Molecular Aspects of Colorectal Adenomas: The Interplay among Microenvironment, Oxidative Stress, and Predisposition.

Molecular Aspects of Colorectal Adenomas: The Interplay among Microenvironment, Oxidative Stress, and Predisposition. Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:1726309 Authors: Aceto GM, Catalano T, Curia MC Abstract The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process initiated by a benign polyp that has the potential to evolve into in situ carcinoma through the interactions between environmental and genetic factors. CRC incidence rates are constantly increased for young adult patients presenting an advanced tumor stage. The majority of CRCs arise from colonic adenomas originating from aberrant cell proliferation of colon epithelium. Endoscopic polypectomy represents a tool for early detection and removal of polyps, although the occurrence of cancers after negative colonoscopy shows a significant incidence. It has long been recognized that the aberrant regulation of Wingless/It (Wnt)/β-Catenin signaling in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer is supported by its critical role in the differentiation of stem cells in intestinal crypts and in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. For this review, we will focus on the development of adenomatous polyps through the interplay between renewal signaling in the colon epithelium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The current knowledge of molecular pathology allows us to deepen the relationships between oxidative stress and other risk factors as lifestyle, microbiota, and predisposition. We under...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways are evidence-based perioperative guides that promote stress reduction and earlier return to function following surgery. They emphasize preoperative counseling, nutrition optimization, analgesia standardization, fluid and electrolyte balance, minimally invasive approaches, and early ambulation. Although ERAS pathways were implemented in 2016 on a 43-bed postoperative colorectal medical-surgical unit, inpatient stays remained beyond the projected two-day length of stay (LOS). A quality improvement team was formed and an eight-week pilot project w...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin J Oncol Nurs Source Type: research
PMID: 32439093 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
PMID: 32439092 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
Abstract The most commonly recognized high-risk group for colorectal cancer (CRC) is individuals with a positive family history. It is generally recognized that those with a first-degree relative (FDR) with CRC are at a 2-fold or higher risk of CRC or advanced neoplasia. FDRs of patients with advanced adenomas have a similarly increased risk. Accordingly, all major US guidelines recommend starting CRC screening by age 40 in these groups. Barriers to screening this group include patient lack of knowledge on family and polyp history, provider limitations in collecting family history, and insufficient application of ...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
This article reviews alternative colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests, including flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), computed tomography (CT) colonography, and colon capsule endoscopy. FS has abundant and convincing evidence supporting its use for CRC screening and is a commonly used CRC test worldwide. CT colonography has demonstrated convincing results for CRC screening, but concerns regarding cost, accuracy for flat or sessile neoplasia, reproducibility, extracolonic findings, and lack of coverage have limited its use and development. Colon capsule endoscopy has demonstrated encouraging results for polyp detection in averag...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
Abstract After 2 screen-setting studies showing high sensitivity for colorectal cancer and advanced precancerous lesions, multitarget stool DNA testing was endorsed by the US Preventative Services Task Force as a first-line colorectal cancer screening test. Uptake has increased exponentially since approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Adherence to testing is approximately 70%. Patients with positive results have high diagnostic colonoscopy completion rates in single-center studies. The positive predictive value for colorectal neoplasia in postapproval studi...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
Abstract The goal of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with colonoscopy is to minimize CRC with minimal risk and cost. In order to continuously improve the quality of colonoscopy, different outcomes must be measured. For this topic, the priority indicators to be measured are (1) frequency of scheduling colonoscopy at appropriate interval based on current guidelines; (2) frequency of identifying adenomas in average-risk individuals undergoing their first screening colonoscopy; and, (3) providing guideline-consistent recommendations for repeat colonoscopy after the procedure. PMID: 32439087 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
Abstract Most colorectal cancer screening in the United States occurs in the opportunistic setting, where screening is initiated by a patient-provider interaction. Colonoscopy provides the longest-interval protection, and high-quality colonoscopy is ideally suited to the opportunistic setting. Both detection and colonoscopic resection have improved as a result of intense scientific investigation. Further improvements in detection are expected with the introduction of artificial intelligence programs into colonoscopy platforms. We may expect recommended intervals or colonoscopy after negative examinations performed...
Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am Source Type: research
Conclusions The current review reports recent epidemiological and experimental data supporting the bright future of dietary polyphenols as chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer agents in CRC (Figure 1). The polyphenol-rich diet not only may represent a chemopreventive treatment but also has important function on immune system by promoting symbiont and commensal bacterial populations, increases reciprocal interaction between host and microbiota which in turn have important effects on immune function Evidence underlines the use of polyphenols as sensitizers of chemo/radiotherapies paving the w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also req...
Source: Familial Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
More News: Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Carcinoma | Colon Cancer | Colonoscopy | Colorectal Cancer | Environmental Health | Gastroenteritis | Gastrointestinal Polyps | Gastroschisis Repair | Genetics | Pathology | Polyp Resection | Polyps | Research | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Study