Obesity-induced changes in kidney mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the presence or absence of leptin.
OBESITY-INDUCED CHANGES IN KIDNEY MITOCHONDRIA AND ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM IN THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF LEPTIN. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Aug 19;:ajprenal.00188.2015 Authors: Munusamy S, do Carmo JM, Hosler JP, Hall JE Abstract We investigated obesity-induced changes in kidney lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the absence of hypertension, and the potential role of leptin in modulating these changes. We compared two normotensive genetic mouse models of obesity, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and hyperleptinemic melanocortin-4 receptor deficient mice...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Munusamy S, do Carmo JM, Hosler JP, Hall JE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Perspectives on edema in childhood nephrotic syndrome.
PERSPECTIVES ON EDEMA IN CHILDHOOD NEPHROTIC SYNDROME. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Aug 19;:ajprenal.00229.2015 Authors: Teoh CW, Robinson LA, Noone DG Abstract There have been two major theories surrounding the development of edema in nephrotic syndrome (NS), namely the under- and over-fill hypotheses. Edema is one of the cardinal features of NS and remains one of the principal reasons for admission of children to hospital. Recently, the discovery that proteases in the glomerular filtrate of patients with nephrotic syndrome are activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) resulting in intraren...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Teoh CW, Robinson LA, Noone DG Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Hedgehog signaling indirectly affects tubular cell survival after obstructive kidney injury.
Abstract Hedgehog (Hh) is an evolutionary conserved signaling pathway that has important functions in kidney morphogenesis and adult organ maintenance. Recent work has shown that Hh signaling is reactivated in the kidney after injury and is an important mediator of progressive fibrosis. Pericytes and fibroblasts have been proposed to be the principal cells that respond to Hh ligands and pharmacological attenuation of Hh signaling has been considered as a possible treatment of fibrosis, but the effect of Hh inhibition on tubular epithelial cells after kidney injury has not been reported. Using genetically modified ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rauhauser AA, Ren C, Lu D, Li B, Zhu J, McEnery K, Vadnagara K, Zepeda-Orozco D, Zhou XJ, Lin F, Jetten AM, Attanasio M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Architecture of the human renal inner medulla and functional implications.
Abstract The architecture of the inner stripe of the outer medulla of human kidney has long been known to exhibit distinctive configurations; however, inner medullary architecture remains poorly defined. Using immunohistochemistry with segment-specific antibodies for membrane fluid and solute transporters and other proteins we identified a number of distinctive functional features of human inner medulla. In the outer inner medulla, AQP1-positive long-loop descending thin limbs (DTLs) lie alongside descending and ascending vasa recta (DVR, AVR) within vascular bundles. These vascular bundles are continuations of ou...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wei G, Rosen S, Dantzler WH, Pannabecker TL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Human Anti-a3(IV)NCI Antibody Drug Conjugates Target Glomeruli to Resolve Nephritis.
Abstract Current therapies to limit kidney disease progression lack specificity and often have systemic toxicity. To approach this problem, we postulated that a human monoclonal antibody (F1.1), directed against the noncollagenous-1 domain (NC1) of α3(IV) collagen that localizes in glomeruli, could serve as vehicle for targeted drug delivery. Given enhanced exposure of NC1 domain of α3(IV) during glomerular diseases, with limited epitope expression in other organs, α3(IV)NC1 provides an ideal target for delivery of disease modifying agents. As a potential disease-modifying agent, we initially too...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kvirkvelia N, McMenamin M, Gutierrez VI, Lasareishvili B, Madaio MP Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A TRPM4-dependent current in murine renal primary cilia.
Abstract Defects in primary cilia lead to a variety of human diseases. One of these, polycystic kidney disease, can be caused by defects in a Ca(2+)-gated ion channel (TRPP2) found on the cilium. Other ciliary functions also contribute to cystogenesis, and defects in apical Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated. By recording directly from the native cilia of mIMCD-3 cells, a murine cell line of renal epithelial origin, we have identified a second Ca(2+)-gated channel in the ciliary membrane: the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4). In excised primary cilia, TRPM4 was found ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Flannery RJ, Kleene NK, Kleene SJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Dopamine D2 receptors effects on renal inflammation are mediated by regulation of PP2A function.
This study aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of renal inflammation by D2Rs. Silencing D2Rs in mouse renal proximal tubule cells increased the expression of the pro-inflammatory TNFα, MCP-1, and IL-6. D2R downregulation also increased Akt phosphorylation and activity, and GSK3β phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression both downstream Akt targets, however PI3K activity was not affected. Conversely D2R stimulation decreased Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression. Increased phospho-Akt, in the absence of increased PI3K activity, may result from decreased Akt dephosphor...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 19, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang Y, Jiang X, Qin C, Cuevas S, Jose PA, Armando I Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/08/16PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 16, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Slow- and fast-twitch hind limb skeletal muscle phenotypes 12 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy in Wistar rats of both sexes.
This study describes fiber-type adaptations in hind-limb muscles, the interaction of the sex and the role of hypoxia on this response in 12 wk 5/6 nephrectomized rats (Nx). Contractile, metabolic and morphological features of muscle fiber-types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of Nx rats, and compared with sham-operated controls. Rats of both sexes were considered in both groups. A slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation occurred in the tibialis cranialis of Nx rats, particularly in males. This adaptation was accomplished by impaired oxidative capacity and capillarity, i...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 5, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Acevedo LM, Peralta-Ramírez A, López I, Chamizo VE, Pineda C, Rodriguez-Ortiz ME, Rodríguez M, Aguilera-Tejero E, Rivero JL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Endothelin Contributes to Blunted Renal Autoregulation Observed with a High Salt Diet.
Abstract Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) is an essential function of the renal microcirculation that has been previously shown to be blunted by excessive dietary salt. Endogenous endothelin 1 (ET-1) is increased following a high salt (HS) diet and contributes to the control of RBF but the differential effects of ET-1 on renal microvessel autoregulation in response to HS remain to be established. We hypothesized that a HS diet increases endothelin receptor activation in normal Sprague-Dawley rats and blunts autoregulation of RBF. The role of ET-1 in the blunted autoregulation produced by a HS diet was asse...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 5, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fellner RC, Guan Z, Cook AK, Pollock DM, Inscho EW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A Novel and Sensitive Assay for Heme Oxygenase Activity.
Abstract Heme oxygenase (HO) is a renoprotective protein in the microsome that degrades heme and produces biliverdin. Biliverdin is then reduced to a potent antioxidant bilirubin by biliverdin reductase in the cytosol. Because HO activity does not necessarily correlate with HO mRNA or protein levels, a reliable assay is needed to determine HO activity. Spectrophotometric measurement is tedious and requires a relatively large amount of kidney samples. Moreover, bilirubin is unstable and spontaneously oxidized to biliverdin in vitro. We developed a novel and sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify biliverdin to measur...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 29, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Iwamori S, Sato E, Saigusa D, Yoshinari K, Ito S, Sato H, Takahashi N Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

NBCe1 expression is required for normal renal ammonia metabolism.
Abstract The mechanisms regulating proximal tubule ammonia metabolism are incompletely understood. The current studies address the role of the proximal tubule basolateral, electrogenic, sodium-coupled bicarbonate cotransporter, NBCe1 (Slc14a4), in renal ammonia metabolism. We used mice with heterozygous and homozygous NBCe1 gene deletion, and compared these mice to their wild type littermates. Because homozygous NBCe1 gene deletion causes 100% mortality prior to day 25, we studied mice at day 8 (±1 day). Both heterozygous and homozygous gene deletion caused a gene dose-related decrease in serum bicarbonate....
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 29, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Handlogten ME, Osis G, Lee HW, Romero MF, Verlander JW, Weiner ID Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renal Denervation for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension.
Abstract When introduced clinically six years ago, renal denervation was thought to be the solution for all patients whose blood pressure could not be controlled by medication. The initial two studies SYMPLICITY HTN-1 and HTN-2 demonstrated great magnitudes of blood pressure reduction within six months of the procedure. However, this assumed that all patients were taking their medications, there was no white-coat hypertension and a number of other factors that may not have been true. These and other factors proved the demise of the initial procedure in the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial that controlled for all possible fa...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 29, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Iliescu R, Lohmeier TE, Tudorancea I, Laffin L, Bakris GL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

UTP activates small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels in murine detrusor PDGFRα+ cells.
UTP activates small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels in murine detrusor PDGFRα+ cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Jul 22;:ajprenal.00156.2015 Authors: Lee H, Koh BH, Yamasaki E, George NE, Sanders KM, Koh SD Abstract Purines induce transient contraction and prolonged relaxation of detrusor muscles. Transient contraction is likely due to activation of inward currents in smooth muscle cells, and prolonged relaxation may be due to activation of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels via P2Y1 receptors expressed by detrusor PDGFRα(+) cells. We investigated wheth...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 22, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lee H, Koh BH, Yamasaki E, George NE, Sanders KM, Koh SD Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alter vasa recta diameter via pericytes.
In this study, we have used a live, rat kidney slice model to build on these initial observations and provide novel data that demonstrates non-selective, COX-1- and COX-2-selective NSAIDs act via medullary pericytes to elicit a reduction of vasa recta diameter. Real-time images of in situ vasa recta were recorded and vasa recta diameter at pericyte and non-pericyte sites measured off-line. PGE2 and epoprostenol (a prostacyclin analogue) evoked dilation of vasa recta specifically at pericyte sites and PGE2 significantly attenuated pericyte-mediated constriction of vasa recta evoked by both ET-1 and Ang-II. NSAIDs, indometha...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 22, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kennedy-Lydon TM, Crawford C, Wildman SS, Peppiatt-Wildman CM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renin expression in developing zebrafish is associated with angiogenesis and requires the Notch pathway and endothelium.
Abstract Although renin is a critical regulatory enzyme of the cardiovascular system, its roles in organogenesis and the establishment of cardiovascular homeostasis remain unclear. Mammalian renin-expressing cells are widespread in embryonic kidneys but highly restricted, specialised endocrine cells in adults. With a functional pronephros, embryonic zebrafish are ideal for delineating the developmental functions of renin-expressing cells and mechanisms governing renin transcription. Larval zebrafish renin expression originates in the mural cells of the juxtaglomerular anterior mesenteric artery and subsequently at...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 22, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rider SA, Mullins LJ, Verdon RF, MacRae CA, Mullins JJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/07/17PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/07/12PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 12, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Physiological role of NBCe2 in the regulation of electrolyte transport in the distal nephron.
Abstract The electrogenic Na+-HCO3- co-transporter 2 (NBCe2) is a newly discovered protein in the distal nephron. Our understanding is minimal regarding its physiological role in renal electrolyte transport. In this mini-review, we summarize the potential function of NBCe2 in the regulation of blood pressure, acid/base, and K+ and Ca2+ transport in the distal nephron. PMID: 26136555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wen D, Sansom SC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The Rho GAP Myosin IXa is a regulator of kidney tubule function.
In this study, we report that Myo9a-deficient mice develop bilateral renal disease, characterized by dilation of proximal tubules, calyceal dilation, thinning of the parenchyma and fibrosis. These structural changes are accompanied by polyuria (with normal vasopressin levels) and low molecular weight proteinuria. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Myo9a is localized to the circumferential F-actin belt of proximal tubule cells. In kidneys lacking Myo9a, the multiligand binding receptor megalin and its ligand albumin accumulated at the luminal surface of Myo9a-/- proximal tubular cells, suggesting that endocytosis is dysregu...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thelen S, Abouhamed M, Ciarimboli G, Edemir B, Bähler M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

ABCG2: The molecular mechanisms of urate secretion and gout.
Abstract High levels of serum uric acid or urate (SUA) is a human trait that has defied explanation. Is it beneficial? Is it pathogenic? Its role in the human diseases like gout and kidney stones was discovered over a century ago (22, 23) but today emerging new genetic and epidemiological techniques have revived an age old debate over whether high uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) independently increases risk for diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease (6-8, 29, 34). Part of the mystery of the role uric acid plays in human health stems from our lack of understanding of how humans regulate uric acid ho...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Woodward OM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Hydrogen peroxide generated by NADPH oxidase 4 contributes to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel-mediated mechanosensation in the rat kidney.
This study tested whether H2O2 derived from Nox4 affects TRPV1 function in renal sensory responses. Perfusion of H2O2 into the renal pelvis dose-dependently increased afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) and substance P (SP) release. These responses were attenuated by co-treatment with catalase or TRPV1 blockers. In single-unit recordings, H2O2 activated ARNA in response to rising IPP, but not high salt. Western blots revealed that Nox2 (gp91phox) and Nox4 are both present in rat kidney, but Nox4 is abundant in the renal pelvis and originates from dorsal root ganglia. This distribution was associated with the expression of...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lin CS, Lee SH, Huang HS, Chen YS, Ma MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Interactions between HIF-1α and AMPK in the regulation of cellular hypoxia adaptation in chronic kidney disease.
In conclusion, HIF-1α and AMPK appear to be linked at a molecular level and may act as components of a concerted cellular response to hypoxic stress in the pathophysiology of CKD. PMID: 26136559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Li H, Satriano J, Thomas JL, Miyamoto S, Sharma K, Pastor-Soler NM, Hallows KR, Singh P Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by regulating the association of MARCKS and the cytoskeleton with the apical membrane.
Abstract Phosphatidyl-inositol-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) open probability. In turn, MARCKS protein (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) or MARCKS-like protein 1 (MLP-1) at the plasma membrane regulates the delivery of PIP2 to ENaC. MARCKS and MLP-1 are regulated by changes in cytosolic calcium; increasing calcium promotes dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane; but the calcium regulatory mechanisms are unclear. However, it is known that increased intracellular calcium can activate calmodulin and we show that inhibition of calmodulin with calmidazolium increases ENa...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alli AA, Bao HF, Liu BC, Yu L, Aldrugh S, Montgomery DS, Ma HP, Eaton DC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

MicroRNA-150 deletion in mice protects kidney from myocardial infarction induced acute kidney injury.
Abstract Despite greater understanding of acute kidney injury (AKI) in animals models, many of the preclinical studies are not translatable. Most of the data were derived from a bilateral renal pedicle clamping model with warm ischemia. However, ischemic injury of the kidney in human is distinctly different and does not involve clamping of renal vessel. Using permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery model to test the role of miR-150 in acute kidney injury. Myocardial infarction in this model causes AKI which is similar to human cardiac bypass surgery. Moreover, the time course of serum cr...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ranganathan P, Jayakumar C, Tang Y, Park KM, Teoh JP, Su H, Li J, Kim IM, Ramesh G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Deficient acid handling with distal RTA in the NBCe2 knockout mouse.
Abstract In many circumstances, the pathogenesis of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is not understood. In the present study, we report that a mouse model lacking the electrogenic Na+-HCO3- co-transporter NBCe2/Slc4a5 (NBCe2-KO) developed dRTA after an oral acid challenge. NBCe2 expression was identified in the connecting tubule (CNT) of wild type mice (WT), and its expression was significantly increased after acid loading. NBCe2-KO did not have dRTA when on a standard mouse diet. However, after acid loading, NBCe2-KO exhibited complete features of dRTA, characterized by insufficient urinary acidification, hyp...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wen D, Yuan Y, Cornelius RJ, Li H, Warner PC, Wang B, Wang-France J, Boettger T, Sansom SC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Glomerulosclerosis in the diet-induced obesity model correlates with sensitivity to nitric oxide inhibition but not glomerular hyperfiltration or hypertrophy.
Abstract The diet-induced obesity (DIO) model is frequently employed to examine the pathogenesis of obesity-related pathologies; however, only minimal glomerulosclerosis (GS) has been reported after 3 months. In the present study, we investigated if GS develops over longer periods of DIO and examined the potential role of hemodynamic mechanisms in its pathogenesis. 8-week old male obesity prone (OP) and obesity resistant (OR) rats (Charles River) were administered a moderately high fat (MHF) diet for 5 months. Radiotelemetrically-measured blood pressure (BP), proteinuria and GS were assessed. OP (n=10) rats develo...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Polichnowski AJ, Licea-Vargas H, Picken MM, Long J, Bisla R, Williamson GA, Bidani AK, Griffin KA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Cyclophosphamide-induced vasopressin-independent activation of aquaporin-2 in the rat kidney.
Abstract Because cyclophosphamide-induced hyponatremia was reported to occur without changes in plasma vasopressin in a patient with central diabetes insipidus, we hypothesized that cyclophosphamide or its active metabolite, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC), may directly dysregulate the expression of water channels or sodium transporters in the kidney. To investigate whether intrarenal mechanisms for urinary concentration are activated in vivo and in vitro by treatment with cyclophosphamide and 4-HC, respectively, we used water-loaded male Sprague-Dawley rats, primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct (...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kim S, Choi HJ, Jo CH, Park JS, Kwon TH, Kim GH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Parameter estimation for a mathematical model of a non-gastric H+(Na+)/K+(NH4+) ATPase.
ano M Abstract The role of the non-gastric H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA) in ion homeostasis of macula densa (MD) cells is an open question. To begin to explore this issue, we developed two mathematical models that describe the ion fluxes through a non-gastric HKA. One model assumes a 1H(+):1K(+)-per-ATP stoichiometry; the other assumes a 2H(+):2K(+)-per-ATP stoichiometry. Both models include Na(+) and NH4 (+) competitive binding with H(+) and K(+), respectively, a characteristic observed in vitro and in situ. Model rate constants were obtained by minimizing the distance between model and experimental outcomes. Both model...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nadal-Quirós M, Moore LC, Marcano M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis involve oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.
Abstract Ketamine abusers develop severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The major aims of our study were to elucidate ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis in association with oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three different groups, which received saline, or ketamine for a period of 14 days or 28 days, respectively. The double-labeled immunofluorescence studies were applied to investigate tight junction proteins for urothelial barrier functions. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling ass...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Liu KM, Chuang SM, Long CY, Lee YL, Wang CC, Lu MC, Lin RJ, Lu JH, Jang MY, Wu WJ, Ho WT, Juan YS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2015/06/10PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Vasopressin regulation of sodium transport in the distal nephron and collecting duct.
Abstract Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released from the posterior pituitary gland during states of hyperosmolality or hypovolemia. AVP is a peptide hormone, with antidiuretic and antinatriuretic properties. It allows the kidneys to increase body water retention predominantly by increasing the cell surface expression of aquaporin water channels in the collecting duct alongside increasing the osmotic driving forces for water reabsorption. The antinatriuretic effects of AVP are mediated by the regulation of sodium transport throughout the distal nephron, from the thick ascending limb through to the collecting duct, ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kortenoeven ML, Pedersen NB, Rosenbaek LL, Fenton RA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Arginase Inhibition: A New Treatment for Preventing Progression of Established Diabetic Nephropathy.
Abstract Our previous publication showed that inhibition of arginase prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, identification of targets that retard the progression of established DN--which is more clinically relevant--is lacking. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that arginase inhibition would prevent the progression of established DN. Effects of arginase inhibition were compared to treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril, a current standard of care in DN. Experiments were conducted in Ins2Akita mice treated with the arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC) or captopril sta...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: You H, Gao T, Cooper TK, Morris SM, Awad AS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Kidney glycosphingolipids are elevated early in diabetic nephropathy and mediate hypertrophy of mesangial cells.
Abstract Glycosphingolipids (GSL) play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes, but their role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) has received limited attention. We utilized 9 and 17 week old non-diabetic db/m and diabetic db/db mice to examine the role of glycosphingolipids in DN. Cerebrosides or mono-glycosylated glycosphingolipids (HexCers; glucosyl- and galactosylceramides) and lactosylceramide (LacCers) were elevated in db/db mice kidney cortices, specifically in glomeruli, and also in urine. In our recent paper (25), we observed that the kidneys exhibited glomerular hypertrophy, proximal tubular vacuolization an...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Subathra M, Korrapati M, Howell LA, Arthur JM, Shayman JA, Schnellmann RG, Siskind LJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Carbonic anhydrase II binds to and increases the activity of the epithelial sodium proton exchanger, NHE3.
Abstract Two thirds of sodium filtered by the renal glomerulus is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule via a sodium-proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) dependent mechanism. Since sodium and bicarbonate reabsorption are coupled, we postulated that the molecules involved in their reabsorption (NHE3 and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)), might physically and functionally interact. Consistent with this, CAII and NHE3 were closely associated in a renal proximal tubular cell culture model as revealed by proximity ligation assay. Direct physical interaction was confirmed in solid-phase binding assays with immobilized CAII and C...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Krishnan D, Liu L, Wiebe SA, Casey JR, Cordat E, Alexander RT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

obesity in renovascular disease.
Abstract Obesity remains a prominent public health concern. Obesity not only contributes greatly to cardiovascular events, but has also been identified to initiate and affect the progression of preexisting chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of renal artery stenosis is growing world-wide, especially in the elderly population and in individuals with atherosclerotic risk factors such as obesity. Prolonged renovascular disease causes inflammation and microvascular remodeling within the post-stenotic kidney, which promote tissue scarring and may account for irreversible renal damage. Obesity has been shown to aggra...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang X, Lerman LO Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Acute SGLT inhibition normalizes oxygen tension in the renal cortex but causes hypoxia in the renal medulla in anaesthetized control and diabetic rats.
In conclusion, these data demonstrate that when SGLT is inhibited, renal cortex PO2 in the diabetic rat kidney is normalized, which implies that increased proximal tubule transport contributes to the development of hypoxia in the diabetic kidney. The reduction in medullary PO2 in both control and diabetic kidneys during the inhibition of proximal sodium reabsorption suggests redistribution of active sodium transport to less efficient nephron segments such as the medullary thick ascending limb which results in medullary hypoxia. PMID: 26041448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - June 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: O Neill J, Fasching A, Pihl L, Patinha D, Franzén S, Palm F Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Anti-albuminuric actions of calcilytics in the remnant kidney.
Abstract Hyperphosphatemia accelerates the progression of chronic kidney diseases. In the present study, the effects of ronacaleret, a calcilytic agent, on renal injury were assessed in four groups of rats; 5/6-nephrectomized Wistar rats as a control (C), rats treated with ronacaleret (3 mg/kg/day) (R), rats treated with calcitriol (30 ng/kg/day) (V), and rats treated with both ronacaleret and calcitriol (R+V). Three months later, the rats were euthanized under anesthesia, and the remnant kidneys were harvested for analysis. Albuminuria was lower in R and V groups than C group (p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Takenaka T, Inoue T, Miyazaki T, Nishiyama A, Ishii N, Hayashi M, Suzuki H Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

ENaC inhibition stimulates HCl secretion in the mouse cortical collecting duct II: Bafilomycin-sensitive H+ secretion.
CONCLUSIONS: 1) in CCDs from aldosterone-treated mice, benzamil application stimulates HCl secretion mediated by the apical H(+)-ATPase and a yet to be identified conductive Cl(-) transport pathway. 2) Benzamil-induced HCl secretion is reversed with the application of stilbene inhibitors or H+-ATPase inhibitors to the perfusate. 3) Benzamil reduces VT not only by inhibiting conductive Na+ absorption, but also by stimulating H(+) secretion. PMID: 26017972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nanami M, Pech V, Lazo-Fernandez Y, Weinstein AM, Wall SM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Role of Brainstem in Tibial Inhibition of the Micturition Reflex in Cats.
This study examined the role of the brainstem in inhibition of bladder reflexes induced by tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) in α-chloralose anesthetized decerebrate cats. Repeated cystometrograms (CMGs) were performed by infusing saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to elicit normal or overactive bladder reflexes, respectively. TNS (5 or 30 Hz) at three times threshold (3T) intensity for inducing toe movement was applied for 30 min between CMGs to induce post-TNS inhibition or applied during the CMGs to induce acute TNS inhibition. Inhibition was evident as an increase in bladder capacity without a change in amplitude of b...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ferroni MC, Slater RC, Shen B, Xiao Z, Wang J, Lee A, Roppolo JR, de Groat WC, Tai C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Changes In Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells In Mouse Kidneys With Advanced Age.
Abstract Kidney aging is accompanied by characteristic changes in the glomerulus, but little is known about the effect of aging on glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs), nor if the characteristic glomerular changes in man and rats also occur in very old mice. Accordingly, a descriptive analysis was undertaken in 27-month-old C57B6 mice, considered advanced age. PEC density was significantly lower in older mice compared to young mice (aged 3 months), and the decrease was more pronounced in juxta-medullary glomeruli compared with outer-cortical glomeruli. In addition to segmental and global glomerulosclerosis ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Roeder SS, Stefanska A, Eng DG, Kaverina NV, Sunseri MW, McNicholas BA, Rabinovitch P, Engel FB, Daniel C, Amann K, Lichtnekert J, Pippin JW, Shankland SJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Pleiotropic signaling evoked by tumor necrosis factor in podocytes.
Abstract Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in glomerular diseases but its actions on podocytes are not well understood. Endogenous TNF expression is markedly increased in mouse podocytes exposed to sera from patients with recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and TNF is able to increase its own expression in these cells. Exposing podocytes to TNF increased phosphorylation of NFκB p65-RelA, followed by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. STAT3 activation was blocked by the NFκB inhibitor JSH-23 and by the STAT3 inhibitor stattic, whereas TNF-evoked NFκB activatio...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abkhezr M, Kim EY, Roshanravan H, Nikilos F, Thomas C, Hagmann H, Benzing T, Dryer SE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Molecular Nephropathology: Ready for Prime Time?
Abstract In the current era of precision medicine, the existing nephropathology paradigm of light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy will become increasingly insufficient. There will be an expectation to supplement these traditional diagnostic tools with patient-specific information related to a growing understanding of molecular pathophysiology. Next generation sequencing technologies are expected to play a key role in the future of nephropathology, but transcriptomics is poised to represent the first major foray into routine molecular testing. The introduction of molecular techniques into cl...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Adam B, Mengel M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of COX-1 attenuates the formation of thromboxane A2 and ameliorates the acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate in endotoxemic mice.
This study demonstrates that endotoxemia-induced thromboxane A2 formation depends on the activity of COX-1. Our study further indicates that the COX-1 inhibitor SC-560 has a protective effect on the decrease in renal function in response to endotoxin. Therefore, our data support a role for thromboxane A2 in the development of AKI in response to LPS. PMID: 26017977 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 27, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mederle K, Meurer M, Castrop H, Höcherl K Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease induced by adenine. A suitable model of growth retardation in uremia.
In conclusion, adenine-induced CKD in young rats is associated with growth retardation and disturbed endochondral ossification. This animal protocol may be a useful new experimental model to study growth in CKD. PMID: 25972508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Claramunt D, Gil-Peña H, Fuente R, García-López E, Loredo V, Hernández Frías O, Ordóñez FA, Rodríguez-Suárez J, Santos F Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Incipient renal transplant dysfunction associates with tubular syndecan-1 expression and shedding.
Abstract Syndecan-1 is a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved in regenerative growth and cellular adhesion. We hypothesize that induction of tubular syndecan-1 is a repair response to incipient renal damage in apparently stable, uncomplicated renal transplant recipients. We quantified tubular syndecan-1 in unselected renal protocol biopsies taken one year after transplantation. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed an inverse correlation between tubular syndecan-1 expression and creatinine clearance at time of biopsy (r = -0.483; p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Adepu S, Rosman CW, Dam W, van Dijk MC, Navis G, van Goor H, Bakker SJ, van den Born J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Aberrant glomerular filtration of urokinase-plasminogen activator in nephrotic syndrome leads to amiloride-sensitive plasminogen activation in urine.
In conclusion, nephrotic syndrome is associated with aberrant filtration of uPA across the injured glomerular barrier. Amiloride inhibits urine uPA activity which attenuates plasminogen activation and urine protease activity in vivo. Urine uPA is a relevant target for amiloride in vivo. PMID: 25972510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Stæhr M, Buhl KB, Andersen RF, Svenningsen P, Nielsen F, Hinrichs GR, Bistrup C, Jensen BL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Continence and Micturition - Physiologic Mechanisms Under Behavioral Control.
PMID: 25972511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chai TC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Adaptation by the collecting duct to an exogenous acid load is blunted by deletion of the proton-sensing receptor GPR4.
Abstract We previously reported that the deletion of the pH sensor GPR4 causes a non-gap metabolic acidosis and defective net acid excretion (NAE) in the GPR4 knockout mouse (GPR4-/-). Since the major regulatory site of NAE in the kidney is the collecting duct (CD), we examined acid-base transport proteins in intercalated cells of CD and found comparable mRNA expression of kAE1 (anion exchanger 1), pendrin, and a4 subunit of H+-ATPase in GPR4-/-vs.+/+. However, NH4Cl loading elicited adaptive doubling of AE1 mRNA in GPR4+/+, but a 50% less pronounced response in GPR4-/-. In GPR4+/+, NH4Cl loading evoked a cellular...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sun X, Stephens L, DuBose TD, Petrovic S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Pendrin gene ablation alters ENaC subcellular distribution and open probability.
This study explored whether the intercalated cell Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger, pendrin, modulates ENaC function by changing channel open probability and/or channel density. To do so, we measured ENaC subunit subcellular distribution by immunohistochemistry, single channel recordings in split open cortical collecting ducts (CCDs), as well as transepithelial voltage (VT), and Na(+) absorption (JNa) in CCDs from aldosterone-treated wild type and pendrin null mice. Because pendrin gene ablation reduced 70 more than 85 kD γ ENaC band density, we asked if pendrin gene ablation interferes with ENaC cleavage. We observed that E...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - May 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pech V, Wall SM, Nanami M, Bao HF, Kim YH, Lazo-Fernandez Y, Yue Q, Pham TD, Eaton DC, Verlander JW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research