Angiotensin II increases fibronectin and collagen I through the β-catenin dependent signaling in mouse collecting duct cells.
In this study we investigated whether AT1 receptor activation induces the expression of fibronectin and collagen I via the β-catenin pathway in mouse collecting duct cell line M-1. Ang II (10(-7) M) treatment in M-1 cells increased mRNA, protein levels of fibronectin and collagen I, the β-catenin target genes (cyclin D1 and c-myc), and the myofibroblast phenotype. These effects were prevented by candesartan, an AT1 receptor blocker. Inhibition of the β-catenin degradation with pyrvinium pamoate (pyr, 10(-9) M) prevented the Ang II-induced expression of fibronectin, collagen I, and β-catenin target genes...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 19, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Cuevas CA, Gonzalez AA, Inestrosa NC, Vio CP, Prieto MC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Glomerular endothelial cell injury and crosstalk in diabetic kidney disease.
Abstract Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains a leading cause of new onset ESRD and yet, at present the treatment is still very limited. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of DKD is therefore necessary in order to develop more effective therapies. Increasing evidence suggest that glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury plays a major role in the development and progression of DKD. Alteration of glomerular endothelial cell surface layer including its major component glycocalyx is a leading cause of microalbuminuria observed in early DKD. Many studies suggest a presence of crosstalk between glomerular cells...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 19, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fu J, Lee K, Chuang PY, Liu Z, He JC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Oat1/3 Restoration Protects against Renal Damage after Ischemic AKI.
uvant C Abstract Expression of proximal tubular organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3 is reduced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that impaired expression of Oat1/3 is decisively involved in deterioration of renal function after I/R injury. Therefore, we administered probenecid, which blocks proximal tubular indomethacin uptake, to abolish indomethacin mediated restoration of Oat1/3 regulation and its effect on renal functional and morphological outcome. Ischemic AKI was induced in rats by bilateral clamping of renal arteries for 45 min with 24h follo...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Schneider R, Meusel M, Betz B, Held C, Möller-Ehrlich K, Büttner-Herold M, Wanner C, Gekle M, Sauvant C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Activation of ENaC by AVP Contributes to Urinary Concentrating Mechanism and Dilution of Plasma.
Abstract Vasopressin (AVP) activates the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). The physiological significance of this activation is unknown. The current studies test if activation of ENaC contributes to AVP-sensitive urinary concentration. Consumption of a 3% NaCl solution induced hypernatremia and plasma hypertonicity in mice. Plasma [AVP] and urine osmolality increased in hypernatremic mice in an attempt to compensate for increases in plasma tonicity. ENaC activity was elevated in mice consuming 3% NaCl solution compared to mice consuming a diet enriched in Na+ with ad libitum tap water. The latter diet does not cause ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mironova E, Chen Y, Pao AC, Roos KP, Kohan DE, Bugaj V, Stockand JD Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

TNF-α-mediated cardio-renal injury after rhabdomyolysis in rats.
In this study, we investigated TNF-α-dependent cell signaling pathways implicated in the cellular injury in these organs. Rhabdomyolysis was induced by intramuscular glycerol injection in rats. The renal function, cardiac and renal pathology and activation of the caspases were evaluated during the first 24 hours after glycerol injection. TNF-α blockade with infliximab reduced the tubular necrosis and cardio-renal apoptosis. cFLIP, an inhibitor of caspase-8, was overexpressed in the kidney, but not in the heart. The inhibitory effect of cFLIP blunted caspase-8 activation in the kidney. In this condition, cellula...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Homsi E, Andreazzi DD, Lopes de Faria JB, Janino P Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

PKCα contributes to high NaCl-induced activation of NFAT5 (TonEBP/OREBP) through MAP kinase ERK1/2.
PKCα contributes to high NaCl-induced activation of NFAT5 (TonEBP/OREBP) through MAP kinase ERK1/2. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014 Nov 12;:ajprenal.00471.2014 Authors: Wang H, Ferraris JD, Klein JD, Sands JM, Burg MB, Zhou X Abstract High NaCl in the renal medullary interstitial fluid powers concentration of the urine, but can damage cells. The transcription factor NFAT5 activates expression of osmoprotective genes. We studied whether PKCα contributes to activation of NFAT5. PKCα protein abundance is greater in the renal medulla than in the cortex. Knockout of PKCα reduces NF...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang H, Ferraris JD, Klein JD, Sands JM, Burg MB, Zhou X Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

NOS1-dependent negative feedback regulation of the epithelial sodium channel in the collecting duct.
Abstract With an increase in urine flow there is a significant increase in shear stress against the renal epithelium including the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), resulting in an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. The mechanisms of the shear stress mediated increases in NO are undetermined. Previous studies found that shear stress increases ENaC open probability and ET-1 production in an ENaC dependent mechanism in the collecting duct (CD). Given that ET-1 stimulates NO production in the CD, we hypothesized that shear stress-induced NO production is downstream of shear stress-induced ENaC activation...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hyndman KA, Bugaj V, Mironova E, Stockand JD, Pollock JS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Involvement of neutral sphingomyelinase in the angiotensin II signaling pathway.
ndez O, Escalante B, Franco M Abstract The possibility that angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts its effects through the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) has not been tested in kidneys. The results of the present study provide evidence for the activity and expression of nSMase in rat kidneys. In isolated perfused rat kidney, Ang II-induced renal vasoconstriction was inhibited by GW4869, an inhibitor of nSMase. We used nSMase for investigating the signal transduction downstream of ceramide. nSMase constricted the renal vasculature. An inhibitor of ceramidase (CDase), N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), enhanced ei...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bautista-Pérez R, Del Valle-Mondragón L, Cano-Martínez A, Pérez-Méndez O, Escalante B, Franco M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Isoform-specific interactions between meprin metalloproteases and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A: Significance in acute and chronic kidney injury.
Abstract Meprins metalloproteases are abundantly expressed in the brush border membranes of kidney proximal tubules. Meprins are implicated in ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced renal injury and diabetic nephropathy. The protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway modulates extracellular matrix metabolism in diabetic kidneys. The present study evaluated isoform-specific interactions between the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA C) and meprins. To this end, cytosolic-enriched kidney proteins from meprin αβ double knockout mice, and purified forms of recombinant mouse PKA Cα, Cβ1, and Cβ2, were in...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Niyitegeka JM, Bastidas AC, Newman RH, Taylor SS, Ongeri EM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Extracellular nucleotides from dying cells act as molecular signals to promote wound repair in renal tubular injury.
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) often correlates with poor prognosis, and is followed by various severe unfavorable systemic outcomes. It is important to understand the pathophysiology of AKI for the development of novel therapeutic approaches towards promoting renal regeneration after injury. Recent studies have indicated that AKI-induced tubular cell death plays an active role in the onset of tissue regeneration; however, the mechanisms underlying renal tubular repair following injury have yet to be understood. In the present study, we explored molecules that might serve as "danger" signals in media...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nakagawa S, Omura T, Yonezawa A, Yano I, Nakagawa T, Matsubara K Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Reactive oxygen species as important determinants of medullary flow, sodium excretion and hypertension.
Abstract The physiological evidence linking the production of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide,and nitric oxide in the renal medullary thick ascending limb of Henle to regulation of medullary blood flow, sodium homeostasis, and long term control of blood pressure is summarized in this review. Data obtained largely from rats indicate that experimentally induced elevations of either superoxide or hydrogen peroxide in the renal medulla result in reduction of medullary blood flow, enhanced Na+ reabsorption and hypertension. A shift in the redox balance between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is found to oc...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Cowley AW, Abe M, Mori T, O'Connor PM, Ohsaki Y, Zheleznova NN Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Repression of let-7 by Transforming Growth Factor-β1-induced Lin28 up-regulates collagen expression in glomerular mesangial cells under diabetic conditions.
Repression of let-7 by Transforming Growth Factor-β1-induced Lin28 up-regulates collagen expression in glomerular mesangial cells under diabetic conditions. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014 Oct 29;:ajprenal.00458.2014 Authors: Park JT, Kato M, Lanting L, Castro N, Nam BY, Wang M, Kang SW, Natarajan R Abstract Accumulation of mesangial extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen type 1-α2 (col1a2) and type 4-α1 (col4a1) is a key feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) plays important roles in ECM accumulation in DN, and evidence sh...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Park JT, Kato M, Lanting L, Castro N, Nam BY, Wang M, Kang SW, Natarajan R Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Transporters involved in renal excretion of N-carbamoylglutamate, an orphan drug to treat inborn N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency.
Abstract Inborn defects in the N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) cause a reduction of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), an essential cofactor for the initiation of the urea cycle. As a consequence, blood ammonium concentrations are elevated, leading to severe neurological disorders. The orphan drug, N-carbamoylglutamate (NCG; carbaglu®), efficiently overcomes NAGS deficiency. However, not much is known about the transporters involved in uptake, distribution, and elimination of the divalent organic anion NCG. Organic anion transporting-polypeptides (OATPs) as well as organic anion transporters (OATs) working in cooperat...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 29, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Schwob E, Hagos Y, Burckhardt G, Burckhardt BC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Combination of ACE inhibitor with nicorandil provides further protection in chronic kidney disease.
In conclusion, nicorandil may synergize with enalapril to provide superior protection in chronic kidney disease. PMID: 25320353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 15, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shiraishi T, Tamura Y, Taniguchi K, Higaki M, Ueda S, Shima T, Nagura M, Nakagawa T, Johnson RJ, Uchida S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Diabetic Nephropathy is Resistant to Oral L-Arginine or L-Citrulline Supplementation.
Abstract Our recent publication showed that pharmacological blockade of arginases confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy via a nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3)-dependent mechanism. Arginase competes with eNOS for the common substrate L-arginine. Lack of L-arginine results in reduced NO production and eNOS uncoupling that lead to endothelial dysfunction. Therefore we hypothesized that L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation would ameliorate diabetic nephropathy. DBA mice injected with multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg ip for 5 days) were provided drinking water, with or with...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 15, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: You H, Gao T, Cooper TK, Morris SM, Awad AS Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Thienoquinolins exert diuresis by strongly inhibiting UT-A urea transporters.
Abstract Urea transporters (UT) play an important role in the urine concentration mechanism by mediating intrarenal urea recycling, suggesting that UT inhibitors could have therapeutic use as a novel class of diuretic. Recently we found a thienoquinolin UT inhibitor, PU-14, which exhibited diuretic activity. The purpose of this study was to identify more potent UT inhibitors that strongly inhibit UT-A isoforms in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Efficient thienoquinolin UT inhibitors were identified by structure-activity relationship analysis. Urea transport inhibition activity was assayed in perfused r...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ren H, Wang Y, Xing Y, Ran J, Liu M, Lei T, Zhou H, Li R, Sands JM, Yang B Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Serelaxin reduces Oxidative Stress and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Angiotensin II Induced Hypertension.
We examined the effect of Serelaxin (human recombinant relaxin-2, RLX) in male Sprague-Dawley rats given high dose angiotensin (ANG) II (400ng/kg/min, SC) for 6 weeks or shams. RLX was administered (4 μg/h, SC) to half of the rats in each group after 2 weeks of ANG II for the remaining 4 weeks. ANG II induced hypertension and proteinuria, reduced NO oxidation products (NOx), and increased oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase activity, TBARS and 8-isoprostane excretion) and plasma ADMA. While RLX had no effect in sham rats, RLX attenuated the ANGII-dependent hypertension (165±5 vs 135±13 mm Hg, p
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sasser JM, Cunningham MW, Baylis C Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Exocyst Sec10 Protects Renal Tubule Cells from Injury by EGFR/MAPK Activation and Effects on Endocytosis.
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common, has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery, and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstr...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fogelgren B, Zuo X, Buonato JM, Vasilyev A, Baek JI, Choi SY, Chacon-Heszele MF, Palmyre A, Polgar N, Drummond IA, Park KM, Lazzara MJ, Lipschutz JH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Local pH domains regulate NHE3 mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule.
Abstract The proximal tubule Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis, however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change reabsorption rate, we constructed a spat...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brasen JC, Burford JL, McDonough AA, Holstein-Rathlou NH, Peti-Peterdi J Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

ASK1/p38 signalling in renal tubular epithelial cells promotes renal fibrosis in the mouse obstructed kidney.
In conclusion, ASK1 is an important upstream activator of p38 and JNK signalling in the obstructed kidney, and ASK1 as a potential therapeutic target in renal fibrosis. PMID: 25298527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ma FY, Tesch GH, Nikolic-Paterson DJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Simultaneous Assessment of Glomerular Filtration and Barrier Function in Live Zebrafish.
h N Abstract The zebrafish pronephros is a well-established model to study glomerular development, structure and function. A few methods have been described to evaluate glomerular barrier function in zebrafish larvae so far. However, there is a need to assess glomerular filtration as well. In the present study, we extent the available methods by simultaneously measuring the intravascular clearances of Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated 10 kDa dextran and FITC-conjugated 500 kDa dextran as indicators of glomerular filtration and barrier function, respectively. After intravascular injection of the dextrans, the mean fluores...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kotb AM, Müller T, Xie J, Anand-Apte B, Endlich K, Endlich N Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Cutting to the Chase: Taking the Pulse of Label Retaining Cells in Kidney.
Abstract NA. PMID: 25298529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 8, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Humphreys BD Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +16 new citations
16 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/10/07PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 7, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +22 new citations
22 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/09/27PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 27, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Indomethacin administered early in the postnatal period results in reduced glomerular number in the adult rat.
Conclusions: Indomethacin administered during glomerulogenesis appears to reduce the number of glomeruli in adulthood. Alternative options for closing a PDA should be considered including ibuprofen as well as emerging therapies such as paracetamol. PMID: 25186294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kent AL, Koina ME, Gubhaju L, Cullen-McEwen LA, Bertram JF, Lynnhtun J, Shadbolt B, Falk MC, Dahlstrom JE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

AT2 receptors in cortical collecting ducts: a novel role in mediating ROMK-like K+ Channels' response to high dietary K+?
Abstract EF F0141-2014. PMID: 25186295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhuo JL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Live nephron imaging by MRI.
Abstract The local sensitivity of MRI can be improved with small MR detectors placed close to regions of interest. But in order to maintain such sensitivity advantage, local detectors normally need to communicate with the external amplifier through cable connections, which prevent the use of local detectors as implantable devices. Recently, an integrated wireless amplifier was developed that can efficiently amplify and broadcast locally detected signals, so that the local sensitivity was enhanced without the need for cable connections. This integrated detector enabled the live imaging of individual glomeruli using...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Qian C, Yu X, Pothayee N, Dodd S, Bouraoud N, Star RA, Bennett KM, Koretsky A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of the angiotensin type 2 receptors, in zucker diabetic fatty rats.
PREVENTION OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY BY COMPOUND 21, SELECTIVE AGONIST OF THE ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 2 RECEPTORS, IN ZUCKER DIABETIC FATTY RATS. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014 Sep 3; Authors: Castoldi G, di Gioia CR, Bombardi C, Maestroni S, Carletti R, Steckelings UM, Dahlöf B, Unger T, Zerbini G, Stella A Abstract Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Castoldi G, di Gioia CR, Bombardi C, Maestroni S, Carletti R, Steckelings UM, Dahlöf B, Unger T, Zerbini G, Stella A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

C-kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae.
C-KIT SIGNALING DETERMINES NEOINTIMAL HYPERPLASIA IN ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULAE. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014 Sep 3; Authors: Skartsis N, Martinez L, Camilo Duque J, Tabbara M, Velazquez OC, Asif A, Andreopoulos F, Salman LH, Vazquez-Padron RI Abstract Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formati...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Skartsis N, Martinez L, Camilo Duque J, Tabbara M, Velazquez OC, Asif A, Andreopoulos F, Salman LH, Vazquez-Padron RI Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Renal Na/K/2Cl Cotransporter NKCC2.
l IM Abstract The Na/K/2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 (BSC1) is located in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL). NKCC2 facilitates approximately 20-25% of the re-uptake of the total filtered NaCl load. NKCC2 is therefore one of the transport proteins with the highest overall reabsorptive capacity in the kidney. Consequently, even subtle changes in NKCC2 transport activity considerably alter the renal reabsorptive capacity for NaCl and eventually lead to perturbations of the salt and water homoeostasis. In addition to facilitating the bulk reabsorption of NaCl ...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 3, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Castrop H, Schießl IM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 25180287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - September 1, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Sex and age-related differences in the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship: role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.
In conclusion, the angiotensin type 2 receptor modulates the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship in an age and sex-dependent manner. PMID: 25164079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 27, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mirabito KM, Hilliard LM, Kett MM, Brown RD, Booth SC, Widdop RE, Moritz KM, Evans RG, Denton KM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents renal interstitial fibrosis and inflammation.
Abstract The pathophysiological events that lead to renal interstitial fibrogenesis are incompletely understood. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), an arachidonic acid metabolite, has anti-inflammatory and profibrinolytic functions. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts EET to active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sEH deficiency would prevent tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mouse kidneys. The loss of sEH enhanced levels of EET regioisomers and abolished tubulointerstitial fibrosis as demonstrated by reduced collagen...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 27, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kim J, Imig JD, Yang J, Hammock BD, Padanilam BJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 activation exacerbates kidney ischemia reperfusion injury.
Abstract Peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the post-translational conversion of arginine residues to citrulline. Post-translational protein citrullination is implicated in several inflammatory autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, colitis and multiple sclerosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PAD4 contributes to ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) by exacerbating the inflammatory response after renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Renal IR injury in mice increased PAD4 activity as well as PAD4 expression in mouse kidney. After 30 min renal IR, vehicle-treated...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 27, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ham A, Rabadi MM, Kim M, Brown KM, Ma Z, D'Agati V, Lee HT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis from a Heterozygous Mutation of the V-ATPase B1 Subunit.
oe OW Abstract Congenital distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) from mutations of the B1 subunit of the V-ATPase is considered an autosomal recessive disease. We analyzed a dRTA kindred with a truncation-mutation of B1 (p.Phe468fsX487) previously shown to have failure of assembly into the V1 domain of the V-ATPase. All heterozygous carriers in this kindred have normal plasma bicarbonate concentrations, thus evaded the diagnosis of RTA. However, inappropriately high urine pH, hypocitraturia, and hypercalciuria are present either individually or in combination in the heterozygotes at baseline. Two of the heterozygote...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 27, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang J, Fuster DG, Cameron MA, Quiñones H, Griffith C, Xie XS, Moe OW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Role of caveolin 1 in AT1a receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II in the proximal tubule of the kidney.
Abstract Caveolin 1 (CAV-1) functions not only as a constitutive scaffolding protein of caveolae but also as a vesicular transporter and signaling regulator. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that CAV-1 knockout (CAV-1 KO) inhibits AT1 (AT1a) receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II (ANG II) in the proximal tubule and attenuates blood pressure responses in ANG II-induced hypertension. To determine the role of CAV-1 in mediating the uptake of fluorescein (FITC)-labeled ANG II, wild-type (WT) mouse PT cells (mPCT) were transfected with CAV-1 siRNA for 48 h before AT1a-mediated uptake of FITC-ANG II wa...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 27, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Li XC, Gu V, Miguel-Qin E, Zhuo JL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

A radical approach to balancing the tides of tubular flow.
Abstract Ed Focus- F-260-2014. PMID: 25122047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 13, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: O'Connor PM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Collecting duct specific knock-out of renin attenuates angiotensin-II induced hypertension.
Abstract The physiological and pathophysiological significance of collecting duct (CD)-derived renin, particularly as it relates to blood pressure regulation, is unknown. To address this question, we generated CD-specific renin knockout (KO) mice and examined blood pressure and renal salt and water excretion. Mice containing loxP-flanked exon 1 of the renin gene were crossed with mice transgenic for aquaporin-2-Cre recombinase to achieve CD-specific renin KO. Compared to controls, CD renin KO mice had 70% lower medullary renin mRNA and 90% lower renin mRNA in microdissected cortical CD. Urinary renin levels were s...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 13, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ramkumar N, Stuart D, Rees S, Van Hoek AN, Sigmund CD, Kohan DE Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Angiotensin induces a pressor regulating role for collecting duct renin.
Abstract Editorial F367-2014. PMID: 25122049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 13, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Beierwaltes WH Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress-Induced Alterations in PPARγ and Associated Mitochondrial Destabilisation Contribute to Kidney Cell Apoptosis.
Oxidative Stress-Induced Alterations in PPARγ and Associated Mitochondrial Destabilisation Contribute to Kidney Cell Apoptosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014 Aug 13; Authors: Small DM, Morais C, Coombes JS, Bennett NC, Johnson DW, Gobe GC Abstract Mechanism(s) underlying renoprotection by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney disease are not well-understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to kidney disease. PPARγ upregulates proteins required for mitochondrial biogenesis. Our aim was to dete...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 13, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Small DM, Morais C, Coombes JS, Bennett NC, Johnson DW, Gobe GC Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Basolateral P2X4 channels stimulate ENaC activity in Xenopus Cortical Collecting Duct A6 cells.
Abstract The polarized nature of epithelial cells allows for different responses to luminal or serosal stimuli. In kidney tubules, ATP is produced luminally in response to changes in luminal flow. Luminal increases in ATP have been previously shown to inhibit the renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). On the other hand, ATP is increased basolaterally in renal epithelia in response to aldosterone. We tested the hypothesis that basolateral ATP can stimulate ENaC function through activation of the P2X4 receptor/channel. Using single channel cell attached patch clamp techniques, we demonstrate the existence of a baso...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 6, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thai TL, Yu L, Eaton DC, Duke BJ, Al-Khalili OK, Lam HY, Ma H, Bao HF Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Quantification of Osmotic Water Transport in vivo using Fluorescent Albumin.
Abstract Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess of water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here we describe the use of fluorescently-labeled albumin as reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of the intrap...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 6, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Morelle J, Sow A, Vertommen D, Jamar F, Rippe B, Devuyst O Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis.
This study compared low-Ktherm gadodiamide to a high-Ktherm gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor β production, and expression of the activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein α smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiam...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 6, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Do C, Barnes JL, Tan C, Wagner B Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) regulates ROMK-like K channel activity in renal cortical collecting duct during high dietary potassium adaptation.
Abstract The kidney adjusts K excretion to match intake in part by regulating activity of apical K secretory channels, including ROMK-like K channel (ROMK), in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). AngII inhibits ROMK via the AT1 receptor (AT1R) during dietary K restriction. Because AT1R and AT2 receptor (AT2R) generally function in an antagonistic manner, we sought to characterize the regulation of ROMK by the AT2R. Patch clamp studies revealed that AngII increased ROMK activity in CCDs isolated from high K (HK) but not normal K (NK) fed rats. This response was blocked by PD123319, an AT2R antagonist, but not by lo...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 6, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wei Y, Liao Y, Zavilowitz B, Ren J, Liu W, Chan P, Rohatgi R, Estilo G, Jackson EK, Wang WH, Satlin LM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide antagonize TGF-β through ligand-independent internalization of TβR1/ALK5.
In this study primary cultures of VSMC from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with NOR3 (a NO chemical donor), CORM2 (a CO chemical donor) or control. NO and CO stimulated dynamin-2 activation in VSMC. NO and CO promoted a time- and dose-dependent endocytosis of TβR1. By decreasing TβR1 surface expression through this dynamin-2 dependent process, NO and CO diminished the effects of TGF-β on VSMC. The findings help explain an important mechanism by which NO and CO signal in the vasculature by decreasing surface expression of the TβR1 and the cellular response to TGF-β. PMID: 25100282 [PubMed - a...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 6, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hovater MB, Ying WZ, Agarwal A, Sanders PW Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; +20 new citations
20 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/08/04PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - August 5, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Targeted delivery of solutes and oxygen in the renal medulla: role of microvessel architecture.
Abstract Renal medullary function is characterized by corticopapillary concentration gradients of various molecules. One example is the generally decreasing axial gradient in oxygen tension (PO2). Another example, found in animals in the antidiuretic state, is a generally increasing axial solute gradient, consisting mostly of NaCl and urea. This osmolality gradient, which plays a principal role in the urine concentrating mechanism, is generally considered to involve countercurrent multiplication and countercurrent exchange, although the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Radial oxygen and solute gradien...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 23, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pannabecker TL, Layton AT Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

To cleave or not to cleave: role of ADAM17 in cell proliferation in PKD.
Abstract This editorial focus highlights the accepted manuscript by Gooz et al. (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014, DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00218.2014) entitled "ADAM17 promotes proliferation of collecting duct kidney epithelial cells through ERK activation and increased glycolysis in polycystic kidney disease". PMID: 25056345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 23, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Staruschenko A Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Regulation of proximal tubular cell differentiation and proliferation in primary culture by matrix stiffness and ECM components.
This study will provide the basic understandings of how physical and chemical cues derived from extracellular matrix regulate the physiological function of proximal tubules and the pathological development of renal fibrosis. PMID: 25056346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 23, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chen WC, Lin HH, Tang MJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Expression of a Novel Stress-inducible Protein, Sestrin 2, in Rat Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells.
Abstract Sestrin 2, initially identified as a p53 target protein, accumulates in cells exposed to stress and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In normal rat kidneys, sestrin 2 was selectively expressed in the PECs, identified by the marker PGP9.5. In adriamycin nephropathy, sestrin 2 expression decreased in PECs on day 14, together with increased expression of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (P-S6RP), a downstream target of mTOR. Sestrin 2 expression was markedly decreased on day 42, coinciding with glomerulosclerosis and severe periglomerular fibrosis. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephr...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - July 23, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hamatani H, Hiromura K, Sakairi T, Takahashi S, Watanabe M, Maeshima A, Ohse T, Pippin JW, Shankland SJ, Nojima Y Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research