Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida in Bovine Respiratory Disease
The bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida contribute to bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is often managed with antimicrobials. Antimicrobial resistance in these bacteria has been rare, but extensively drug-resistant strains have recently become common. Routine antimicrobial use may be driving this resistance. Resistance spread is caused in part by propagation of strains harboring integrative conjugative elements. The impact of antimicrobial resistance on treatment outcomes is not clear, but clinical observations suggest that response to first treatment has decreased over time, possibly because of...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - April 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Emily Snyder, Brent Credille Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and Virulence of Mycoplasma bovis
Mycoplasma bovis is an important component of the bovine respiratory disease complex and recent reports identified that other species are also affected by M bovis. Control of the disease caused by M bovis has been unsuccessful owing to many factors, including the capacity of M bovis to evade and modulate the immune system of the host; the lack of known virulence factors; the absence of a cell wall, which renders antibiotics targeting cell-wall synthesis unusable; and the failure of vaccines to control disease on the field. The current knowledge on virulence and pathogenesis is presented in this review. (Source: Veterinary ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - April 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jose Perez-Casal Source Type: research

Histophilus somni
is associated with several disease syndromes in cattle and plays an important role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. H somni isolates exhibit significant differences in terms of susceptibility to inactivation by normal serum corresponding to the general ability to cause clinical disease. Isolates possess a variety of virulence factors, and variation in virulence factor expression is well recognized and associated with antigenic differences. Sequencing of genes associated with known virulence factors has identified genetic variability between isolates. The antigenic and genomic differences represent significant ch...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - April 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Randal M. Shirbroun Source Type: research

Details to Attend to When Managing High-Risk Cattle
This article provides insights into the management of bovine respiratory disease in high-risk cattle populations. Biocontainment strategies, records, procurement, transport, arrival/receiving management, vaccination, and treatment protocols are discussed from practical and systems-thinking perspectives regarding their impact on health in high-risk cattle. Arrival management considerations, such as facilities, nutritional management, metaphylaxis, bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection testing, parasite control, and castration, are also addressed. Caretaker morale and job satisfaction are suggested as important fa...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - April 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John T. Groves Source Type: research

The Immunology of Bovine Respiratory Disease
This article highlights advancements made in understanding innate and adaptive immunity in BRD, factors that predispose animals to BRD, and novel intervention strategies that may lead to changes in the approach to treating and controlling BRD. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - April 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jodi L. McGill, Randy E. Sacco Source Type: research

Helminth Vaccines in Ruminants
This article summarizes the state of the art in vaccine research against parasitic helminths in sheep and cattle. Optimization of antigen production (eg, recombinant expression) and antigen delivery, followed by extensive field testing, is still required for further development of vaccines. Helminth vaccines should sufficiently reduce parasite transmission to protect vaccinated animals against parasite-induced disorders and production loss. Vaccine efficacy requirements depend on the parasite ’s epidemiology and farm management, both of which vary in different geographic regions and are influenced by climate. Vaccina...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Edwin Claerebout, Peter Geldhof Source Type: research

Biology and Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Cattle
This article reviews the basics of gastrointestinal nematode biology and pathophysiology in cattle and describes how gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology is driven by environmental, host, and farm economic determinants. Adverse effects from gastrointestinal nematodes on their hosts are caused by tissue damage, nutrient absorption, immunopathologic effects, and reduced food intake induced by hormonal changes. Weather and microenvironmental factors influence the development and survival of free-living parasitic stages. A holistic control approach entails the consideration of environmental, immunologic, and socioeconomic as...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Johannes Charlier, Johan H öglund, Eric R. Morgan, Peter Geldhof, Jozef Vercruysse, Edwin Claerebout Source Type: research

What Modeling Parasites, Transmission, and Resistance Can Teach Us
Veterinarians and farmers must contend with the development of drug resistance and climate variability, which threaten the sustainability of current parasite control practices. Field trials evaluating competing strategies for controlling parasites while simultaneously slowing the development of resistance are time consuming and expensive. In contrast, modelling studies can rapidly explore a wide range of scenarios and have generated an array of decision support tools for veterinarians and farmers such as real-time weather-dependent infection risk alerts. Models have also been valuable for predicting the development of anth...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hannah Rose Vineer Source Type: research

Refugia-Based Strategies for Parasite Control in Livestock
Refugia-based strategies are intended to help slow the development of anthelmintic resistance by providing a population of parasites that are not exposed to the treatment. Evidence from field studies is lacking. There is no single way to incorporate refugia into a parasite control program. There are many options available varying greatly in complexity and practicality, and none are suitable for all situations. Incorporating refugia into production systems typically requires a change in farmer mindset and greater input of time, labor, and/or technology, but is necessary to help preserve anthelmintic efficacy and promote sus...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Andrew W. Greer, Jan A. Van Wyk, Joseph C. Hamie, Charles Byaruhanga, Fiona Kenyon Source Type: research

Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, and Sarcocystosis in Ruminants
This article reviews information on the etiology, life cycle, diagnosis, control and prevention of these parasites and the diseases they cause in ruminants. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: David S. Lindsay, J.P. Dubey Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ruminants
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ubiquitous protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Both parasites are of medical and veterinary importance. Infections with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in ruminants are associated with diarrhea outbreaks, mainly in young animals. Ruminants are potential sources of infection for humans because some species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of Giardia duodenalis have been isolated from both ruminants and humans. Knowledge of these parasites has greatly expanded in the last 2 decades from simple microscopic obser...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Monica Santin Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Cattle in Southern Climates
Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can have both economic and health benefits for cattle operations in the southern United States. In the past several decades, GIN control has relied almost exclusively on the use of anthelmintics. With the increase in anthelmintic resistance new strategies must be developed. Anthelmintic use should be minimized by integrating grazing management and a good herd health program into GIN control programs. This takes knowledge of GIN biology and epidemiology in the region (climate and weather) combined with specific information from the ranch. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North Ameri...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christine B. Navarre Source Type: research

Sustainable Approaches to Parasite Control in Ruminant Livestock
It is increasingly difficult to manage and control gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pasture-based ruminant livestock operations because of the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. Anthelmintics should be combined with alternative forms of control. Sustainable tools include copper oxide wire particles and condensed tannin –rich plants, which target primarily Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Nematophagous fungi reduce larvae on pasture and target nematode larvae in feces of most livestock species. In addition, and perhaps most importantly, genetic selection focuses on parasite resistance. Producers...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Joan M. Burke, James E. Miller Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Cattle in Northern Climates
Parasite species infecting cattle throughout northern North American are generally the same as those found throughout North America. Throughout Canada, cattle are primarily infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, whose larvae survive cold winters within soil of pastures. Overwintering larvae of these species maintain a temporary population of refugia available in spring to grazing cattle. Cattle from northern United States are also infected with Cooperia punctata and Haemonchus placei, whose larvae cannot survive cold winters within pastures. Anthelmintics with persistent activity are used during spring ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michael B. Hildreth, John B. McKenzie Source Type: research

Biology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Livestock
This article reviews the biology and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance, and provides recommendations for diagnosing resistance and for strategies that should be implemented to reduce the development of resistance. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ray M. Kaplan Source Type: research

The Epidemiology and Control of Liver Flukes in Cattle and Sheep
Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and Fascioloides magna are liver flukes causing disease in cattle and sheep. Damage to the liver due to F hepatica and F gigantica results in clinical disease and/or production losses. F magna seems to have little effect in cattle but causes high mortality in sheep. The fluke life cycle involves an aquatic or amphibious snail intermediate host and thus requires suitable moisture and temperature conditions. F magna requires the presence of deer. Drug treatment is the mainstay of control and needs to be applied considering the life cycle and epidemiology of the parasite. (Source: Veteri...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alison K. Howell, Diana J.L. Williams Source Type: research

Diagnostic Methods for Detecting Internal Parasites of Livestock
Internal parasites are a major concern in livestock production because they can impact the health and well-being of animals clinically and subclinically, and ultimately cause significant production loss. Among these internal parasites are nematodes, tapeworms, flukes, and coccidian protozoans. This review focuses on the diagnostic tests that are routinely performed by veterinarians and diagnostic laboratories, but also highlights recently developed tools that may improve diagnostic capabilities, including molecular and immunodiagnostic tests. Overall, diagnostic tests for parasites of livestock are an integral part of heal...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Guilherme G. Verocai, Umer N. Chaudhry, Manigandan Lejeune Source Type: research

Ectoparasites of Cattle
Diverse groups of ectoparasitic arthropods cause significant morbidity and mortality in most of the approximately 1.49 billion head of cattle worldwide. Hematophagous ectoparasites (ie, blood-feeding flies, myiasis-causing flies, lice, mites, ticks) are the most important in cattle. Intense use of ectoparasiticides to treat infestations can result in ectoparasite populations becoming resistant to this treatment method. Approaches integrating the use of different technologies are required to manage cattle ectoparasites effectively while addressing societal expectations regarding food safety and environmental health. Assessi...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Adalberto A. P érez de León, Robert D. Mitchell, David W. Watson Source Type: research

Biology, Epidemiology, and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Small Ruminants
Strongylid gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of disease and economic loss in small ruminants. These parasites are important in most of the United States, with the bloodsucking parasite Haemonchus contortus being the predominant species of concern. Sheep and goats are infected while grazing, and the biology of infective larvae on pastures is important in the design of parasite management programs. Widespread resistance to anthelmintics requires strategies designed to preserve remaining drug activity; these include combination treatments with multiple classes of anthelmintics and targeted treatments. (Source:...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Anne M. Zajac, Javier Garza Source Type: research

Ruminant Coccidiosis
Ruminant coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is a significant and widespread enteric disease in young livestock worldwide. High morbidities and significant mortalities may be observed. For disease diagnosis, fecal samples from clinically ill animals should be analyzed for both, identity (ie, pathogenicity) of Eimeria species and excreted oocyst amount. To prevent coccidiosis-related economic losses, management measures to reduce infection pressure and improve general animal health are crucial. Anticoccidial drugs are widely used to control clinical and subclinical disease. Treatment is most efficient when applied proph...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Berit Bangoura, Katherine D. Bardsley Source Type: research

Ruminations on Parasite Control
Recommendations and strategies for the control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites in ruminants have undergone major changes since the last Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice issue on Ruminant Parasitology was published 14 years ago. Key to these changes is the escalation of anthelmintic resistance, which is now a major problem not only in small ruminants but also in cattle. The problem of anthelmintic resistance is further magnified as no new drug classes have been introduced for ruminants in the United States, and no new drug classes have been introduced for cattle anywhere in the world si...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ray M. Kaplan Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Ruminant Parasitology
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ray M. Kaplan Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ROBERT A. SMITH, DVM, MS (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Ray M. Kaplan (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Toxicology (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Herd Immunity
Herd immunity is an important concept of epidemic theory regarding the population-level effect of individual immunity to prevent transmission of pathogens. Herd immunity exists when sufficient numbers of animals in a group or population have immunity against an agent such that the likelihood of an effective contact between diseased and susceptible individuals is reduced. Understanding herd immunity requires consideration of infection dynamics, modes of transmission, as well as the acquisition of immunity by individuals in the population. Loss of herd immunity may also explain age-associated epidemics of disease related to ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: David R. Smith Source Type: research

Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Immune Response and Resistance to Infectious Diseases in Domestic Ruminants
Infectious diseases are the outcome of complex interactions between the host, pathogen, and environment. After exposure to a pathogen, the host immune system uses various mechanisms to remove the pathogen. However, environmental factors and characteristics of pathogens can compromise the host immune responses and subsequently alter the outcome of infection. In this article, genetic and epigenetic factors that shape the individual variation in mounting protective responses are reviewed. Different approaches that have been used by researchers to investigate the genetic regulation of immunity in ruminants and various sources ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mehdi Emam, Alexandra Livernois, Marlene Paibomesai, Heba Atalla, Bonnie Mallard Source Type: research

Vaccination Management of Beef Cattle
Vaccination is a critical component of cattle health management. Effective cattle vaccine programs should consider the timing of vaccination in relation to expected disease challenge, risk for wild-type exposure of various bovine pathogens, and host factors during vaccination. Nearly all consulting veterinarians recommend vaccination of stressed, high-risk calves on feedlot arrival. However, this recommendation fails to consider several factors associated with vaccine efficiency. Further research evaluating vaccine interactions in stressed cattle and potential additive effects of endotoxin from multiple bacterin administra...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John T. Richeson, Heather D. Hughes, Paul R. Broadway, Jeffery A. Carroll Source Type: research

Vaccinating Calves in the Face of Maternal Antibodies
This article aims to briefly review the challenges and opportunities for vaccinating calves IFOMA. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: M. Claire Windeyer, Lisa Gamsj äger Source Type: research

Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves
This article reviews the process of colostrogenesis and colostrum composition, and discusses key components in developing a successful colostrum management program. In addition, the article discusses approaches for monitoring and proposes new goals for passive immunity in dairy herds. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Sandra M. Godden, Jason E. Lombard, Amelia R. Woolums Source Type: research

Gamma Delta T Cell Function in Ruminants
Gamma delta ( γδ) T cells constitute a major lymphocyte population in peripheral blood and epithelial surfaces. They play nonredundant roles in host defense against diverse pathogens. Although γδ T cells share functional features with other cells of the immune system, their distinct methods of antigen recog nition, rapid response, and tissue tropism make them a unique effector population. This review considers the current state of our knowledge on γδ T cell biology in ruminants and the important roles played by this nonconventional T cell population in protection agai...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mariana Guerra-Maupome, Jamison R. Slate, Jodi L. McGill Source Type: research

The Cattle Microbiota and the Immune System
This article presents the current knowledge regarding the interaction between bacteria and the immune system of the gut, the uterus, and the mammary gland of cattle. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Diego E. Gomez, Klibs N. Galv ão, Juan C. Rodriguez-Lecompte, Marcio C. Costa Source Type: research

Mycoplasma bovis
Host responses are often ineffective at clearing Mycoplasma bovis infection and may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. M bovis possesses a surprisingly large repertoire of strategies to evade and modulate host responses. Unopsonized M bovis impairs phagocytosis and killing by neutrophils and macrophages. Apoptosis of neutrophils and lymphocytes is enhanced, whereas it is delayed in macrophages. Both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are stimulated during M bovis infection depending on the cell type and location, and overall systemic responses tend to have a T-helper 2 bias. M bovis reduces proliferatio...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Fiona P. Maunsell, Christopher Chase Source Type: research

Nutraceuticals
Livestock industries strive to improve the health of their animals and, in the future, they are going to be required to do this with a continued reduction in antimicrobial use. Nutraceuticals represent a group of compounds that may help fill that void because they exert some health benefits when supplemented to livestock. This review is focused on the mechanisms of action, specifically related to the immune responses and health of ruminants. The nutraceutical classes discussed include probiotics, prebiotics, phytonutrients (essential oils and spices), and polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North Am...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michael A. Ballou, Emily M. Davis, Benjamin A. Kasl Source Type: research

Adjuvants
Vaccination is a critical tool in modern animal production and key to maintaining animal health. Adjuvants affect the immune response by increasing the rate, quantity, or quality of the protective response generated by the target antigens. Although adjuvant technology dates back to the nineteenth century, there was relatively little improvement in adjuvant technology before the late twentieth century. With the discovery of molecular pathways that regulate the timing, quantity, and quality of the immune response, new technologies are focused on bringing safer, more effective, and inexpensive adjuvants to commercial use. (So...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alan J. Young Source Type: research

Mucosal Immune System of Cattle
This article discusses key concepts important for mucosal immunity. The mucosa is the largest immune organ of the body. The mucosal barrier (the tight junctions and the “kill zone”) along with the mucosa epithelial cells maintaining an anti-inflammatory state are essential for the mucosal firewall. The microbiome (the microorganisms that are in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tract) is essential for immune development, homeostasis, immune re sponse, and maximizing animal productivity. Mucosal vaccination provides an opportunity to protect animals from most infectious diseases because oral, g...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher Chase, Radhey S. Kaushik Source Type: research

Preface
Few fields have seen such growth in information as immunology. It has been over 15 years since the last issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice contained an issue on ruminant immunology. The aim of this issue was not to provide proscriptive vaccine protocols but to guide the reader to the current concepts and approaches to understand how to optimize the immune system in these times when we are decreasing reliance on antimicrobials. Two-thirds of the subjects in this issue were not more than abstract ideas in 2003. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher Chase Source Type: research

Ruminant Immunology
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher Chase Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ROBERT A. SMITH, DVM, MS (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Christopher Chase (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Ruminant Parasitology (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cellular Mechanisms and Epigenetic Changes
In the context of physiologic responses that determine the growth, development, and health status of livestock, the role of epigenetics and the underlying cellular mechanisms it affects remain to be fully elucidated. Although recent work has provided evidence that maternal dietary energy level, carbohydrate type, or intestinal supply of methyl donors can elicit molecular changes in tissues of the embryo, fetus, or neonate, there are few data linking epigenetics with biochemical and physiologic outcomes. Therefore, efforts linking the epigenome with physiologic and developmental outcomes offer exciting opportunities for dis...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ahmed Elolimy, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Yusheng Liang, Juan J. Loor Source Type: research

Postnatal Nutrient Repartitioning due to Adaptive Developmental Programming
Fetal stress induces developmental adaptations that result in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and low birthweight. These adaptations reappropriate nutrients to the most essential tissues, which benefits fetal survival. The same adaptations are detrimental to growth efficiency and carcass value in livestock, however, because muscle is disproportionally targeted. IUGR adipocytes, liver tissues, and pancreatic β-cells also exhibit functional adaptations. Identifying mechanisms underlying adaptive changes is fundamental to improving outcomes and value in low birthweight livestock. The article outlines studies that ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert J. Posont, Dustin T. Yates Source Type: research

The Effects of Developmental Programming upon Neonatal Mortality
The greatest loss in ruminant production systems occurs during the neonatal period. The maternal environment (nutrition and physiologic status) influences neonatal mortality and morbidity as it reportedly affects (a) Dystocia, both via increasing birth weight and placental dysfunction; (b) Neonatal thermoregulation, both via altering the amount of brown adipose tissue and its ability to function via effects upon the hypothalamic –pituitary–thyroid axis; (c) Modification of the developing immune system and its symbiotic nutrient sources; (d) Modification of maternal and neonatal behavior. (Source: Veterinary Cli...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: V.E.A. Perry, K.J. Copping, G. Miguel-Pacheco, J. Hernandez- Medrano Source Type: research

Developmental Programming of Fertility in Livestock
Developmental programming became an area of interest to understand negative environmental impacts on progeny performance. Recently, the concept that we may be able to harness developmental programming to target animals to their niche in the production system has gained recognition. Female fertility is an area where developmental programming has been moderately successful; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Although some studies have demonstrated differences in gonadal development and attainment of puberty in response to developmental programming, these have not translated to improved fertility. To improve response to ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert A. Cushman, George A. Perry Source Type: research

Effects on Animal Health and Immune Function
The concept of developmental programming was established using epidemiologic studies that investigated chronic illnesses in humans, such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. In livestock species, the impacts of developmental programming are important for production and welfare reasons and are used as research models for human and other animal species. Dams should be in adequate nutritional status to ensure optimal nutrient supply for fetal growth, including development of their immune system. Beef and dairy cows with insufficient nutrient intake during gestation produce calves with reduced immunity against diseases,...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Reinaldo F. Cooke Source Type: research

In Utero Heat Stress Programs Reduced Performance and Health in Calves
Heat stress during late gestation adversely impacts the developing calf. Calves that experience heat stress are born at a lower bodyweight and those deficits persist at least until puberty. In utero heat stress reduces passive transfer and calf survival. Late gestation heat stress programs a phenotype with lower milk yield, relative to herd mates born to cooled dams, in the first lactation and subsequent lactations. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Geoffrey E. Dahl, Amy L. Skibiel, Jimena Laporta Source Type: research

Developmental Programming of Fetal Growth and Development
Maternal stressors that affect fetal development result in “developmental programming,” which is associated with increased risk of various chronic pathologic conditions in the offspring, including metabolic syndrome; growth abnormalities; and reproductive, immune, behavioral, or cognitive dysfunction that can persist throughout their lifetime and even a cross subsequent generations. Developmental programming thus can lead to poor health, reduced longevity, and reduced productivity. Current research aims to develop management and therapeutic strategies to optimize fetal growth and development and thereby overcom...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lawrence P. Reynolds, Pawel P. Borowicz, Joel S. Caton, Matthew S. Crouse, Carl R. Dahlen, Alison K. Ward Source Type: research