Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 and hyperfiltration associated with diabetes.
This study examines the role of ACE2 in hyperfiltration associated with diabetes. Streptozotocin diabetes was induced in male c57bl6 mice and ACE2 KO mice. C57bl6 mice were further randomised to receive the selective ACE2 inhibitor, MLN-4760. After two weeks of study, animals were subjected to micropuncture studies. Renal reserve was further assessed in c57bl6 mice and ACE2 KO mice following exposure to a high protein diet. The induction of diabetes in wild-type mice was associated with increased renal ACE2 activity, hyperfiltration and renal hypertrophy. On micropuncture, diabetes was associated with increased tubular fre...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tikellis C, Brown R, Head GA, Cooper ME, Thomas MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Functional consequences of NKCC2 splice isoforms: insights from a Xenopus oocyte model.
Abstract The Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter NKCC2 is exclusively expressed in the renal thick ascending limb (TAL), where it exists as 3 main splice isoforms, NKCC2B, NKCC2A and NKCC2F, with the latter two predominating. NKCC2A is expressed in both medullary and cortical TAL, but NKCC2F localizes to the medullary TAL. The biochemical characteristics of the isoforms have been extensively studied by ion uptake studies in Xenopus oocytes, but the functional consequences of alternative splicing remain unclear. We develop a charge-difference model of an NKCC2-transfected oocyte. The model closely recapitulated existi...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lu L, Fraser JA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat nephron.
This study gives a three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of rat nephrons and their connections to collecting ducts. A total of 4500, 2.5-µm-thick serial sections from the renal surface to the papillary tip were obtained from three kidneys of Wistar rats. Digital images were recorded and aligned into three image stacks and traced from image to image. Short-loop nephrons (SLNs), long-loop nephrons (LLNs), and collecting ducts (CDs) were reconstructed in 3D. We identified a well-defined boundary between the outer stripe and the inner stripe of the outer medulla corresponding to the transition of descending thick li...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Christensen EI, Grann B, Kristoffersen IB, Skriver E, Thomsen JS, Andreasen A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Promotion of cell proliferation by clusterin in the renal tissue repair phase after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
In conclusion, these data suggest that CLU is required for renal tissue regeneration in the kidney repair phase after IRI, which are associated with promotion of tubular cell proliferation. PMID: 24477687 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nguan CY, Guan Q, Gleave ME, Du C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Galectin-9 ameliorates anti-GBM glomerulonephritis by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 immune responses in mice.
In conclusion, the protective role of Gal-9 in anti-GBM GN is associated with the inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced Th2 immunity in the kidney. PMID: 24477688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang Q, Luan H, Wang L, He F, Zhou H, Xu X, Li X, Xu Q, Niki T, Hirashima M, Xu G, Lv Y, Yuan J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

ER stress triggers MCP-1 expression through SET7/9-induced histone methylation in the kidneys of db/db mice.
Abstract Epigenetics plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), although the precise regulatory mechanism is still unclear. Here, we examined the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase SET7/9-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the kidneys of db/db mice. Our results indicate that the expression of MCP-1 significantly increased in the kidneys of db/db mice in a time-dependent manner. An increased chromatin mark associated with an active gene (H3K4me1) at MCP-1 promoters accompanied this change in expression. The ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 22, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chen J, Guo Y, Zeng W, Huang L, Pang Q, Nie L, Mu J, Yuan F, Feng B Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Insulin Treatment Attenuates Renal ADAM17 and ACE2 Shedding in Akita Diabetic Mice.
Abstract Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is located in several tissues and is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it degrades the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (Ang-II) to Ang-(1-7). Accumulating evidence supports protective roles of ACE2 in several disease states, including diabetic nephropathy. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17, is involved in the shedding of several transmembrane proteins, including ACE2. Our previous studies showed increased renal ACE2, ADAM17 expression, and urinary ACE2 in type 2 diabetic mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of insuli...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 22, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Salem ES, Grobe N, Elased KM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Measurement of renal tissue oxygenation with Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI and oxygen transit modeling.
Abstract Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI data of kidney, while indicative of tissue oxygenation level (pO2), is in fact influenced by multiple confounding factors, such as R2, perfusion, oxygen permeability, and hematocrit. We aim to explore the feasibility of extracting tissue pO2 from renal BOLD data. A method of two steps was proposed: first, a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate blood oxygen saturation (SHb) from BOLD signals and second, an oxygen transit model to convert SHb to tissue pO2. The proposed method was calibrated and validated with 20 pigs (12 before and after furosemide injection) in which ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 22, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang JL, Morrell G, Rusinek H, Warner L, Vivier PH, Cheung AK, Lerman LO, Lee VS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +26 new citations
26 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/01/17PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 17, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +46 new citations
46 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/01/02PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - January 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +73 new citations
73 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2013/12/19PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - December 20, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Purinergic and muscarinic modulation of ATP release from the urothelium and its paracrine actions.
We examined the action of key neurotransmitters - purinergic and muscarinic agonists on ATP release and its paracrine effect. Guinea-pig and human urothelial mucosae were mounted in a perfusion trough; superfusate ATP was measured using luciferin-luciferase assay and tissue contractions were recorded with a tension transducer. Intracellular calcium was measured in isolated urothelial cells with Fura-2. P2Y agonist UTP but not P2X agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, generated ATP release. Muscarinic agonist carbachol and M2-preferential agonist oxotremorine also generated ATP release, antagonized by M2-specific agent meth...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sui G, Fry CH, Montgomery B, Roberts M, Wu R, Wu C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Control of renin secretion from kidneys with renin cell hyperplasia.
Abstract In states of loss of function mutations of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system kidneys develop a strong hyperplasia of renin producing cells. Those additional renin cells are located outside the classic juxtaglomerular areas, mainly in the walls of preglomerular vessels and most prominently in multilayers surrounding afferent arterioles. Since the functional behavior of those ectopic renin cells is yet unknown, we aimed to characterize the control of renin secretion from kidneys with renin cell hyperplasia. As a model we used kidneys from mice lacking aldosterone synthase (AS-/-) which displayed ten-...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kurt B, Karger C, Wagner C, Kurtz A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Inflammasomes are Important Mediators of Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bladder Inflammation.
In conclusion, NLRs /inflammasomes are present in the bladder urothelia and respond to DAMPs and PAMPs while NLRP3 inhibition blocks bladder dysfunction in the CP model. The coordinated response of NLRs and TLRs in the urothelia represents a first line innate defense which may provide an important target for pharmacological intervention. PMID: 24285499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hughes FM, Vivar NP, Kennis JG, Pratt-Thomas JD, Lowe DW, Shaner BE, Nietert PJ, Spruill LS, Purves JT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Enhanced expression and activity of Nox2 and Nox4 in the macula densa in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice.
Abstract Nox2 and Nox4 are the isoforms of NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) expressed in the macula densa (MD). MD-derived superoxide (O2(-)), primarily generated by the Nox2, is enhanced by acute Ang II stimulation. However, the effects of chronic elevations in Ang II during Ang II-induced hypertension on MD derived O2(-) are unknown. We infused a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (600 ng/min/kg) for two weeks in C57BL/6 mice and found mean arterial pressure (MAP) was elevated by 22.3±3.4 mmHg (p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang J, Chandrashekar K, Lu Y, Duan Y, Qu P, Wei J, Juncos LA, Liu R Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Basic fibroblast growth factor reduces the functional and structural damage in chronic kidney disease.
BASIC FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR REDUCES THE FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL DAMAGE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Nov 27; Authors: Villanueva S, Contreras F, Tapia A, Carreño JE, Vergara C, Ewertz E, Cespedes C, Irarrazabal C, Sandoval M, Velarde V, Vio CP Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by loss of renal function. The pathological processes involved in the progression of this condition are already known, but the molecular mechanisms have not been completely explained. Recent reports have shown the intrinsic capacity of the kidney to undergo repair after a...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 27, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Villanueva S, Contreras F, Tapia A, CarreƱo JE, Vergara C, Ewertz E, Cespedes C, Irarrazabal C, Sandoval M, Velarde V, Vio CP Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

RBP-J in Foxd1+ renal stromal progenitors is crucial for the proper development and assembly of the kidney vasculature and glomerular mesangial cells.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying the establishment, development, and maintenance of the renal vasculature are poorly understood. Here we propose that the transcription factor "recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region" (RBP-J) plays a key role in the differentiation of the mural cells of the kidney arteries and arterioles, as well as the mesangial cells of the glomerulus. Deletion of RBP-J in renal stromal cells of the forkhead box D1 (FOXD1) lineage, which differentiate into all mural cells of the kidney arterioles along with mesangial cells and pericytes, resulted in sign...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lin EE, Sequeira-Lopez ML, Gomez RA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Increase in SGLT1-mediated transport explains renal glucose reabsorption during genetic and pharmacologic SGLT2 inhibition in euglycemia.
In conclusion, SGLT2 and SGLT1 account for renal glucose reabsorption in euglycemia, with 97% and 3% being reabsorbed by SGLT2 and SGLT1, respectively. When SGLT2 is fully inhibited by the SGLT2-I, increase in SGLT1-mediated glucose reabsorption explains why only 50-60% of filtered glucose is excreted. PMID: 24226519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rieg T, Masuda T, Gerasimova M, Mayoux E, Platt KA, Powell DR, Thomson SC, Koepsell H, Vallon V Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Impaired renal function and development in Belgrade rats.
Abstract Belgrade rats carry a disabling mutation in the iron transporter DMT1. Although DMT1 plays a major role in intestinal iron absorption, the transporter is also highly expressed in kidney, where its function remains unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize renal physiology of Belgrade rats. Male Belgrade rats died prematurely with ~50% survival at 20 weeks of age. Necropsy results indicated marked glomerular nephritis and chronic end-stage renal disease. By 15 weeks of age, Belgrade rats displayed altered renal morphology associated with sclerosis and fibrosis. Creatinine clearance was significan...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Veuthey T, Hoffman D, Vaidya VS, Wessling-Resnick M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Biomechanical regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 in the renal collecting duct.
Abstract High dietary sodium (Na), a feature of the western diet, requires the kidney to excrete ample Na to maintain homeostasis and prevent hypertension. High urinary flow rate, presumably, leads to an increase in fluid shear stress (FSS) and FSS-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by the cortical collecting duct (CCD) that enhances renal Na excretion. The pathways by which tubular flow biomechanically regulates PGE2 release and, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is limited. We hypothesized that FSS, through stimulation of neutral-sphingomyelinase (N-SM) activity, enhances COX-2 expression to boost Na ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Liu Y, Flores D, Carrisoza-Gaytan R, Rohatgi R Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

ROS-dependence of cyclooxygenase-2 induction in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction.
Abstract Oxidative stress resulting from unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) may be aggravated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies demonstrated increased COX-2 expression in renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC) in response to UUO. We investigated both in vivo and in vitro the role of ROS in COX-2 induction in rats subjected to UUO and RMIC cells exposed to oxidative and mechanical stress. Rats subjected to 3-day UUO were treated with 2 mechanistically distinct antioxidants, the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT)...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Oestergaard M, Christensen M, Nilsson L, Carlsen I, Frokiaer J, Norregaard R Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Kindlin-2 regulates renal tubular cell plasticity by activation of Ras and its downstream signaling.
In this study, we found that overexpression of Kindlin-2 suppressed epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased the expression of fibronectin and the myofibroblast marker α-SMA. Kindlin-2 significantly activated ERK1/2 and AKT and inhibition of ERK1/2 or AKT reversed Kindlin-2-induced EMT in human kidney TECs. Mechanistically, Kindlin-2 interacted with Ras and Sos-1. Furthermore, overexpression of Kindlin-2 increased Ras activation through recruiting Sos-1. Treatment with a Ras inhibitor markedly repressed Kindlin-2-induced ERK1/2 and AKT activation, leading to restraint of EMT. We further demonstrated that knockdown ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wei X, Wang X, Xia Y, Tang Y, Li F, Fang W, Zhang H Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

SGLT2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin Reduces Renal Growth and Albuminuria in Proportion to Hyperglycemia and Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration in Diabetic Akita Mice.
Abstract Our previous work has shown that gene-knockout of the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 modestly lowered blood glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic mice (BG; from 470 to 300mg/dl) and prevented glomerular hyperfiltration, but did not attenuate albuminuria or renal growth and inflammation. Here we determined effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (300mg/kg of diet for 15 weeks; corresponding to 60-80mg/kg/d) in type 1 diabetic Akita mice that, opposite to streptozotocin-diabetes, upregulate renal SGLT2 expression. Akita-diabetes, empagliflozin, and Akita+empagliflozin similarly increased renal membran...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vallon V, Gerasimova M, Rose M, Masuda T, Satriano J, Mayoux E, Koepsell H, Thomson SC, Rieg T Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The Fire Within - Pyroptosis in the Kidney.
Abstract Editorial Focus - F117-2013. PMID: 24226525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Krautwald S, Linkermann A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, mTOR, and the Kidney: Report of an NIDDK-Sponsored Workshop.
Abstract Remarkable basic and translational advances have elucidated the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling network in the pathogenesis of renal disease. Many of these advances originated from studies of the genetic disease tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), leading to one of the clearest therapeutic opportunities to target mTOR with rapamycin and its analogs ("Rapalogs"), which effectively inhibit mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by an allosteric mechanism. Clinical trials based on these discoveries have provided strongly positive therapeutic results in TSC (4, 14, 15) In June 2013, the NI...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Henske EP, Rasooly R, Siroky BJ, Bissler JJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Interplay between the Notch and PI3K/Akt pathways in high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis.
Abstract Podocyte apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms that mediate high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte apoptosis remain poorly understood. Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in HG medium. A chemical inhibitor or a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector was used to inhibit the activation of the Notch pathway and the PI3K/Akt pathway in HG-treated podocytes. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the levels of Notch, PI3K/Akt and apoptotic pathway signaling. The apoptosis rate of HG-treated podocytes was assessed by...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 13, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang XM, Yao M, Liu SX, Hao J, Liu QJ, Gao F Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

MicroRNA-194 (miR-194) regulates ROMK channel activity by targeting intersectin 1.
Abstract The aim of the study is to explore the role of miR-194 in mediating the effect of high K (HK) intake on ROMK channel. Northern blot analysis showed that miR-194 was expressed in kidney and that HK intake increased while low K intake decreased the expression of miR-194. Real-time PCR analysis further demonstrated that HK intake increased the miR-194 expression in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). HK intake decreased the expression of intersectin 1 ( ITSN1) which enhanced With-No-Lysine Kinase (WNK)-induced endocytosis of ROMK. Expression of miR-194 mimic decreased luciferase reporter gene activity in HEK...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lin DH, Yue P, Zhang C, Wang WH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of chronic renal failure on the hepatic, intestinal and renal expression of bile acid transporters.
This study was designed to examine the effects of naturally progressing CRF of longer duration on the hepatic and renal mRNA and protein levels of the BA synthesizing enzyme, Cyp7a1 and the BA transporters, Ntcp, Bsep, Mrp3, Ost-α and Ost-β. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to the CRF group (5/6 nephrectomy) or to the sham-operated control group and were analyzed 8 weeks after surgery. Results obtained in the CRF rats were compared to those obtained in rats that had undergone uninephrectomy (UNX). The CRF group exhibited significantly increased plasma cholesterol and BA concentrations. Hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA and...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gai Z, Chu L, Hiller C, Arsenijevic D, Penno CA, Montani JP, Odermatt A, Kullak-Ublick GA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Advancement in integrated models of renal function: closing the gap between simulation and real life.
Abstract Editorial Focus- F-89-2013. PMID: 24197063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Braam B Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Nephroprotective Effects of TVP1022, a non-MAO inhibitor S-Isomer of Rasagiline, in Experimental Model of Diabetic Renal Ischemic Injury.
Abstract Abstract Ischemic acute kidney injury (iAKI) in diabetes mellitus is associated with a rapid deterioration of kidney function, more than in non-diabetic subjects. TVP1022, non-MAO inhibitor S-isomer of rasagiline, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities. The current study examines the effects of TVP1022 and Tempol, on iAKI in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin. iAKI was induced by clamping left renal artery for 30 min, in both diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Right intact kidney served as control. 48 h following ischemia, urinary flow (V), sodium excretion (UNaV) and glome...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abu Saleh N, Awad H, Khamaisi M, Armaly Z, Karram T, Heyman SN, Kaballa A, Ichimura T, Holman J, Abassi ZA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Transepithelial water and urea permeabilities of isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat inner medullary thin limbs of Henle's loop.
Abstract To better understand the role water and urea fluxes play in the urine concentrating mechanism, we determined transepithelial osmotic water (Pf) and urea (Purea) permeabilities in isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat long-loop descending (DTL) and ascending (ATL) thin limbs. Thin limbs were isolated either from 0.5 to 2.5 mm below the outer medulla (OM) (upper inner medulla; IMupper) or from the terminal 2.5 mm of the IM (IMlower). Segment types were characterized on the basis of structural features and gene expression levels of the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1), which was high in DTLupper, absent in DTL...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nawata CM, Evans KK, Dantzler WH, Pannabecker TL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Differences in gastrointestinal calcium absorption after ingestion of calcium-free phosphate binders.
In conclusion, these two non calcium-containing phosphate binding agents showed a differential effect on gastrointestinal calcium absorption. These findings may help to improve management of calcium balance in patients with renal failure, including concomitant use of vitamin D. PMID: 24197066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Behets GJ, Dams G, Damment SJ, Martin P, De Broe ME, D'Haese PC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and slit function of mesothelial cells are regulated by the crosstalk between mesothelial cells and endothelial cells.
Abstract Peritoneal dysfunction is a major factor leading to treatment failure of peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the precise mechanism of the peritoneal diffusion changes related to PD remains to be elucidated. To this end, we have established a novel peritoneal diffusion model in vitro, which consists of a three-dimensional culture system using a collagen vitrigel membrane chamber and a fluid-stream generation system. This artificial peritoneal model revealed that high-glucose culture medium and fluid flow stress promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of mesothelial cells, and that endot...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aoki S, Takezawa T, Oshikata-Miyazaki A, Ikeda S, Kuroyama H, Chimuro T, Oguchi Y, Noguchi M, Narisawa Y, Toda S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Src tyrosine kinase mediates PDGF BB-induced and redox-dependent migration in metanephric mesenchymal cells.
This study investigated the role of Src tyrosine kinase in PDGF-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and migration of metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs). Cultured embryonic MMCs from wild type and PDGF receptor-deficient embryos were established. Migration was determined via wound healing assay. Unlike PDGF AA, PDGF BB induced greater migration in MMCs with respect to control. This was abrogated by neutralizing antibody to PDGF BB. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors suppressed PDGF BB-induced migration. Conversely, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhi...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wagner B, Gorin YC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Stem cells: Potential and Challenges for kidney repair.
Abstract Renal damage resulting from acute and chronic kidney injury poses an important problem to public health. Currently patients with end stage renal disease rely solely on kidney transplantation or dialysis for survival. Emerging therapies aiming to prevent and reverse kidney damage are thus in urgent need. Although the kidney was initially thought to lack the capacity for self-repair, several studies have indicated that this might not be the case; Progenitor and stem cells appear to play important roles in kidney repair under various pathological conditions. In this review we summarize recent findings on the...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Herrera M, Mirotsou M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

RENAL EFFECTS INDUCED BY PROLONGED mPGES1 INHIBITION.
This study examines the renal effects elicited by a selective mPGES1 inhibitor (PF-458) during 7 days in conscious chronically instrumented dogs with normal (NSI) or low (LSI) sodium intake. Results obtained in vitro and in vivo studies strongly suggest that PF-458 is a selective mPGES1 inhibitor. The administration of 2.4 mg/Kg/day of PF-458 to dogs with LSI did not induce significant changes in RBF and GFR. A greater dose of PF-458 (9.6 mg/kg/day) reduced RBF (P
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Salazar F, Vazquez ML, Masferrer JL, Mbalaviele G, Llinas MT, Saez F, Arhancet G, Salazar FJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Megalin in acute kidney injury - foe and friend.
Abstract The kidney proximal tubule is a key target in many forms of acute kidney injury (AKI). The multiligand receptor megalin is responsible for the normal proximal tubule uptake of filtered molecules, including nephrotoxins, cytokines, and markers of AKI. By mediating uptake of nephrotoxins megalin plays an essential role in the development of some types of AKI. However, megalin also mediates the tubular uptake of molecules implicated in the protection against AKI, and changes in megalin expression have been demonstrated in AKI in animal models. Thus, modulation of megalin expression in response to AKI may be ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 6, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mahadevappa R, Nielsen R, Christensen EI, Birn H Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Regulation of NKCC2 Activity by SPAK Truncated Isoforms.
Abstract Editorial Focus- F-00559-2013.R1. PMID: 24173353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 30, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gamba G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Calcium Dynamics Underlying the Afferent Arteriole Myogenic Response.
Abstract The renal afferent arteriole reacts to an elevation in blood pressure with an increase in muscle tone and a decrease in luminal diameter. This effect, known as the myogenic response, is believed to stabilize glomerular filtration and to protect the glomerulus from systolic blood pressure increases, especially in hypertension. To study the mechanisms underlying the myogenic response, we developed a mathematical model of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in an afferent arteriole smooth muscle cell. The model represents detailed transmembrane ionic transport, intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics, the kinetics of myosi...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 30, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Edwards A, Layton AT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Macrophages Directly Mediate Diabetic Renal Injury.
Abstract Monocyte/macrophage recruitment correlates strongly with the progression of renal impairment in diabetic nephropathy (DN), yet their direct role is not clear. We hypothesize that macrophages contribute to direct podocyte injury and/or an abnormal podocyte niche leading to DN. Experiments were conducted in CD11b-DTR mice treated with diphtheria toxin (DT) to deplete macrophages following streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Additional experiments were conducted in bone marrow chimeric (CD11b-DTR→ C57BL6/J) mice. Diabetes was associated with an increase in the M1/M2 ratio by 6 weeks following inducti...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 30, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: You H, Gao T, Cooper TK, Reeves WB, Awad AS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Puberty alters renal water handling.
Abstract We investigated the influence of sex and puberty stage on the circadian urine production and levels of antidiuretic hormone (AVP) in healthy children. Thirty-nine volunteers (9 prepuberty boys, 10 prepuberty girls, 10 midpuberty boys and 10 midpuberty girls) were included. All participants underwent a 24-hours circadian in-patient study under standardized conditions regarding sodium and fluid intake. Blood samples were drawn every four hours for measurements of plasma AVP, serum 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and the urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin 2 (AQP...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 30, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mahler BT, Kamperis K, Ankarberg-Lindgren C, Frokiaer J, Djurhuus JC, Rittig S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Invited Review- Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and kidney disease.
Abstract With better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning chronic kidney disease, the roles of inflammation and fibrosis are becoming increasingly inseparable. The progression of renal disease is characterized by pathomorphologic changes that consist of early inflammatory responses, followed by tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerular and vascular sclerosis. Currently available therapies that reduce hypertension, proteinuria, hyperglycemia, and interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), are at best only partially effective. Hence there remains a need to explo...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 30, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wong MY, Saad S, Pollock CA, Wong MG Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The direction and role of phenotypic transition between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
This study is the first to show the incidence and localization of epithelial cells with phenotypically changing in FSGS using a genetic tag. The results suggest that the major direction of epithelial phenotypic transition in cellular FSGS is from podocytes to PECs, and that these cells were less participated in the active lesions of FSGS. PMID: 24154691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sakamoto K, Ueno T, Kobayashi N, Hara S, Takashima Y, Pastan I, Matsusaka T, Nagata M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Significant water absorption goes paracellular in kidney proximal tubules.
Abstract Editorial Focus for F342-2013. PMID: 24154692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rosenthal R, Fromm M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Role of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) in Mediation of Dopamine's Effects in the Kidney.
Abstract We have recently demonstrated that intrarenal dopamine plays an important role in preventing the development of systemic hypertension. Similarly, renal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-epoxygenase-derived arachidonic acid metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) also are anti-hypertensive through inhibiting sodium reabsorption and vasodilation. The potential interaction between renal dopamine and epoxygenase systems was investigated. COMT(-/-) mice with increased intrarenal dopamine levels and ptAADC(-/-) with renal dopamine deficiency were treated with low-salt diet or high-salt diet for 2 weeks. Wild type or ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang MZ, Wang Y, Yao B, Gewin L, Wei S, Capdevila JH, Harris RC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Cinacalcet attenuates the renal endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in rats with adenine-induced renal failure.
In conclusion, our study suggested that reducing serum PTH by CINA treatment could attenuate renal fibrosis via suppression of EndMT in the adenine-induced CRF rat model. PMID: 24154694 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wu M, Tang RN, Liu H, Xu M, Pan MM, Liu BC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Metallothionein deficiency exacerbates diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Abstract Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy. Metallothionein (MT) is induced in proximal tubular epithelial cells as an antioxidant in diabetic kidney; however, the role of MT in renal function remains unclear. We therefore investigated if MT deficiency accelerates diabetic nephropathy through oxidative stress and inflammation. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection in MT-deficient (MT(-/-)) and MT(+/+) mice. Urinary albumin excretion, histological changes, markers for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kidney inflammation were ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tachibana H, Ogawa D, Sogawa N, Asanuma M, Miyazaki I, Terami N, Hatanaka T, Horiguchi CS, Nakatsuka A, Eguchi J, Wada J, Yamada H, Takei K, Makino H Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla.
In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that demeclocycline mainly attenuates hyponatremia in SIADH by reducing adenylate cyclase 5/6 expression, and consequently cAMP generation, AQP2 gene transcription and AQP2 abundance in the renal inner medulla, coinciding with a reduced vasopressin-escape response in the other collecting duct segments. PMID: 24154696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kortenoeven ML, Sinke AP, Hadrup N, Trimpert C, Wetzels JF, Fenton RA, Deen PM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The effects of the prostaglandin E2 E-prostanoid 3/4 receptors on bladder dysfunction in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Abstract To investigate the expression of four subtypes of prostaglandin E2 E-prostanoid receptor (EP1-EP4) and the effects of EP3/EP4 on bladder dysfunction in a new neurogenic bladder model induced by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mice model of EAE were induced using a previously established method and then bladder function in mice with different defined levels of neurological impairment were examined, including micturition frequencies and voiding weight. The bladders were then harvested for analysis of EP receptor expression by Western blot. The activities of agonists/antagonists of the E...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Xue R, Jia Z, Kong X, Pi G, Ma S, Yang J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A Role for the Circadian Clock Protein Per1 in the Regulation of Aldosterone Levels and Renal Sodium Retention.
Abstract The circadian clock plays an important role in the regulation of physiological processes including renal function and blood pressure. We have previously shown that the circadian protein Per1 positively regulates expression of multiple sodium transport genes in the collecting duct including the alpha subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel (αENaC). Consistent with this finding, Per1 KO mice exhibit dramatically lower BP than WT mice. We have also recently demonstrated the potential opposing actions of Cry2 on Per1 target genes. Recent work by others has demonstrated that Cry1/2 regulates aldos...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Richards J, Cheng KY, All SC, Skopis G, Jeffers LA, Lynch IJ, Wingo CS, Gumz ML Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research