Inhibition of Bladder Overactivity by Duloxetine in Combination with Foot Stimulation or WAY100635 Treatment in Cats.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine whether duloxetine (a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) combined with transcutaneous foot stimulation or WAY100635 (a 5HT1A antagonist) can enhance inhibition of bladder overactivity in cats. Cystometrograms were performed on 8 cats under α-chloralose anesthesia by infusing saline and then 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to induce bladder overactivity. To inhibit bladder overactivity, foot stimulation (5 Hz) was applied via transcutaneous pad electrodes to the right hind foot at 2 and 4 times the threshold (T) intensity for inducing a toe twitch. Duloxetin...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 23, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Schwen Z, Matsuta Y, Shen B, Wang J, Roppolo JR, de Groat WC, Tai C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +29 new citations
29 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2013/10/20PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 21, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Adipokines as a link between obesity and chronic kidney disease.
Abstract Adipocytes secrete a number of bioactive adipokines that activate a variety of cell signaling pathways in central and peripheral tissues. Obesity is associated with altered production of many adipokines which is linked to a number of pathologies. As an increase in body weight is directly associated with an increased risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), there is significant interest in the link between obesity and renal dysfunction. Altered levels of the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin can decrease glomerular filtration and increase albuminuria which are pathophysiologic...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Briffa JF, McAinch AJ, Poronnik P, Hryciw DH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist sarpogrelate reduces renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by suppressing PAI-1.
In conclusion, SG reduces renal fibrosis not only by the anti-thrombotic effect of maintaining peritubular blood flow, but also by suppressing PAI-1 expression in renal tubular cells. PMID: 24107419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hamasaki Y, Doi K, Maeda-Mamiya R, Ogasawara E, Katagiri D, Tanaka T, Yamamoto T, Sugaya T, Nangaku M, Noiri E Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Silencing of p53 RNA through transarterial delivery ameliorates renal tubular injury and down-regulates GSK-3β expression after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Silencing of p53 RNA through transarterial delivery ameliorates renal tubular injury and down-regulates GSK-3β expression after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Oct 9; Authors: Fujino T, Muhib S, Sato N, Hasebe N Abstract p53, a pivotal protein in the apoptotic pathway, has been identified as a mediator of transcriptional responses to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The characteristics and functional significance of p53 response in vivo are largely unknown in IR-induced kidney injury. Therapeutic opportunities of delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) via venous inject...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fujino T, Muhib S, Sato N, Hasebe N Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Differential cystine and dibasic amino acid handling after loss-of-function of the amino acid transporter b0,+AT (Slc7a9) in mice.
In conclusion, loss of Slc7a9 function decreases the glomerular filtration rate and increases the excretion of several amino acids to a lesser extent than expected with no clear regulation at the mRNA and protein level of alternative transporters and no increased renal epithelial uptake. These observations indicate that transporters located in distal segments of the kidney and/or metabolic pathways may partially compensate Slc7a9 loss of function. PMID: 24107421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Di Giacopo A, Rubio-Aliaga I, Cantone A, Artunc F, Rexhepaj R, Frey-Wagner I, Font-Llitjós M, Gehring N, Stange G, Jaenecke I, Mohebbi N, Closs EI, Palacín M, Nunes V, Daniel H, Lang F, Capasso G, Wagner CA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal mouse delays maturation of both kidneys and leads to late formation of atubular glomeruli.
Abstract Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse is the most widely used model of progressive renal disease: the proximal tubule is the nephron segment most severely affected and atubular glomeruli are formed after only 7 days of UUO. To determine the proximal nephron response to UUO in the maturing kidney, neonatal mice were examined 7 to 28 days following complete UUO under general anesthesia. Proximal tubular mass and maturation were determined by staining with Lotus tetragolonobus lectin. Superoxide was localized by nitroblue tetrazolium and collagen by Sirius red. Cell proliferation, cell dea...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Forbes MS, Thornhill BA, Galarreta CI, Minor JJ, Gordon KA, Chevalier RL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Hormonal regulation of salt and water excretion: a mathematical model of whole-kidney function and pressure-natriuresis.
We present a lumped-nephron model that explicitly represents the main features of the underlying physiology, incorporating the major hormonal regulatory effects on both tubular and vascular function, and which accurately simulates hormonal regulation of renal salt and water excretion. This is the first model to explicitly couple glomerulovascular and medullary dynamics, and it is much more detailed in structure than existing whole-organ models and renal portions of multi-organ models. In contrast to previous medullary models, which have only considered the antidiuretic state, our model is able to regulate water and sodium ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Moss R, Thomas SR Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Gamma subunit second transmembrane domain contributes to epithelial sodium channel gating and amiloride block.
Abstract The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is comprised of three homologous subunits. Channels composed solely of α and β subunits (αβ channels) exhibit a very high open probability (Po) and reduced sensitivity to amiloride, in contrast to channels composed of α and γ subunits or of all three subunits (i.e., αγ and αβγ channels). A mutant channel comprised of α and β subunits, and a chimeric γ subunit where the region immediately preceding (β12 and wrist) and encompassing the second transmembrane domain (TM2) was replaced with ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shi S, Kleyman TR Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A molecular update on Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II.
Abstract The DCT (distal convoluted tubule) is the site of micro-regulation of water reabsorption and ion handling in the kidneys, which is mainly under the control of aldosterone. Aldosterone binds to and activates mineralocorticoid receptors, which ultimately leads to increased sodium reabsorption in the distal part of the nephron. Impairment of mineralocorticoid signal transduction results in resistance to aldosterone and mineralocorticoids, and, therefore, causes disturbances in electrolyte balance. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) or familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt) is a rare, autosomal domina...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 9, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pathare G, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, San-Cristobal P Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Molecular evidence for K+:Cl- cotransporters role in the kidney.
Abstract The KCl cotransporters KCC3 and KCC4 are expressed at the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted tubule cells, and KCC4 is present in the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle's limb and the α-intercalated cells of the collecting duct. Little is known, however, about the physiological roles of these transporters in the kidney. We evaluated the KCC3 and KCC4 mRNA and protein expression levels and intrarenal distribution in male Wistar rats or C57 mice under five experimental conditions: hyperglycemia after a single dose of streptozotocin, a low salt diet, metabolic acidosis i...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 2, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Melo Z, Cruz-Rangel S, Bautista R, Vazquez N, Castaneda-Bueno M, Mount DB, Pasantes-Morales H, Mercado A, Gamba G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Congestive heart failure in rats is associated with increased collecting duct vasopressin sensitivity and vasopressin type 2-receptor re-externalization.
S, Jonassen TE Abstract A number of studies have shown that rats with congestive heart failure (CHF) have increased protein levels of the vasopressin-regulated water channel AQP2 even during conditions with unchanged circulating levels of vasopressin (AVP), suggesting an increase in the sensitivity of the AVP type-2 (V2) receptor in experimental CHF. The present study was aimed at investigating AVP signaling in rats with moderate CHF (left ventricular end diastolic pressure>10 mmHg; normal plasma AVP levels) induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Sham-operated rats were used as con...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 2, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brønd L, Müllertz KM, Torp M, Nielsen J, Græbe M, Hadrup N, Nielsen S, Christensen S, Jonassen TE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Elucidation of the distal convoluted tubule transcriptome identifies new candidate genes involved in renal magnesium handling.
Abstract The kidney plays a key role in the maintenance of the magnesium (Mg(2+)) homeostasis. Specifically, the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is instrumental in fine-tuning of the renal Mg(2+) handling. In recent years hereditary Mg(2+) transport disorders have helped to identify important players in DCT Mg(2+) homeostasis. Nevertheless, several proteins involved in DCT-mediated Mg(2+) reabsorption remains to be discovered and a full expression profile of this complex nephron segment may facilitate the discovery of new Mg(2+)-related genes. Here, we report the Mg(2+)-sensitive expression of the DCT transcriptome...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 2, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: de Baaij JH, Groot Koerkamp MJ, Lavrijsen M, van Zeeland F, Meijer H, Holstege FC, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A test of the hypothesis that oxalate secretion produces proximal tubule crystallization in primary hyperoxaluria type i.
A TEST OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT OXALATE SECRETION PRODUCES PROXIMAL TUBULE CRYSTALLIZATION IN PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA TYPE I. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Oct 2; Authors: Worcester EM, Evan AP, Coe FL, Lingeman JE, Krambeck A, Sommers A, Philips CL, Milliner D Abstract The sequence of events by which primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) causes renal failure is unclear. We hypothesize that proximal tubule (PT) is vulnerable because oxalate secretion raises calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation (SS) there, leading to crystal formation and cellular injury. We studied cortical and papillary biopsies from 2 PH1 ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 2, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Worcester EM, Evan AP, Coe FL, Lingeman JE, Krambeck A, Sommers A, Philips CL, Milliner D Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Discarding the Haystack to Examine the Needles: the Potential Role of Urinary Exosome Analysis.
Abstract editorial focus- F-208-2013. PMID: 24068104 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 25, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zatz R, Fujihara CK Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit and PSD-93 transcript levels decrease in male mouse MPG following cavernous nerve injury or explant culture.
Abstract Quantitative real time-PCR was used to test whether cavernous nerve injury leads to a decrease in major pelvic ganglia (MPG) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit and postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93) transcript levels. Subunits α3, β4 and α7, commonly expressed in MPG, were selected for analysis. After 72 hours in explant culture, MPG transcript levels for α3, β4, α7, and PSD-93 were depressed significantly. Three days following cavernous nerve axotomy or crush in vivo, transcript levels for α3, β4 and PSD-93, but not for α7, were sign...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Girard BM, Merriam LA, Tompkins JD, Vizzard MA, Parsons RL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

TGF-β1 stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse podocytes, mediated in part by the mTOR pathway.
TGF-β1 stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse podocytes, mediated in part by the mTOR pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Sep 18; Authors: Abe Y, Sakairi T, Beeson C, Kopp JB Abstract Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been associated with podocyte injury; we have examined its effect on podocyte bioenergetics. We studied transformed mouse podocytes, exposed to TGF-β1, using a label-free assay system, Seahorse XF24, which measures oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR). Both basal OCR...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abe Y, Sakairi T, Beeson C, Kopp JB Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

From TOR and SMAD, why HIF-1 can be bad.
Abstract Editorial focus. PMID: 24049143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sheik-Hamad D Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of high fat diet and losartan on renal cortical blood flow using contrast ultrasound imaging.
Abstract Obesity-related kidney disease occurs as a result of complex interactions between metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Changes in microvascular perfusion may play a major role in kidney disease; however, these changes are difficult to assess in vivo. Here, we used perfusion ultrasound imaging to evaluate cortical blood flow in a mouse model of high fat induced kidney disease. C57BL/6J mice were randomized to a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD), for 30 weeks, then treated either with Losartan or a placebo for an additional 6 weeks. Non-invasive ultrasound perfusion imaging of the kidney was perfor...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Decleves AE, Rychak JJ, Smith DJ, Sharma K Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules of mice with gene deletions of claudin-2 and/or aquaporin1.
Abstract Deletions of claudin-2 (Cldn2) and aquaporin1 (AQP1) reduce proximal fluid reabsorption (PFR) by about 30% and 50% respectively. Experiments were done to replicate these observations and to determine in AQP1/claudin-2 double knockout mice (DKO) if the effects of deletions of these established water pores are additive. PFR was determined in inactin/ketamine anesthetized mice by free flow micropuncture using single nephron I125-iothalamate (io) clearance. Animal means of PFR (% of GFR) derived from TF/Pio ratios in 12 mice in each of 4 groups (WT, Cldn2-/-, AQP1-/-, and DKO) were 45.8 ± 0.85 (51 tubu...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Schnermann JB, Huang YG, Mizel D Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Sexually Dimorphic Urethral Activity in Response to Pharmacological Activation of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat.
In this study, we examined the possibility that 5-HT1A receptors may underlie sexually dimorphic mechanisms affecting regulation of urethral functions in anesthetized rats. Simultaneous recordings of the intravesical pressure under isovolumetric conditions (isovolumetric IVP), external urethral sphincter-electromyography (EUS-EMG), and urethral perfusion pressure (UPP) were used to examine the effects of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and antagonist (WAY-100635) on bladder and urethral functions. This research also evaluated the effects of 8-OH-DPAT and α-bungarotoxin (a neuromuscular blockade agent) on urethr...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fan WJ, Li YT, Chen JJ, Chen SC, Lin YS, Kou YR, Peng CW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The receptor antagonist picotamide inhibits adrenergic and thromboxane-induced contraction of hyperplastic human prostate smooth muscle.
Conclusions: The receptor antagonist picotamide inhibits α1-adrenergic, TXA2-mediated, and EFS-induced contractions in the human prostate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first antagonist able to inhibit two different contraction systems in the prostate. PMID: 24049147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hennenberg M, Miljak M, Herrmann D, Strittmatter F, Walther S, Rutz B, Hocaoglu Y, Kunit T, Schreiber A, Andersson KE, Stief CG, Gratzke C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Invited Review- Renal adaptation to hibernation.
Abstract Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide in...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jani A, Martin SL, Jain S, Keys D, Edelstein CL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Nitro-oleic acid is a novel anti-oxidative therapy for diabetic kidney disease.
Abstract Editorial Focus for F157-2013. PMID: 24049149 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Menon MC, Chuang PY, He JC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Increased tubulointerstitial recruitment of human CD141hi CLEC9A+ and CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cell subsets in renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease.
In this study, we developed novel protocols for extracting renal DC subsets from diseased human kidneys and identified, enumerated and phenotyped them by multi-colour flow cytometry. We detected significantly greater numbers of total DC, CD141(hi) and CD1c(+) myeloid DC (mDC) subsets in diseased biopsies with interstitial fibrosis than diseased biopsies without fibrosis or healthy tissue. In contrast, plasmacytoid DC numbers were significantly higher in the fibrotic group compared to healthy tissue only. Numbers of all DC subsets correlated with loss of kidney function, recorded as estimated glomerular filtration rate. CD1...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kassianos AJ, Wang X, Sampangi S, Muczynski K, Healy H, Wilkinson R Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Two Oldies Join Forces to Guard Homeostasis.
Abstract editorial Focus- F-343-2013. PMID: 24049151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 18, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gomez RA, Sequeira-Lopez ML Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +22 new citations
22 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2013/09/13PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 14, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +21 new citations
21 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2013/08/30PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 30, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Vitamin D Increases Plasma Renin Activity Independently of Plasma Ca2+ via Hypovolemia and β-Adrenergic Activity.
Vitamin D Increases Plasma Renin Activity Independently of Plasma Ca2+ via Hypovolemia and β-Adrenergic Activity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Aug 7; Authors: Atchison DK, Harding P, Beierwaltes WH Abstract 1, 25-dihydroxycholechalciferol (calcitriol) and 19-nor-1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (paricalcitol) are vitamin-D receptor (VDR) agonists. Previous data suggest VDR agonists may actually increase renin-angiotensin activity, and this has always been assumed to be mediated by hypercalcemia. We hypothesized that calcitriol and paricalcitol would increase plasma renin activity (PRA) independently of p...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Atchison DK, Harding P, Beierwaltes WH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Protective role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase in angiotensin II induced inflammatory responses in the kidney.
Abstract In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that the nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a protective role in the development of angiotensin II (AngII) induced hypertension and renal injury by minimizing oxidative stress and the inflammation induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Systemic blood pressure (SBP) and renal injury responses to chronic infusions of AngII (via implanted mini-pumps) were evaluated for 2 weeks in wild type (WT) and in eNOS knockout mice (KO) co-treated with or without a superoxide (O2-) scavenger, tempol (400 mg/L in the drinking w...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Whiting C, Castillo A, Haque MZ, Majid DS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Aldosterone Reprograms Promoter Methylation To Regulate αENaC Transcription In Collecting Duct.
Aldosterone Reprograms Promoter Methylation To Regulate αENaC Transcription In Collecting Duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Aug 7; Authors: Yu Z, Kong Q, Kone BC Abstract Aldosterone increases tubular sodium absorption largely by increasing epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) α transcription in collecting duct principal cells. How aldosterone reprograms basal (αENaC) transcription to high-level activity in the collecting duct is incompletely understood. Promoter methylation, a covalent, but reversible epigenetic process, has been implicated in the control of gene expression in health and...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yu Z, Kong Q, Kone BC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren localizes and persists in rat kidneys.
Abstract The aims of this study were to 1) determine whether renal localization of aliskiren and its anti-hypertensive and renoprotective effects persist after stopping administration of the drug, and 2) define the renal localization of aliskiren by light microscopy autoradiography. Hypertensive double transgenic rats (dTGR) overexpressing genes for human renin and angiotensinogen were treated with aliskiren (3 mg/kg/day sc; osmotic minipumps) or enalapril (18mg/L in drinking water). After 2 weeks treatment dTGR were assigned to either continued treatment with aliskiren ("continued"), or to cessation of ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Feldman DL, Jin L, Xuan H, Persohn E, Zhou W, Schuetz H, Park JK, Mueller DN, Luft FC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Expression and function of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms and cognate receptors in rat urinary bladder following cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis.
Abstract Numerous proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the reorganization of lower urinary tract function following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. The present study investigated the functional profile of three pleiotropic transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoforms and receptor (TβR) variants in the normal and inflamed (CYP-induced cystitis) rat urinary bladder. Our findings indicate that TGF-β (1, 2 and 3) and TβR (1, 2 and 3) transcript and protein expression were regulated to varying degrees in the urothelium or detrusor smooth muscle following intermediate (48 h;...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gonzalez EJ, Girard BM, Vizzard MA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

1,25(OH)2D3-Enhanced hypercalciuria in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats fed a low calcium diet.
Abstract The inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats exhibit many features of human idiopathic hypercalciuria and have elevated levels of vitamin D receptors (VDR) in calcium (Ca) transporting organs. On a normal Ca diet, 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) increases urine (U) Ca to a greater extent in GHS than in controls (SD). The additional UCa may result from an increase in intestinal Ca absorption and/or bone resorption. To determine the source, we asked whether 1,25D would increase UCa in GHS fed a low Ca (0.02%) diet. With 1,25D, UCa in SD increased from 1.2±0.1 to 9.3±0.9 mg/d and increased mo...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Frick KK, Asplin JR, Krieger NS, Culbertson CD, Asplin DM, Bushinsky DA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Complement 3 activates the renal renin-angiotensin system by induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the nephrotubulus in mice.
In this study, we investigated the contribution of C3 in EMT and in the renal renin-angiotensin (RA) systems associated with hypertension. C3a induced EMT in mouse TCMK-1 epithelial cells, which displayed increased expression of renin and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and nuclear localization of liver X receptor α (LXRα). C3 and renin were strongly stained in the degenerated nephrotubulus and co-localized with LXRα and prorenin receptor in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidneys from wild type mice. In C3-deficient mice, hydronephrus and EMT were suppressed with no expression of renin and C3. Af...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhou X, Fukuda N, Matsuda H, Endo M, Wang X, Saito K, Ueno T, Matsumoto T, Matsumoto K, Soma M, Kobayashi N, Nishiyama A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Is Associated With a PDSS2 Haplotype and Independently, With a Decreased Content of Coenzyme Q10.
We examined the hypothesis that human PDSS2 polymorphisms are associated with podocyte diseases. We genotyped 377 cases with primary FSGS or collapsing glomerulopathy, together with 900 controls, for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDSS2 gene in a case-control study. Subjects included 247 African American (AA) and 130 European American (EA) cases, and 641 AA and 259 EA controls. Among EAs, a pair of proxy SNPs was significantly associated with podocyte disease, and patients homozygous for one PDSS2 haplotype had a strongly increased risk for podocyte disease. By contrast, the distribution of PDSS2 genoty...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 7, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gasser DL, Winkler CA, Peng M, An P, McKenzie LA, Kirk GD, Shi Y, Xie LX, Marbois BN, Clarke CF, Kopp JB Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Anti-C5a complementary peptide ameliorates acute peritoneal injuries induced by neutralization of Crry and CD59.
Abstract In peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy, physical stresses such as exposure to peritoneal dialysate, catheter trauma and peritonitis induce peritoneal injuries which can prevent continued long-term PD therapy. Therefore, protection of the peritoneum is an important target to enable long-term PD therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. We previously showed that neutralizations of membrane complement regulators (CRegs), Crry and CD59, in rat peritoneum provokes development of acute peritoneal injuries due to uncontrolled complement activation. C5a is a key effecter molecule of the complement system, re...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mizuno T, Mizuno M, Imai M, Suzuki Y, Kushida M, Noda Y, Maruyama S, Okada H, Okada N, Matsuo S, Ito Y Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

5-aminolevulinic acid combined with ferrous iron induces carbon monoxide generation in mouse kidneys and protects from renal ischemic-reperfusion injury.
Abstract Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major factor responsible for acute renal failure (ARF). An intermediate in heme synthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), is fundamental in aerobic energy metabolism. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) cleaves heme to form biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron (Fe(2+)), which is used with 5-ALA. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-ALA in attenuating acute renal ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) using a mouse model. Male Balb/c mice received 30 mg/kg of 5-ALA with Fe(2+) 48, 24 and 2 hours prior to IRI, and were subsequently subjected to bilateral renal ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hou J, Cai S, Kitajima Y, Fujino M, Ito H, Takahashi K, Abe F, Tanaka T, Ding Q, Li XK Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Proteinuria: It is time to look beyond the proximal tubule.
Abstract Editorial Focus F-6-2013. PMID: 23904223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Erkan E Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Il-18 induces pro-fibrotic renal tubular cell injury via stat3 activation.
IL-18 INDUCES PRO-FIBROTIC RENAL TUBULAR CELL INJURY VIA STAT3 ACTIVATION. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Jul 31; Authors: Matsui F, Rhee A, Hile KL, Zhang H, Meldrum KK Abstract IL-18 is an important mediator of obstruction-induced renal fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) injury. IL-18's pro-inflammatory properties have been attributed, in part, to NFκB activation and the stimulation of cytokine gene expression, however, STAT3 has increasingly been shown to mediate renal fibrotic injury. We therefore hypothesized that IL-18 mediates pro-fibrotic TEC injury via STAT3 activation. Male ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matsui F, Rhee A, Hile KL, Zhang H, Meldrum KK Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Editorial Focus F303-2013 Connecting type A intercalated cell metabolic state to V-ATPase function: phosphorylation does matter!
Abstract none. PMID: 23904225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rieg T, Dominguez Rieg JA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Current status and future perspectives: primary cilia and kidney injury.
Abstract Cilia, membrane-enclosed organelles protruding from the apical side of the cells, can be divided into two classes, motile and primary cilia. During the past decades, motile cilia have been intensively studied. However, it was not until 1990s that people began to realize the importance of primary cilia as cellular specific sensors, particularly in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, accumulating evidence indicates that primary cilia may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and planar cell polarity. Many signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, and Hedgeh...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang S, Dong Z Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

AMP-activated Protein Kinase Regulates the Vacuolar H+-ATPase via Direct Phosphorylation of the A Subunit (ATP6V1A) in Kidney.
Abstract The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in intercalated cells contributes to luminal acidification in the kidney collecting duct and non-volatile acid excretion. We previously showed that the A subunit in the cytoplasmic V1 sector of the V-ATPase (ATP6V1A) is phosphorylated by the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in kidney cells. Here we demonstrate that treatment of rabbit isolated perfused collecting ducts with the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) inhibited V-ATPase-dependent H(+) secretion from intercalated cells after an acid ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alzamora R, Al-Bataineh MM, Liu W, Gong F, Li H, Thali RF, Joho-Auchli Y, Brunisholz RA, Satlin LM, Neumann D, Hallows KR, Pastor-Soler NM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.
Abstract Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the post-prandial state, but mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed identical meals. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of 3 candidate signallers - serum calcium (Sca), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in Sca was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Worcester EM, Bergsland KJ, Gillen D, Coe FL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

An anatomically-unbiased approach for analysis of renal BOLD magnetic resonance images.
We present a semi-automated, anatomically unbiased approach to compartmentalize voxels into two quantitatively related clusters. In control F344 rats, low R2* clustering was located predominantly within the cortex and higher R2* clustering within the medulla (70.96±1.48 versus 79.00±1.50; 3 scans per rat; n=6; P
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Menzies RI, Zammit-Mangion A, Hollis LM, Lennen RJ, Jansen MA, Webb DJ, Mullins JJ, Dear JW, Sanguinetti G, Bailey MA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Thrombospondin 1 mediates renal dysfunction in a mouse model of high fat diet-induced obesity.
Abstract Obesity is prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for many diseases including renal complications. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in diabetic kidney diseases. However, whether TSP1 plays a role in obesity-related kidney disease is unknown. In the present studies, the role of TSP1 in obesity-induced renal dysfunction was determined by using a diet-induced obese mouse model. The results demonstrated that TSP1 was significantly up-regulated in the kidney from obese mice. The increased TSP1 was localized in the glomerular mesangium as w...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Cui W, Maimaitiyiming H, Qi X, Norman H, Wang S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Renalase regulates renal dopamine and phosphate metabolism.
Abstract Renalase is a kidney secreted catecholamines-degrading enzyme whose expression and activity are down-regulated by increased dietary phosphate. A renalase knockout (KO) mouse model was used to explore the mechanisms mediating renalase's effect on phosphate excretion. Compared to wild type (WT) mice maintained on a regular diet, KO mice show decreased serum PO4- (KO=5.3±0.2 vs WT=6.0±0.1, n= 6, p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sizova D, Velazquez H, Sampaio-Maia B, Quelhas-Santos J, Pestana M, Desir GV Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The inhibitory effect of Gβγ and Gβ isoform specificity on ENaC activity.
The inhibitory effect of Gβγ and Gβ isoform specificity on ENaC activity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Jul 17; Authors: Yu L, Al-Khalili OK, Duke BJ, Stockand JD, Eaton DC, Bao HF Abstract Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) activity, which determines the rate of renal Na(+) reabsorption, can be regulated by G-protein coupled receptors. Regulation of ENaC by Gα mediated downstream effectors has been studied extensively, but the effect of Gβγ dimers on ENaC is unclear. A6 cells endogenously contain high levels of Gβ1 but low levels of Gβ3 ,Gβ4 and Gβ5 were ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yu L, Al-Khalili OK, Duke BJ, Stockand JD, Eaton DC, Bao HF Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Fulvene-5 inhibition of Nadph oxidases attenuate activation of epitehlial sodium channels in A6 distal nephron cells.
Abstract Nadph oxidase 4 is an important cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the kidney. Novel anti-oxidant drugs, such as Nox4-inhibitor compounds, are being developed. There is however, very little experimental evidence for the biological role and regulation of Nadph oxidase isoforms in the kidney. Herein, we show that Fulvene-5 is an effective inhibitor of Nox-generated ROS and report the role of Nox isoforms in activating epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells via oxidant signaling and cell stretch activation. Using single channel patch clamp analysis, we report...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Trac D, Liu BC, Pao AC, Thomas SV, Park M, Downs CA, Ma HP, Helms MN Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Of Diabetic Mice and ACE2: A New Biomarker of Renal Disease?
Abstract editorial Focus F-600-2012. PMID: 23863471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 17, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chappell MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research