Treating symptomatic hyperprolactinemia in women with schizophrenia: presentation of the ongoing DAAMSEL clinical trial (Dopamine partial Agonist, Aripiprazole, for the Management of Symptomatic ELevated prolactin)
Prolactin elevations occur in people treated with antipsychotic medications and are often much higher in women than in men. Hyperprolactinemia is known to cause amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, galactorrhea and gynecomastia in females and is also associated with sexual dysfunction and bone loss. These side effects increase risk of antipsychotic nonadherence and suicide and pose significant problems in the long term management of women with schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we review the literature on prolactin; its physiology, plasma levels, side effects and strategies for treatment. We also present the rationale and protocol ...
Source: BMC Psychiatry - Latest articles - August 22, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Deanna KellyHeidi WehringAmber EarlKelli SullivanFaith DickersonStephanie FeldmanRobert McMahonRobert BuchananDale WarfelWilliam KellerBernard FischerJoo-Cheol Shim Source Type: research

Prepubertal gynecomastia in two monozygotic twins with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Clinical and surgical management
We present for the first time two monozygotic twins with testicular tumor and GM in PJS. (Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery)
Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery - August 21, 2013 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Elisa Grella, Simone La Padula, Vincenza Romanucci, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti, Francesco D'Andrea Tags: Correspondence and Communications - E-Only Publication Source Type: research

Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia in a prepubertal girl with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report
Conclusions: Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia may occur in children as well as in adults. With the increasing access to ART, the possibility of efavirenz-exposure and the potential occurrence of its associated side-effects may be high. In resource-poor settings, empirical change from efavirenz to nevirapine may be considered, providing no other known or alarming cause is identified, as efavirenz-induced gynecomastia can resolve quickly after withdrawal of the drug. Timely recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important in order to intervene while the condition may still be reversible, to sustain adhere...
Source: BMC Pediatrics - Latest articles - August 13, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mette van RamshorstMagdeline KekanaHelen StruthersJames McIntyreRemco Peters Source Type: research

Long‐term follow‐up of four patients with langer–giedion syndrome: Clinical course and complications
We report here a on follow‐up of four LGS individuals, including one first described by Andres Giedion in 1969, and review the sparse publications on adults with this syndrome which comprises ectodermal dysplasia, multiple cone‐shaped epiphyses prior to puberty, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, and mostly mild intellectual impairment. LGS is caused by deletion of the chromosomal segment 8q24.11–q24.13 containing among others the genes EXT1 and TRPS1. Most patients with TRPS2 are only borderline or mildly cognitively delayed, and few are of normal intelligence. Their practical skills are better than their intelle...
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A - August 2, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Albert Schinzel, Mariluce Riegel, Alessandra Baumer, Andrea Superti‐Furga, Lilia M.A. Moreira, Layla D.E. Santo, Patricia P. Schiper, José Henrique Dantas Carvalho, Andres Giedion Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

[Large cell calcifying sertoli cell tumour: A case report].
Abstract A 19-year-old male Caucasian, without prior medical history, noticed a painless right testicular mass. Physical examination revealed neither gynecomastia nor abnormal skin pigmentation. Serum alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG and testosterone levels were normal. Sonography depicted an intratesticular diffusely hyperechoic lesion with acoustic shadowing. The patient underwent right orchiectomy. Histology revealed a benign large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour. This tumour is rare and may be associated with genetic abnormalities. PMID: 23954122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annales de Pathologie)
Source: Annales de Pathologie - August 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Coulibaly B, Mesturoux L, Lanoe M, Delage-Corre M, Labrousse F Tags: Ann Pathol Source Type: research

Duplication of the Xq27.3–q28 region, including the FMR1 gene, in an X‐linked hypogonadism, gynecomastia, intellectual disability, short stature, and obesity syndrome
Abstract In 1979 a “new” syndrome characterized by X‐linked inheritance, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, intellectual disability, obesity, and short stature was described. The now‐36‐year‐old propositus was recently referred to the genetics clinic for profound intellectual disability. Fragile X testing initially demonstrated a duplication of the FMR1 region, and upon further testing we identified an Xq27.3–q28 8.05 Mb‐long duplication responsible for a syndrome. Our report describes the molecular and clinical aspects of the X‐linked syndrome. Our results suggest that male patients with inte...
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A - July 29, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Scott E. Hickey, Lauren Walters‐Sen, Theresa Mihalic Mosher, Ruthann B. Pfau, Robert Pyatt, Pamela J. Snyder, Juan F. Sotos, Thomas W. Prior Tags: Clinical Report Source Type: research

Treatment of Gynecomastia in Patients with Prostate Cancer and Androgen Deprivation.
CONCLUSIONS: Gynecomastia and mastodynia, given their high incidence, make the physical examination a fundamental tool for all patients before initiating treatment with antiandrogens. The use of tamoxifen 20mg/day is the best treatment and prevention option against gynecomastia and mastodynia, while in the case of long-course established gynecomastia, surgery is the gold standard. PMID: 23850393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas)
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - July 11, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bautista-Vidal C, Barnoiu O, García-Galisteo E, Gómez-Lechuga P, Baena-González V Tags: Actas Urol Esp Source Type: research

Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in a male breast: a case report with review of the literature.
Abstract Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a distinct type of breast carcinoma and represents 5-15% of invasive breast carcinomas in female. However, the occurrence of ILC is exceptional in male breast, and the incidence is 1.5-1.9% of male breast carcinomas. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in a male breast. A 76-year-old Japanese male with a history of treatment with a progestational agent for prostate cancer presented with a right breast tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging showed gynecomastia of bilateral breasts and an irregular-shaped nodule in his right breast. Histopathological stud...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - July 6, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Ishida M, Mori T, Umeda T, Kawai Y, Kubota Y, Abe H, Iwai M, Yoshida K, Kagotani A, Tani T, Okabe H Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Breast Lymphoma Presenting as Gynecomastia in Male Patient
(Source: The Breast Journal)
Source: The Breast Journal - July 2, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rubina Mukhtar, Abdul Mateen, Allah Rakha, Rauf Khattak, Faisal Maqsood Tags: Breast Images Source Type: research

18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of gynecomastia in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
Conclusion: Gynecomastia is a possible cause of false-positive uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT images. (Source: Clinical Imaging)
Source: Clinical Imaging - June 28, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Hsin-Yi Wang, Long-Bin Jeng, Ming-Chia Lin, Chih-Hao Chao, Wan-Yu Lin, Chia-Hung Kao Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Was Akhenaten really sick?
;mi B Abstract The depictions of Akhenaten have long interested medicine and above all endocrinology because of the eunuch gynoid morphology of this pharaoh. These depictions call to mind various diagnostic hypotheses that have been successively considered as endocrinology progresses, with emphasis on the three diseases recently identified (gynecomastia family, Kennedy's disease, and fertile eunuch syndrome), which are compatible with the now proven fertility of Akhenaten. PMID: 23810106 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annales d'Endocrinologie)
Source: Annales d'Endocrinologie - June 25, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Codaccioni JL, Conte-Devolx B, Argémi B Tags: Ann Endocrinol (Paris) Source Type: research

Pathological Findings in Gynecomastia: Analysis of 5113 Breasts.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malignancies in GM resection specimens is low; however, it increases with patient age. Unilateral cases have a statistically nonsignificant higher prevalence of pathologies.Level of evidence: Prognostic/risk II. PMID: 23788148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hand Surgery)
Source: Hand Surgery - June 19, 2013 Category: Surgery Authors: Lapid O, Jolink F, Meijer SL Tags: Ann Plast Surg Source Type: research

Table of Contents
Abstract Unique dosing strategy, outcome goals unveil possible alcohol treatment with nalmefene Rejection of Probuphine by FDA: Adequate dosing a key concern Sertraline‐duloxetine combination may be linked to gynecomastia Varenicline outperforms in smoking cessation, with few adverse events Methylphenidate appears effective for apathy in Alzheimer's Haloperidol has faster onset vs. atypicals High‐dose D‐cycloserine promising for treatment‐resistant depression Levomilnacipran SR effective for major depressive disorder 5‐HT1A partial agonists as adjunctive therapy for schizophrenia Antipsychotic augmentation for tr...
Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update - June 14, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Male Breast Disease: Pictorial Review with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation [Breast Imaging]
The male breast is susceptible to many of the same pathologic processes as the female breast. Many of these conditions have mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), and magnetic resonance imaging findings that allow differentiation between clearly benign conditions and those that require biopsy. Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast and has characteristic imaging features that usually allow differentiation from malignancy. Mammography is the initial imaging modality for a clinically suspicious mass. A palpable mass that is occult or incompletely imaged at mammography mandates targeted US. Suspicious or...
Source: Radiographics recent issues - May 14, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Nguyen, C., Kettler, M. D., Swirsky, M. E., Miller, V. I., Scott, C., Krause, R., Hadro, J. A. Tags: Breast (Imaging and Interventional), Ultrasound Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: pathogenesis and clinical management
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Oral Diseases)
Source: Oral Diseases - April 23, 2013 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Christopher Grunseich, Carlo Rinaldi, Kenneth H Fischbeck Tags: Invited Medical Review Source Type: research

Anal phyllodes tumor in a male patient: a unique case presentation and literature review
Lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands are rare, and only 44 female cases have been reported. Herein, we describe a particularly rare case of phyllodes tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands in a 41-year-old male presenting anal bleeding. Papillectomy was performed. The excised tumor was circumscribed in shape, and after it was sliced into sections, it was noted that there were leaf-like slits on the surface of cut side. Under the microscope, the tumor was found to be biphasic, with a bland glandular epithelium and low-to-intermediate cellular stroma, which together created the leaf-like slits. Gynecomastoid hyperplasi...
Source: Diagnostic Pathology - March 26, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Szu-pei HoHui-hwa TsengTM KingPhilip-C Chow Source Type: research

Gynecomastia Presenting as a Neck Mass
We describe a unique case of gynecomastia presenting as a neck mass in a patient who was diagnosed and treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth. (Source: International Journal of Surgical Pathology)
Source: International Journal of Surgical Pathology - March 20, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Rickard, K. A., Vemavarapu, L. K., Sahoo, S. Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Three Patterns of Male Gynecomastia [Illuminations]
(Source: Radiographics recent issues)
Source: Radiographics recent issues - March 11, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Frazier, A. A. Tags: Illuminations Source Type: research

From the Radiologic Pathology Archives: Diseases of the Male Breast: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation [Breast Imaging]
Male breast disease includes a variety of benign and malignant conditions, many of which are hormonally influenced. Gynecomastia and skin lesions account for the majority of conditions in symptomatic men with a palpable abnormality, and these conditions should be accurately recognized. Imaging patterns of gynecomastia include nodular, dendritic, and diffuse patterns. Histopathologically, the nodular and dendritic patterns correlate with the florid and quiescent (fibrotic) phases of gynecomastia, respectively. The diffuse pattern may have features of both phases and is associated with exposure to exogenous estrogen. Benign-...
Source: Radiographics recent issues - March 11, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Lattin, G. E., Jesinger, R. A., Mattu, R., Glassman, L. M. Tags: Breast (Imaging and Interventional), Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Oncologic Imaging Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mesenteric venous thrombosis in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome – one of the most common sex chromosomal disorders – is caused by the presence of one or more extra X chromosome and characterized by small testes, gynecomastia, and hypogonadism. Cardiovascular mortality in such patients, excluding that due to ischemic heart disease, is reported to be higher than that in the general population ; however, relevant information regarding cardiovascular events in these patients remains scarce. Here, we describe a rare case of Klinefelter syndrome with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mesenteric venous thrombosis. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - February 27, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Satoshi Okayama, Shiro Uemura, Yoshihiko Saito Tags: Online Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical and molecular aspects of androgen insensitivity.
Abstract Androgen insensitivity describes the inability of cells to respond adequately to androgens. The clinical aspects are well characterized and described in the androgen insensitivity syndrome, where underandrogenization occurs despite normal to high levels of androgens. In 46,XY individuals, this is associated with a variable phenotype ranging from completely female to ambiguous genitalia and infertility in males with gynecomastia. Androgen action is facilitated by a single androgen receptor (AR), whose gene is localized on the X chromosome. However, the identification of mutations in the AR gene in patients...
Source: Endocrine Development - February 10, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hiort O Tags: Endocr Dev Source Type: research

A 47,X,+t(X;X)(p22.3;p22.3)del(X)(p11.23q11.2),Y Klinefelter Variant with Morbid Obesity.
We report the case of a 35-yr-old man with hypogonadism and morbid obesity and diabetes mellitus. He had gynecomastia, small testes and penis, very sparse body hair and his body mass index was 44.85. He did not report experiencing broken voice and was able to have erections. We conducted a chromosome study. His genotype was 47,X,+t(X;X)(p22.3;p22.3)del(X)(p11.23q11.2). In this case, the patient was diagnosed as Klinefelter syndrome. He showed rare phenotypes like morbid obesity and average height and the phenotype may be caused by the karyotype and the excess number of X chromosome. Further studies of the relationship betw...
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - February 4, 2013 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kim Y, Kim WJ, Huh JH, Lee S, Kim D, Hong JW, Lee EJ Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research

Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia and the presence of 47,XXY mosaicism in breast epithelial cells: a case report
Abstract: Breast enlargement in prepubertal boys is a rare condition. This case report describes an otherwise healthy 3-year old non-obese boy who developed a large unilateral cystic breast mass measuring approximately 9 × 6 × 4cm. The mass was initially treated as a lymphatic malformation, and sclerotherapy with Picibanil® (OK-432) was attempted without any detectable effect on size. The mass was later excised. The pathological examination revealed mammary gland tissue suggestive of idiopathic gynecomastia. FISH revealed 47, XXY mosaicism in the abnormal breast epithelial cells, but not in peripheral blood...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery - February 1, 2013 Category: Surgery Authors: Peter Stemann Andersen, Bodil Laub Petersen, Anders Juul, Mikael Andersen Tags: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Electronic Pages (Available only online at www.jpedsurg.org) Source Type: research

Endocrinological issues and hormonal manipulation in children and men with Klinefelter syndrome
Abstract 47, XXY or Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the most common chromosomal aberration in males, is characterized by either absolute or relative hypogonadism with frequent decline in serum testosterone (T) following the onset of puberty. Decreased T levels are the result of testicular dysfunction with decrease in size of Leydig cells, and loss of germs and Sertoli cells leading to tubular hyalinization. Increase in estradiol results from over‐expression of aromatase CYP19. Deficient androgen production and observed varied response of end‐organs to T leads to delayed progression of puberty with decreased facial/body hair...
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics - January 18, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Matthew S. Wosnitzer, Darius A. Paduch Tags: Article Source Type: research

Antidepressant-selective gynecomastia.
CONCLUSIONS: Gynecomastia is associated with antidepressants and other medications but is rarely addressed. Gynecomastia may be antidepressant selective or may be the result of additive adverse effects. Clinicians are advised to question patients regarding this potential adverse effect. Further education of clinicians is indicated. PMID: 23324513 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy)
Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy - January 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaufman KR, Podolsky D, Greenman D, Madraswala R Tags: Ann Pharmacother Source Type: research

Unilateral Gynecomastia and Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis as First Manifestations of Graves' Disease.
Abstract ABSTRACT:: A 39-year-old Chinese man presented to the study hospital with right-sided gynecomastia. Underlying Graves' disease was not diagnosed until recurrent episodes of hypokalemic periodic paralysis were observed. The estradiol (E2) and progesterone levels and the E2-to-testosterone (T) (E2/T) ratio of the patient were elevated before treatment. Immediate intravenous potassium supplementation was started to reverse the paralysis. Additionally, antithyroid drugs were administered to restore a euthyroid state. After treatment, the patient gained strength. Gynecomastia regressed with a return to the eut...
Source: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences - December 28, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wang Y, Zhao L, Li F, Chen HX, Fang F, Peng YD Tags: Am J Med Sci Source Type: research

[New technique applicable to the correction of gynecomastia and mastectomy performed as part of transsexualism woman to man with major skin excess.]
PMID: 23218479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique)
Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique - December 3, 2012 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Al Mutairi K, Sawaya E, Rousvoal A Tags: Ann Chir Plast Esthet Source Type: research

Gynecomastia: When is treatment indicated?
Abstract This algorithmic approach can simplify your clinical evaluation and help you decide whether intervention or watchful waiting is appropriate. PMID: 23313989 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Family Practice)
Source: The Journal of Family Practice - December 1, 2012 Category: Practice Management Authors: Morcos RN, Kizy T Tags: J Fam Pract Source Type: research

Hernia Uteri Inguinalis in a Case of Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Differentiation
Abstract: An 18-year-old phenotypic male presented with an irreducible left inguinal mass, gynecomastia, and hypospadias. This mass on exploration was found to be a nonfunctional uterus with ipsilateral ovary and was excised. Further investigation confirmed the presence of a contralateral testis and a genotype of 46, XX. This confirmed the diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (formerly true hermaphroditism) with obstructed hernia uteri inguinalis. The patient was raised as a male. Subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia and neourethra construction with full thickness skin graft for hypospadias wer...
Source: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology - October 19, 2012 Category: OBGYN Authors: Aniketh Venkataram, Sadashivaiah Shivaswamy, Rajashekara Babu, Shivashankar Santhosh Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

The Case Files: Swollen Legs
Himelfarb, Nadine T. MD; McGregor, Alyson J. MD A patient comes to the emergency department with a seemingly simple chief complaint. “My legs are swollen,” he said. The patient is a 52-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis who had experienced increased lower extremity edema over the past week. He admitted to noncompliance with his recently prescribed medications, Aldactone and Lasix. He reported a history of “fluid in his abdomen,” but denied any recent infections requiring antibiotics. He also denied fever, chills, chest pain, shortness of breath, and abdominal pain. The patient had a temperature o...
Source: The Case Files - August 20, 2012 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Sexual hormones and erectile function more than 6 years after bariatric surgery
Conclusion: The findings are consistent with long-term normalization of androgenic hormones but less than complete normalization of erectile function. This seeming contradiction might be explained by the remaining or relapsing obesity or its co-morbidities. (Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases)
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - July 9, 2012 Category: Surgery Authors: Alberto Rosenblatt, Joel Faintuch, Ivan Cecconello Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Incidental Ductal Carcinoma in situ in a Male Breast Presenting with Contralateral Gynecomastia
Laura M Isley, Rebecca J Leddy, Tihana Rumboldt, Jacqueline M BernardJournal of Clinical Imaging Science 2012 2(1):9-9Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in males is rare and usually presents with symptoms on the affected side, such as, palpable mass or bloody nipple discharge. Even as DCIS has been reported in conjunction with gynecomastia in the same breast, we report an unusual case of a 62-year-old Caucasian male, with no family history of breast cancer, who presented with symptomatic side gynecomastia, and was incidentally found to have DCIS in a completely asymptomatic left breast. To the best of our knowledge, this case...
Source: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science - March 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Laura M IsleyRebecca J LeddyTihana RumboldtJacqueline M Bernard Source Type: research

Patients and partners lack knowledge of androgen deprivation therapy side effects
Conclusion: The lack of awareness of ADT side effects may partially explain why ADT currently results in significant decreases in the quality of life of patients and their partners. Patients uninformed about side effects do not engage in behaviors to prevent or reduce the risk of adverse effects. Improved efforts to educate patients about treatment side effects and coping strategies may result in improved psychosocial and physical health for CaP patients undergoing ADT. (Source: Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations)
Source: Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations - January 30, 2012 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lauren M. Walker, Susan Tran, Richard J. Wassersug, Bejoy Thomas, John W. Robinson Tags: Clinical - Prostate Source Type: research

Periareolar Mammaplasty for Treatment of Gynecomastia with Breast Ptosis and Excess Skin
International Journal of Cosmetic Surgery and Aesthetic Dermatology Aug 2003, Vol. 5, No. 2: 179-184. (Source: International Journal of Cosmetic Surgery and Aesthetic Dermatology)
Source: International Journal of Cosmetic Surgery and Aesthetic Dermatology - July 6, 2004 Category: Dermatology Tags: article Source Type: research