Diseases and Pests of Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera)
Infectious and parasitic diseases plague honey bees similarly to that of other food animal species. A complete understanding of each is necessary for a honey bee veterinarian to establish a strong veterinarian-client-patient relationship and make sound treatment recommendations. Control and management of these diseases is paramount to success of the colony and apiary operation. The following is not meant to be an end-all of information on each of the common honey bee diseases but more so a review and photo-documentation of each. A deeper understanding can be established through various other sources previously published an...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Deborah J.M. Pasho, Jeffrey R. Applegate, Don I. Hopkins Source Type: research

Common Noninfectious Conditions of the Honey bees (Apis mellifera) Colony
Honey bee colonies can be afflicted by serious conditions beyond infectious etiologies. Noninfectious conditions, such as starvation, laying worker colonies, and environmental dysregulation, can be as devastating as any disease. Improper hive monitoring and care often are the underlying causes of noninfectious conditions and each condition may be prevented by instituting best management practices. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jeffrey R. Applegate Source Type: research

Working with State and Provincial Apiary Programs to Manage Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Health
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) health and hive transport are regulated by local apiary programs composed of apiary inspectors. Inspectors monitor and ensure the health of honey bees through field visits to apiaries where they inspect, identify, diagnose, and provide recommendations for the treatment of honey bee health issues. Laws and regulations pertaining to beekeeping and honey bee health are present in most states, territories, and provinces. Veterinarians are encouraged to establish a relationship with their local apiary inspector to further support beekeepers and the management of healthy honey bee colonies. (Source: Ve...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kim Skyrm, Natasha Garcia-Andersen, Mary Reed, Tammy Horn Potter, Brooke Decker, Jennifer Lund Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Biosecurity for Veterinarians Working with Honey bees (Apis mellifera)
Honeybee veterinary medicine is a developing field in Canada and the United States. Veterinarians interested in working with honeybees should develop a comprehensive knowledge base on disease dynamics as it applies to the individual, colony, apiary, and broader honeybee populations. There are currently several governmental, academic, and industry organizations that are carrying out epidemiological-based surveys. Although honeybees face unique challenges in regard to biosecurity, the basic principles still apply. Veterinarians can use their expertise in the area of biosecurity to make improvements to current protocols withi...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Britteny Kyle, Katie Lee, Stephen F. Pernal Source Type: research

Honey Bee Diagnostics
Honey bees are faced with many diseases, some more serious than others. Observing irregularities during routine hive inspection may indicate potential problems. Not all disorders are equally important; some are more detrimental and need immediate attention, whereas others may only need time to clear up. It is important to be observant to be able to recognize these diseases and differentiate between them so the correct treatment may be done in a timely manner when needed to maintain the health of the colony. Colonies need to be healthy to survive and prosper. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Don I. Hopkins, Jennifer J. Keller Source Type: research

Honey Bee Nutrition
Optimal nutrition is crucial for honey bee colony growth and robust immune systems. Honey bee nutrition is complex and depends on the floral composition of the landscape. Foraging behavior of honey bees depends on both colony environment and external environment. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding honey bee nutrition, and hence no optimal diet is available for honey bees, as there is for other livestock. In this review, we discuss (1) foraging behavior of honey bees, (2) nutritional needs, (3) nutritional supplements used by beekeepers, (4) probiotics, and (5) supplemental forage and efforts integrating flor...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jennifer M. Tsuruda, Priyadarshini Chakrabarti, Ramesh R. Sagili Source Type: research

Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Immunity
At the individual level, honey bees (Apis mellifera) rely on innate immunity, which operates through cellular and humoral mechanisms, to defend themselves against infectious agents and parasites. At the colony level, honey bees have developed collective defense mechanisms against pathogens and pests, such as hygienic and grooming behaviors. An understanding of the immune responses of honey bees is critical to implement strategies to reduce mortality and increase colony productivity. The major components and mechanisms of individual and social immunity of honey bees are discussed in this review. (Source: Veterinary Clinics ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nuria Morfin, Ricardo Anguiano-Baez, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa Source Type: research

Practical Applications of Genomics in Managing Honey bee Health
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a model organism for sociogenomics and one of the most important managed pollinators. High mortalities experienced by honey bee colonies over the past several decades are expected to have a substantive effect on crop pollination and global food security. These threats and the availability of a growing number of genomic resources for the honey bee have motivated research on how genetics and genomics can be practically applied to manage bee health. The authors review 3 such applications: (1) Certification of bee lineages using single-polymorphism markers; (2) breeding bees using marker-assiste...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tanushree Tiwari, Amro Zayed Source Type: research

Registered Medicinal Products for Use in Honey Bees in the United States and Canada
A 2017 US Food and Drug Administration mandate requiring veterinary oversight for medically important antibiotics used in agricultural animals, including honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) created a “new” animal requiring veterinary involvement. Many resources are available describing medical formulations of antibiotics and other drugs used in the treatment of various honey bee maladies. The goal of this article is to summarize this information in an up-to-date, practical way for the clinic ian. At the time of this writing, only 3 antibiotics are approved for use in honey bees and require veterinary prescriptions o...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tracy S. Farone Source Type: research

Foreign Pests as Potential Threats to North American Apiculture
Honey bees face a broad range of threats globally. Many of these threats originate outside of North America because honey bees are an introduced species. Invasive pests are among the most widely distributed, damaging, and economically costly honey bee hive associates. As international trade and travel continue at a rapid pace, the list of invasive apicultural pests likely will grow. Details of these organisms ’ life history relevant to management and eradication efforts are addressed. Methods and proposed methods of detection and management encountered abroad are discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North Americ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Samuel D. Ramsey Source Type: research

Honey Bees and Humane Euthanasia
Euthanasia of animals is a cornerstone of veterinary medicine. Currently, no official criteria are set for the euthanasia or dispatch of a honey bee colony. Many methods are used around the world and vary with regards to technique, materials, volume of agent used, and timing. Each method described has its own level of effectiveness, safety, and humaneness. Although current, commonly used, methodologies may not meet the criteria of humane euthanasia, veterinarians can still apply the professional standard to other key aspects of the act of euthanasia. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Britteny Kyle, Jeffrey R. Applegate Source Type: research

The Social Life of Honey Bees
Honey bees have evolved to use pollen, nectar, and water as their principal food sources. Their success is linked to the establishment of large colonies with one female reproductive member, three distinct social castes, a division of labor among workers, and genetically diverse subfamilies. Colonies also have the ability to recruit and communicate through complex mechanisms including dance language and pheromones. Pheromones produced by the queen maintain social order in the colony and ensure that she remains as the only female to lay eggs. Finally, honey bee colonies reproduce and disperse through a mechanism called swarm...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephen F. Pernal Source Type: research

Introduction to Apiculture (Apis mellifera)
Honey bees fulfill a critical role as the principal managed pollinator for modern agricultural ecosystems, necessary for the production of many of the world ’s food crops. The beekeeper must be a knowledgeable manager of bee health, apicultural production systems, and food safety practices. Veterinarians play a vital role in apiculture in supporting beekeepers to treat current and emerging diseases and pests. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephen F. Pernal Source Type: research

Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Health Considerations in Commercial Beekeeping
In addition to the challenges faced by all honeybees, colonies that are managed as part of a commercial beekeeping operation may be subject to additional stressors that are not common to beekeeping outside of a commercial setting. Practices that are common in commercial beekeeping, including topics related to colony transport, managing large apiaries, indoor wintering, handling and shipping of package bees and queens, and banking of queens, are discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Daniel Wyns Source Type: research

Honey Bees
This article reviews how veterinarians can assist their apiarist clients in identifying hazards and risks to the apiary. Veterinarians can work with clients to navigate the various phases of disaster planning and response, as well as be a source of information on biosecurity and disease prevention. A summary of insurance programs applicable to apiarists is provided. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cynthia M. Faux, Terry Ryan Kane Source Type: research

Honey Bee Veterinary Medicine: A Developing Field
For generations, veterinarians have been at the forefront of disease management, herd health, and protecting against foreign animal disease. The Veterinarian ’s Oath, quoted from the American Veterinary Medical Association, states that a component of the veterinarian’s responsibilities include: “…protection of animal health and welfare, the prevention and relief of animal suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public he alth….” These concepts may be applied to all animals under veterinary care. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jeffrey R. Applegate, Britteny Kyle Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Honey Bee Veterinary Medicine
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jeffrey R. Applegate, Britteny Kyle Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ROBERT A. SMITH, DVM, MS (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Jeffrey R. Applegate Jr and Britteny Kyle (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Raising Commercial Dairy Calves (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Defining and Diagnosing Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
This article suggests the term pinkeye should no longer be used, offers a case definition for IBK (a herd disease), and suggests describing ocular signs of IBK using existing clinical descriptors rather than resorting to novel scores. A new term “ocular moraxellosis” is defined as IBK from which Moraxella spp are demonstrated. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mac Kneipp Source Type: research

Bovine Immune Responses to Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi Following Vaccination and Natural or Experimental Infections
Studies have sought to develop effective vaccines against infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Most research has focused on parenterally administered vaccines against Moraxella bovis antigens; however, researchers have also included Moraxella bovoculi antigens in vaccines to prevent IBK. Critical knowledge gaps remain as to which Moraxella spp antigens might be completely protective, and whether systemic, mucosal, or both types of immune responses are required for protection against IBK associated with Moraxella spp. Immune responses to commensal Moraxella spp residing in the upper respiratory tract and eye have n...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John A. Angelos, Paola Elizalde, Philip Griebel Source Type: research

Applying Concepts of Causal Inference to Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
Establishing causation, otherwise known as causal assessment, is a difficult task, made more difficult by the variety of causal assessment frameworks available to consider. In this article, Bradford Hill viewpoints are used to discuss the evidence base for Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi being component causes of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Each of the nine Bradford Hill viewpoints are introduced and explained: strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, biologic gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, and analogy. Examples of how the viewpoints have been applied for other causal relations ar...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annette M. O'Connor Source Type: research

Component Causes of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis - The Role of Moraxella Species in the Epidemiology of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) involves multiple factors and opportunistic pathogens, including members of the genus Moraxella, specifically M bovis. The causal role of M bovis is clear, where the presence of virulence factors that facilitate colonization (pili) and host cytotoxicity (RTX toxins) are well characterized, and IBK has been reproduced in many models. Experimental infection with M bovoculi has failed to reproduce IBK-typical lesions in cattle thus far. However, recent work using genomics and mass spectrometry have found genomic diversity and recombination within these species, making species diffe...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John Dustin Loy, Matthew Hille, Gabriele Maier, Michael L. Clawson Source Type: research

Component Causes of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis —Non-Moraxella Organisms in the Epidemiology of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a multifactorial disease complex caused by opportunistic pathogens, classically those members of the genus Moraxella. However, IBK in some situations is associated with other potentially pathogenic agents, which include Mycoplasma bovoculi, Mycoplasma bovis, Ureaplasma diversum, bovine herpesviruses, and Chlamydia sp. Ocular infections that may resemble IBK are also caused by Listeria monocytogenes. These agents and their association with IBK are reviewed in this article. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John Dustin Loy, Kristin A. Clothier, Gabriele Maier Source Type: research

The Role of Environmental Factors in the Epidemiology of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
Environmental factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) include face flies, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and mechanical irritation from plant awns or dust. Limited research has shown face fly control to be associated with lower incidence of IBK. UV radiation is known to cause corneal irritation and damage in mammalian species. The increased formation of corneal dark cells has been observed following UV radiation in exposed calves. Moraxella bovis preferentially binds to corneal dark cells where it can be found in pits, which may be formed due to bacterial contact. Little is ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gabriele Maier, Binh Doan, Annette M. O ’Connor Source Type: research

Component Causes of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
The purpose of this article is to discuss the host as a cause of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). The focus is on the host genetics rather than characteristics of the host, such as age, sex, and season of birth. From 4 conducted studies, estimates of IBK heritability are generally less than 0.15, except for some estimates for Herefords and Angus cattle around 0.2 and 1 study reporting a heritability of 0.33. These magnitudes of heritability are typically described as low to moderate. Quantitative trait locus on chromosome 1, 2, 12, 13, 20, and 21 has been associated with IBK resistance. (Source: Veterinary Cli...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annette M. O'Connor Source Type: research

Evidence Base for Treatment of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
In this article, the evidence base for treating infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is discussed. First, we summarize the available evidence for antibiotic treatments registered in North America. We then discuss the evidence base for nonantibiotic alternatives. We do not discuss antibiotic treatments that do not use registered protocols; such information is available in another review. Finally, we discuss how the research community could generate more evidence for effective treatments and the comparative efficacy information to help veterinarians and producers decide between treatment options. (Source: Veterinary ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annette M. O'Connor, Mac Kneipp Source Type: research

The Evidence Base for Prevention of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Through Vaccination
Pili and cytotoxins are important virulence factors and antigens for Moraxella spp. Local and systemic immunity may play a role in the body ’s response to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). No evidence exists that eliminating the carrier state for IBK is possible or beneficial. Evidence for efficacious transfer of passive immunity from dams to calves is conflicting. Autogenous vaccines and commercial vaccines for putative p athogens for IBK have not yet shown efficacy in blinded randomized field trials. Study design features, such as randomization, blinding, diagnostic criteria, and use of a placebo, reduc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gabriele Maier, Annette M. O ’Connor, David Sheedy Source Type: research

A Review of Global Prevalence and Economic Impacts of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
A summary of available literature on the prevalence and estimated economic impacts of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) from around the world is made. Country-level prevalence of IBK has been reported only for the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. We provide an estimate of IBK prevalence rate by geographic climate and region accounting for cattle sub-species and age. Estimated prevalence worldwide is 2.78%. Historical economic impact assessments are available only for the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. Rarely do assessments capture the full economic cost of the disease. Better data on pre...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elliott J. Dennis, Mac Kneipp Source Type: research

Future Directions for Research in Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
In this article, the authors summarize the future needs from a research perspective to make the greatest gains. They discuss the areas of research: diagnosis, epidemiology, economic impact, prevention, and treatment. In some areas, simple studies with little cost could be conducted that would quickly add to the evidence base. In other areas, substantial investment is needed if new study approaches, which do not repeat past studies' failures, are to be conducted. To maximize the value of research funding, it is essential to critically evaluate the information gains from prior studies and ensure that studies increase knowled...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annette M. O'Connor, John A. Angelos, Elliott J. Dennis, Paola Elizalde, Mac Kneipp, John Dustin Loy, Gabriele Maier Source Type: research

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
In this issue of the Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, we focus on infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). I want to begin by thanking all the authors who contributed to this particular issue. When they agreed to write for this special issue, they did not know about the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic and its impact on their workload. While trying to provide service to clients and maintain research laboratories, and the ever-changing expectations for teaching during 2020 and 2021, they were gracious and patient as we put this special issue together. (Source: Veterinar...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annette M. O ’Connor Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Ruminant Ophthalmology
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annette M. O ’Connor Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ROBERT A. SMITH, DVM, MS (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Annette M. O ’Connor (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Honey Bee Veterinary Medicine (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 26, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Abdominal Imaging in Small Ruminants: Liver, Spleen, Gastrointestinal Tract, and Lymph Nodes
Ultrasonography and radiography are the most frequently used imaging techniques to evaluate abdominal pathology in domestic animals. Ultrasonography can often achieve a diagnosis in small ruminants, with ease of use and virtually no contraindications. Radiography also provides a relatively comprehensive overview, but reduced penetration of the abdomen in larger animals and summation of abdominal organs can limit its diagnostic value. Computed tomography is a newer imaging modality that provides summation-free imaging but can have limited availability and financial restrictions. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America:...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Susanne M. Stieger-Vanegas, Erica McKenzie Source Type: research

Hematologic Conditions of Small Ruminants
Anemia is a clinically important syndrome in small ruminants. Anemia can be divided into regenerative and nonregenerative forms. Differentials for regenerative anemia include hemorrhage owing to gastrointestinal or external parasitism or hemostatic disorders, and hemolysis owing to infectious, osmotic, toxic, and nutritional causes. Differentials for nonregenerative anemia include inflammatory and chronic diseases, renal failure, pancytopenia, copper deficiency, and heavy metal toxicosis. Iron deficiency anemia can be caused by chronic gastrointestinal and external hemorrhage or nutritional deficiency and may be mildly reg...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jennifer Johns, Meera Heller Source Type: research

Estrus Synchronization in the Sheep and Goat
Estrus synchronization and manipulation are a tool that has been used by producers to provide uniform lamb and kid meat production and dairy sheep and goat milk production, to concentrate work and labor cost, and to plan for the lambing and kidding time. Breeders can also use estrus synchronization to stimulate ewes and does to exhibit estrus and ovulate outside of the breeding season, although both the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate may be decreased. To increase the ovulation rate outside of the breeding season, a variety of estrus synchronization methods have been used. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hayder Mohammed Hassan Habeeb, Michelle Anne Kutzler Source Type: research

Evaluating the Welfare of Small Ruminants
This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Paul J. Plummer, Melissa N. Hempstead, Jan K. Shearer, Taylor M. Lindquist Source Type: research

Secure Sheep and Wool Supply Plan for Continuity of Business
Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at I...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Danelle A. Bickett-Weddle, Ren ée D. Dewell, Charles E. McIntosh Source Type: research

Pain Management in Small Ruminants and Camelids
Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as both production and companion animals in the United States. Among sheep, goats, and camelids, there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. This review focuses on the commonly used medications available for pain management of small ruminants and discusses the benefits and negative aspects of their use. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Joe S. Smith, Jennifer Schleining, Paul Plummer Source Type: research

Udder Health for Dairy Goats
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important cause of clinical mastitis in goats, and non-aureus staphylococci is the most common isolate from subclinical mastitis. Environmental streptococci are a severe problem. Somatic cell counts and California mastitis test are a screening test for mastitis and an indicator of poor udder health, but values should be interpreted differently than with dairy cattle. Somatic cell scores likely are a more useful way of viewing data. High bacterial counts in milk are common; mastitis may be involved as a cause. Proper udder preparation, milking procedure, and postmilking management are key f...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Paula Menzies Source Type: research

Update on Small Ruminant Lentiviruses
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SLRVs) have been recognized throughout the world for decades. SLRVs are a heterogenous group of viruses that can infect sheep, goats, and wild ruminants. Evidence supports cross-species infection. These viruses cause lifelong infections where they target specific organs, which can result in production losses due to diminished milk production, consequential increases in neonatal death and diminished growth, and premature culling of prime age animals. No vaccine or treatments have proved effective. Control programs rely on an understanding of viral transmission and application of highly sensitive...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cindy Wolf Source Type: research

Use of Hysteroscopy for Diagnosing Causes of Infertility in Camelids
Hysteroscopy in alpacas and llamas allows for the identification of abnormalities on the surface or within the endometrium that cannot be identified with other methods. Hysteroscopy also allows for site-directed endometrial cytology, culture, and biopsy to achieve a definitive diagnosis. Even when no cause for infertility can be found, previously infertile females tend to become pregnant and maintain their pregnancies to term following the hysteroscopic procedure. This therapeutic effect may be a response to pre-hysteroscopy estrogen treatment, dilation of the uterine horns during hysteroscopy, and/or posttreatment uterine...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michelle Anne Kutzler, Michelle Ing Source Type: research

Pain Management in Small Ruminants and Camelids
Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as production and companion animals in the United States, and among sheep, goats, and camelids there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. In this second portion of the review, we focus on the application of pain management in these species. These strategies include mono- and multimodal and the use of precision pain management, such as epidural drug administration, regi...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Joe S. Smith, Jennifer Schleining, Paul Plummer Source Type: research

Small Ruminant Practice
This issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice is dedicated to small ruminant practice. Small ruminant practice remains a field rich in discovery through veterinary and biomedical research as well as through clinical practice. It has been over 15 years since the last issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice focused on this subject area. Since then, there has been remarkable progress on the understanding of many physiologic and pathologic processes, leading to new and alternative therapies for many conditions. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michelle Anne Kutzler, Cindy Wolf Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Small Ruminants
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michelle Anne Kutzler, Cindy Wolf Source Type: research