cifuentes-Araneda F, Ibaceta-Gonzalez C, Gonzalez-Vergara A, Zamora L, Henriquez R, Rosales CB, Navar LG, Prieto MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Remote effects of acute kidney injury in a porcine model.
CONCLUSIONS: AKI has subtle biochemical effects on remote organs in the short-term including a transient increment in markers of acute liver damage. These effects resolved by 48h and no further remote organ histopathology, apoptosis, edema or immune cell infiltration was noted. PMID: 26608790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gardner DS, De Brot S, Dunford LJ, Grau Roma L, Welham SJ, Fallman R, O'Sullivan SE, Oh W, Devonald MA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Unilateral ureteral obstruction induces DNA repair by APE1.
ær J Abstract Ureteral obstruction is associated with oxidative stress and fibrosis development of the kidney parenchyma. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease I (APE1) is an essential DNA repair enzyme for repair of oxidative DNA lesions and regulates several transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APE1 is regulated by acute (24 hours) and chronic (7 days) unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). APE1 was expressed in essentially all kidney cells with the strongest expression in proximal tubuli. After 24h UUO APE1 mRNA was induced in cortex, inner stripe of outer medulla (ISOM) an...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aamann MD, Norregaard R, Kristensen ML, Stevnsner T, Frøkiær J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Serotonergic regulation of distention-induced ATP release from the urothelium.
Abstract 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is involved in both motor and sensory functions in hollow organs, especially the gastrointestinal tract. However, the involvement of 5-HT in visceral sensation of the urinary bladder remains unknown. Because distention-induced ATP release from the urothelium plays an essential role in visceral sensation of the urinary bladder, we investigated regulation of urothelial ATP release by the 5-HT signaling system. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses of the urothelium revealed specific expression of 5-HT1D and 5-HT4 receptors. Addition of 5-HT did not affect urothelial A...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matsumoto-Miyai K, Yamada E, Shinzawa E, Koyama Y, Shimada S, Yoshizumi M, Kawatani M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The role of calbindin-D28k on renal calcium and magnesium handling during treatment with loop or thiazide diuretics.
In conclusion, CBD-28k plays an important role on gene expression of DCT Ca, but not Mg, transport molecules which may be related to its being Ca, but not Mg, intracellular sensor. The lack of upregulation of DCT Ca transport molecules by thiazides in the KO mice indicates that the DCT Ca transport system is critical for Ca conservation by thiazides. PMID: 26582761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lee CT, Ng HY, Lee YT, Lai LW, Lien YH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Reducing αENaC expression in kidney connecting tubule induces pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 symptoms during K+ loading.
In conclusion, reducing ENaC expression in CNT induces clear PHA-1 symptoms during high dietary K(+) loading. PMID: 26582762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Poulsen SB, Praetorius J, Damkier HH, Miller L, Nelson RD, Hummler E, Christensen BM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Requirement of clusterin expression for prosurvival autophagy in hypoxic kidney tubular epithelial cells.
In conclusion, these data suggest that activation of prosurvival autophagy by hypoxia in kidney cells requires CLU expression, and may be a key cytoprotective mechanism of CLU in the protection of the kidney from hypoxia/ischemia-mediated injury. PMID: 26561650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alnasser HA, Guan Q, Zhang F, Gleave ME, Nguan CY, Du C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

ALTERNATIVE SPLICE VARIANT OF THE THIAZIDE-SENSITIVE NaCl COTRANSPORTER: A NOVEL PLAYER IN RENAL SALT HANDLING.
Abstract The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is an important pharmacological target in the treatment of hypertension. Human SLC12A3 gene, encoding NCC, gives rise to three isoforms. Only the 3(rd) isoform has been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to establish the abundance and localization of the almost identical isoforms 1 and 2 (NCC1/2) in the human kidney and to determine their functional properties and regulation in physiological conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis of NCC1/2 in the human kidney revealed that NCC1/2 localizes to the apical plasma membrane o...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tutakhel OA, Jeleń S, Valdez-Flores M, Dimke H, Piersma SR, Jimenez CR, Deinum J, Lenders JW, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Erythropoietin protects tubular basement membrane by promoting bone marrow to release extracellular vesicles containing tPA-targeting miR-144.
In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that EPO protects mouse renal TBM through promoting bone marrow cells to generate and secret miR-144, which in turn, is efficiently delivered into the mouse kidney via EVs to inhibit the activation of tPA/MMP9-mediated proteolytic network. This finding thus suggests that EPO, a hormone widely used to treat anemia in chronic kidney disease, is a potential therapeutic strategy for renal fibrosis. PMID: 26469975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhou Y, Fang L, Yu Y, Niu J, Jiang L, Cao H, Sun Q, Zen K, Dai C, Yang J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Bradykinin-Induced Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Nephrin in Podocytes.
Abstract Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes, characterized by mesangial matrix deposition and podocytopathy including podocyte loss. The risk factors and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of DN are still not completely defined. In the current study we aim to understand the cellular mechanisms through which activation of B2 kinin receptors contribute to the initiation and progression of DN. Stimulation of cultured rat podocytes with bradykinin (BK) resulted in a significant increase in reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) and this was associated with a signi...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abou Msallem JP, Chalhoub H, Al Hariri M, Saad L, Jaffa M, Ziyadeh F, Jaffa AA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

NKT cell modulates NAFLD potentiation of metabolic oxidative stress-induced mesangial cell activation and proximal tubular toxicity.
Abstract Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. We recently showed that NAFLD induces liver specific CYP2E1-mediated metabolic oxidative stress following administration of a CYP2E1 substrate bromodichloromethane (BDCM). The present study examined the effects of CYP2E1 mediated oxidative stress in NAFLD leading to kidney toxicity. Mice were fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks to induce NAFLD. NAFLD mice were exposed to BDCM, a CYP2E1 substrate for 4 weeks. NAFLD+BDCM increased CYP2E1-mediated lipid peroxidation in proximal tub...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alhasson F, Dattaroy D, Das S, Chandrashekaran V, Seth RK, Schnellmann RG, Chatterjee S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Fluorescence dilution technique for measurement of albumin reflection coefficient in isolated glomeruli.
This study describes a high-throughput fluorescence dilution technique to measure the albumin reflection coefficient (σAlb) of isolated glomeruli. Rats were injected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 250 (75 mg/kg) and the glomeruli were isolated in a 6% bovine serum albumin solution. Changes in the fluorescence of the glomerulus due to water influx in response to an imposed oncotic gradient was used to determine σAlb. Adjustment of the albumin concentration of the bath from 6% to 5%, 4%, 3%, and 2 % produced a 10%, 25%, 35%, and 50% decrease in the fluorescence of the glomeruli. Pretreatment of glomeruli...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fan F, Chen CC, Zhang J, Schreck CM, Roman EA, Williams JM, Hirata T, Sharma M, Beard DA, Savin VJ, Roman RJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Transforming Growth Factor-β Mediates Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats During High Salt Intake.
Transforming Growth Factor-β Mediates Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats During High Salt Intake. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Oct 7;:ajprenal.00328.2015 Authors: Feng W, Ying WZ, Aaron KJ, Sanders PW Abstract Endothelial dysfunction has been shown to be predictive of subsequent cardiovascular events and death. Through a mechanism that is incompletely understood, increased dietary salt intake promotes endothelial dysfunction in healthy, salt-resistant humans. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary salt-induced TGF-β promoted endothelial dysfunction and salt-dependent changes i...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Feng W, Ying WZ, Aaron KJ, Sanders PW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative susceptibility mapping with ultrashort echo time MRI for evaluating renal function.
Abstract Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can provide key insight into renal function. DCE MRI is typically achieved through an injection of a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent, which has desirable T1 quenching and tracer kinetics. However, significant T2* blooming effects and signal voids can arise when Gd becomes very concentrated, especially in the renal medulla and pelvis. One MRI sequence designed to alleviate T2* effects is the ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence. In the present study, we observed T2* blooming in the inner medulla of the mouse kidney, despite using UTE at an echo time of 20 microsecond...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Xie L, Layton AT, Wang N, Larson PE, Zhang JL, Lee VS, Liu C, Johnson GA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Developing Novel Chemical Entities for the Treatment of Lysosomal Storage Disorders: An Academic Perspective.
Abstract Historically, most FDA approved drugs were the result of "in house" efforts within large pharmaceutical companies. Over the last two decades this paradigm has steadily shifted as the drug industry turned to start ups, small biotechnology companies, and academia for the identification of novel drug target and early drug candidates. This strategic pivot has created new opportunities for groups less traditionally associated with the creation of novel therapeutics, including small academic labs, for engagement in the drug discovery process. A recent example of the successful development of a drug th...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shayman JA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The Physiological Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of Renal Function.
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that blockade of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling at baseline influences renal salt and water handling. To this end, the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (100 µg/kg/min) or vehicle were administered i.v. to overnight fasted male Wistar rats for 30 min. This treatment reduced urinary cAMP excretion and renal cortical PKA activity, demonstrating blockade of renal GLP-1R signaling. Exendin-9 infused-rats exhibited reduced glomerular filtration rate, lithium clearance, urinary volume flow and sodium excretion, compared to vehicle infused controls. Exendin-9 infusion also reduced renal ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Farah LX, Valentini V, Pessoa TD, Malnic G, McDonough AA, Girardi AC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Kidney cell-specific knockdown - anything but simple.
Abstract Editorial Focus F-251-2015. PMID: 26447225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kohan DE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Increased urothelial paracellular transport promotes cystitis.
Abstract Changes in the urothelial barrier are observed in patients with cystitis, but if this leads to inflammation or occurs in response to it is currently unknown. To determine whether urothelial barrier dysfunction is sufficient to promote cystitis, we employed in situ adenoviral transduction to selectively overexpress the pore-forming tight junction-associated protein claudin-2 (CLDN-2). As expected, the expression of CLDN-2 in the umbrella cells increased the permeability of the paracellular route toward ions, but not to large organic molecules. In vivo studies of bladder function revealed higher intravesica...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Montalbetti N, Rued AC, Clayton DR, Ruiz WG, Bastacky SI, Prakasam HS, Eaton AF, Kullmann FA, Apodaca G, Carattino MD Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Alternative channels for urea in the inner medulla of the rat kidney.
Abstract The ascending thin limbs (ATLs) and lower descending thin limbs (DTLs) of Henle's loop in the inner medulla of the rat are highly permeable to urea and yet no urea transporters have been identified in these sections. We hypothesized that novel, yet unidentified transporters in these tubule segments could explain the high urea permeability. cDNAs encoding for SGLT1a, NaGLT1, UT-A2c, and UT-A2d were isolated and cloned from the Munich-Wistar rat inner medulla. SGLT1a is a novel amino-terminal truncated variant of the Na(+)-glucose transporter, SGLT1. NaGLT1 is another Na(+)-glucose transporter primarily loc...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nawata CM, Dantzler WH, Pannabecker TL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/09/19PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 20, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research