How Common is Lyme Disease Globally and in Urban Settings?

Discussion Lyme disease (LD) is caused by several genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi senu lato that are transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. In the U.S. and Europe it is the most common vector-borne disease. It is named for Lyme, Connecticut in the 1970s when it was “discovered,” but there are reports of LD-type disease in Europe since 1883. There are 18 distinct genospecies with B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto being the 3 most common ones causing human infection. There are many species of Ixodes ticks but only 4 commonly bite humans. Ixodes ricinus mainly in Europe, I, persultcatus in Asia, I. scapularis in the eastern and central US, and I. pacificus in the western US and Canada. However I. pacificus is rarely infected and accounts for very few human infections. I. scapularis lives for approximately 2 years and eats blood meals at each of its 3 stages, larval, nymph and adult. Ticks are not infected when they hatch from eggs (a single female can produce> 2000 larvae). They become infected from the blood they feed upon. For I. scapularis, reservoir hosts for larva and nymphs are small mammals (i.e. mice, shrews) and birds. Adults like larger mammals such as deer and dogs. (Dogs are used as sentinels for epidemiological studies of Borrelis sp. in the environment). Humans are dead-end hosts as the spirochetes are not sustainable in human tissues in large numbers. I. scapularis ticks need attachment to transmit LD (usually...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Akie Ochi, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naftaly Githaka, Masayoshi Isezaki, Shinji Yamada, Takuya Ito, Shuji Ando, Hiroki Kawabata, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Naoya Maekawa, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko OhashiAbstractTick saliva contains immunosuppressants which are important to obtain a blood meal and enhance the infectivity of tick-borne pathogens. In Japan, Ixodes persulcatus is a major vector for Lyme borreliosis pathogens, such as Borrelia garinii, as well as for those causing relapsing fever, s...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Lyme disease is caused by a tick-borne bacterium Borrelia sp. This zoonotic infection is common in the Northern Hemisphere, e.g., Europe. Clinical presentation may involve multisystem symptoms and depends on the stage of the disease. The involvement of nervous system in Lyme disease is commonly referred to as neuroborreliosis. Neuroborreliosis may involve meningitis, mononeuritis multiplex, or cranial neuritis including the inflammation of vestibulocochlear nerve. In the late or chronic stage of Lyme disease, vestibular involvement may be the sole presentation, although such cases are rare. Our study was designed to presen...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential danger from the inadvertent introduction of novel disease pathogens and vectors. Awareness of co-infections and Dermacentor reticulatus-related pathogens needs to be increased. PMID: 31694625 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: BMC Vet Res Source Type: research
ConclusionB. burgdorferi is unusual in that it expresses three distinct MTNs (cytoplasmic, membrane bound, and secreted) that are effectively inactivated by nucleoside analogs.General significanceThe Borrelia MTNs appear to be promising targets for developing new antibiotics to treat Lyme disease.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study documents a high prevalence in ticks of Rickettsia spp. thought to be endosymbionts, a low prevalence of relapsing fever group Borrelia in ticks, and a lack of detection of Lyme disease-group Borrelia in both ticks and mammals in an east Texas forested recreation area. Additionally, we observed low questing tick density in areas with a history of controlled burns. These results expand knowledge of tick-borne disease ecology in east Texas which can aid in directing future investigative, modeling, and management efforts.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Nicole E. Breuner, Shelby L. Ford, Andrias Hojgaard, Lynn M. Osikowicz, Christina M. Parise, Maria F. Rosales Rizzo, Ying Bai, Michael L. Levin, Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars EisenAbstractThe invasive, human-biting Asian longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, was detected in New Jersey in the eastern United States in August of 2017 and by November of 2018 this tick had been recorded from 45 counties across 9 states, primarily along the Eastern Seaboard. The establishment of H. longicornis in the United States has raised the ques...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
H, Heylen D Abstract Wild birds are frequently exposed to the zoonotic tick-borne bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), and some bird species act as reservoirs for some Borrelia genospecies. Studying the tropism of Borrelia in the host, how it is sequestered in different organs, and whether it is maintained in circulation and/or in the host's skin is important to understand pathogenicity, infectivity to vector ticks and reservoir competency.We evaluated tissue dissemination of Borrelia in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and great tits (Parus major), naturally and experimentally infected with Borrelia genospe...
Source: Microbial Ecology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research
Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are tick-borne infections transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in the eastern USA; both agents cause disease in dogs and people. To characterize changes in seropreva...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In 1975, researchers from Yale investigated an epidemic of 51 patients with arthritis who lived near the woodsy town of Lyme, Connecticut. The most common symptom was recurrent attacks of knee swelling. A few had pain in other joints, such as the wrist or ankle. Many had fever, fatigue, and headache. Some remembered a round skin rash before the onset of knee swelling. We now know that Lyme disease is an infection acquired from tick bites, caused by a spiral bacterium named Borrelia burgdorferi. After a tick bite, Borrelia bacteria wriggle through the skin away from the bite site. This leads to a circular red rash, known as...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Arthritis Bones and joints Infectious diseases Source Type: blogs
der F Abstract Introduction: Despite advancements in diagnostic capabilities and the availability of effective antimicrobial agents, community-acquired infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are still associated with high mortality rates. Aim: To assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of community-acquired CNS infections treated in the West Pannonian region between 2010 and 2016. Method: Clinical data of 176 patients were retrospectively analysed in two age cohorts: 15 to 65 and more than 65 years of age. Results: Neuroinfections were found to be bacterial in 81, viral in 91, parasitic in ...
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Orv Hetil Source Type: research
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