Cellular Mechanisms and Epigenetic Changes
In the context of physiologic responses that determine the growth, development, and health status of livestock, the role of epigenetics and the underlying cellular mechanisms it affects remain to be fully elucidated. Although recent work has provided evidence that maternal dietary energy level, carbohydrate type, or intestinal supply of methyl donors can elicit molecular changes in tissues of the embryo, fetus, or neonate, there are few data linking epigenetics with biochemical and physiologic outcomes. Therefore, efforts linking the epigenome with physiologic and developmental outcomes offer exciting opportunities for dis...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ahmed Elolimy, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Yusheng Liang, Juan J. Loor Source Type: research

Postnatal Nutrient Repartitioning due to Adaptive Developmental Programming
Fetal stress induces developmental adaptations that result in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and low birthweight. These adaptations reappropriate nutrients to the most essential tissues, which benefits fetal survival. The same adaptations are detrimental to growth efficiency and carcass value in livestock, however, because muscle is disproportionally targeted. IUGR adipocytes, liver tissues, and pancreatic β-cells also exhibit functional adaptations. Identifying mechanisms underlying adaptive changes is fundamental to improving outcomes and value in low birthweight livestock. The article outlines studies that ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert J. Posont, Dustin T. Yates Source Type: research

The Effects of Developmental Programming upon Neonatal Mortality
The greatest loss in ruminant production systems occurs during the neonatal period. The maternal environment (nutrition and physiologic status) influences neonatal mortality and morbidity as it reportedly affects (a) Dystocia, both via increasing birth weight and placental dysfunction; (b) Neonatal thermoregulation, both via altering the amount of brown adipose tissue and its ability to function via effects upon the hypothalamic –pituitary–thyroid axis; (c) Modification of the developing immune system and its symbiotic nutrient sources; (d) Modification of maternal and neonatal behavior. (Source: Veterinary Cli...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: V.E.A. Perry, K.J. Copping, G. Miguel-Pacheco, J. Hernandez- Medrano Source Type: research

Developmental Programming of Fertility in Livestock
Developmental programming became an area of interest to understand negative environmental impacts on progeny performance. Recently, the concept that we may be able to harness developmental programming to target animals to their niche in the production system has gained recognition. Female fertility is an area where developmental programming has been moderately successful; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Although some studies have demonstrated differences in gonadal development and attainment of puberty in response to developmental programming, these have not translated to improved fertility. To improve response to ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert A. Cushman, George A. Perry Source Type: research

Effects on Animal Health and Immune Function
The concept of developmental programming was established using epidemiologic studies that investigated chronic illnesses in humans, such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. In livestock species, the impacts of developmental programming are important for production and welfare reasons and are used as research models for human and other animal species. Dams should be in adequate nutritional status to ensure optimal nutrient supply for fetal growth, including development of their immune system. Beef and dairy cows with insufficient nutrient intake during gestation produce calves with reduced immunity against diseases,...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Reinaldo F. Cooke Source Type: research

In Utero Heat Stress Programs Reduced Performance and Health in Calves
Heat stress during late gestation adversely impacts the developing calf. Calves that experience heat stress are born at a lower bodyweight and those deficits persist at least until puberty. In utero heat stress reduces passive transfer and calf survival. Late gestation heat stress programs a phenotype with lower milk yield, relative to herd mates born to cooled dams, in the first lactation and subsequent lactations. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Geoffrey E. Dahl, Amy L. Skibiel, Jimena Laporta Source Type: research

Developmental Programming of Fetal Growth and Development
Maternal stressors that affect fetal development result in “developmental programming,” which is associated with increased risk of various chronic pathologic conditions in the offspring, including metabolic syndrome; growth abnormalities; and reproductive, immune, behavioral, or cognitive dysfunction that can persist throughout their lifetime and even a cross subsequent generations. Developmental programming thus can lead to poor health, reduced longevity, and reduced productivity. Current research aims to develop management and therapeutic strategies to optimize fetal growth and development and thereby overcom...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lawrence P. Reynolds, Pawel P. Borowicz, Joel S. Caton, Matthew S. Crouse, Carl R. Dahlen, Alison K. Ward Source Type: research

Overgrowth Syndrome
Large offspring syndrome (LOS) is a fetal overgrowth condition in bovines most often observed in offspring conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Phenotypes observed in LOS include, overgrowth, enlarged tongues, umbilical hernias, muscle and skeleton malformations, abnormal organ growth and placental development. Although LOS cases have only been reported to be associated with ART, fetal overgrowth can occur spontaneously in cattle (S-LOS). S-LOS refers to oversized calves that are born at normal gestation lengths. ART-induced LOS has been characterized as an epigenetic syndrome, more specifica...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Yahan Li, Callum G. Donnelly, Roc ío Melissa Rivera Source Type: research

Developmental Programming and Growth of Livestock Tissues for Meat Production
Maternal regulation of fetal development has consequences for growth and development of carcass tissues. Severely restricted fetal growth can reduce postnatal growth capacity, resulting in smaller-for-age animals that take longer to reach market weights but has little effect on feedlot efficiency or carcass and meat quality. Specific nutritional supplementation, particularly during later pregnancy, may limit fetal growth retardation and enhance postnatal growth capacity and carcass characteristics, and may improve development of intramuscular fat. Continued improvements in understanding developmental processes and their re...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Paul L. Greenwood, Alan W. Bell Source Type: research

Multigenerational Effects
Environmental influences resulting in epigenetic mediation of gene expression can affect multiple generations via direct effect (first generation); direct or maternally mediated effects on the fetus (second generation), or gonadal cell lines of the fetus (third generation) when pregnant animals are exposed to the stimuli; and through generational inheritance. The cumulative effects are rapid changes in phenotypic characteristics of the population when compared with rate of phenotypic change from genetic selection. With extensive data collection, significant potential exists to propagate desired characteristics in the lives...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Andrew J. Roberts, El Hamidi Hay Source Type: research

Developmental Resiliency
Stimuli experienced in utero can have a lasting impact on livestock growth, reproduction, and performance. Variations in environment, production system, and management strategies lead to discrepancies in the literature regarding how specific treatments influence animal performance. Studies comparing the influence of maternal undernutrition to well-fed counterparts typically result in decreased productivity of offspring. Via adaptation to nutritional or environmental stressors, dams may develop mechanisms to ensure proper nutrient supply to the fetus. It appears nutrient deprivation must be severe for consistent results. Po...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Adam F. Summers, Eric J. Scholljegerdes Source Type: research

Developmental Programming in a Beef Production System
Beef production is a complex system, in which cows are expected to perform in varied environmental conditions. In cattle, the most commonly reported developmental programming influence is nutrient restriction during the prenatal period due to climatic conditions affecting forage availability and quality. Recent research has demonstrated maternal or prepartum nutrition can affect more than just subsequent pregnancy rates. Studies in different species report how maternal nutrition influences progeny performance, health, and reproduction. Better understanding of developmental programming and nutritional management within diff...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Devin Broadhead, J. Travis Mulliniks, Rick N. Funston Source Type: research

Developmental Programming in Livestock Production
The concept of fetal programming, also known as developmental programming, was first hypothesized using human epidemiologic data, where environmental stimulus in utero resulted in long-term development changes in growth and disease susceptibility in children from undernourished mothers during the Dutch famine. This concept is important due to the impact that maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. While maternal nutrient delivery during pregnancy has been shown to program the growth and development of the fetus, both during pregnancy and later into adult...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rick N. Funston, J. Travis Mulliniks Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Developmental Programming in Livestock Production
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rick N. Funston, J. Travis Mulliniks Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ROBERT A. SMITH, DVM, MS (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Rick N. Funston and J. Travis Mulliniks (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Ruminant Immunology (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - May 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Introduction: Building from the Cow Up
Building from the cow up refers to the construction of a barn for which the foundations are the cow and her behavior, comfort, health, safety, and performance. The stall area must allow a cow to stand with all 4 feet on a comfortable bed; to rest in natural wide, narrow, short, or long positions; and to recline and rise with natural forward lunging motions. There must be no hazards that may cause injury, pain, fear, or frustration. To achieve these goals, the dimensions of a cow, her natural behaviors, and the space she occupies must be known. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Neil G. Anderson Source Type: research

Calf Barn Design to Optimize Health and Ease of Management
This article offers general calf barn design recommendations to optimize calf health gleaned from clinical and research experience in a Midwestern US climate. Barn components that are discussed include sizing the barn, ventilating the facility, and providing a clean, deeply bedded, dry area for the calf. In addition, considerations for maximizing labor efficiency and reducing the spread of disease by caregivers are discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kenneth V. Nordlund, Courtney E. Halbach Source Type: research

Feeding Behavior, Feed Space, and Bunk Design and Management for Adult Dairy Cattle
The feeding behavior of dairy cows, including how, when, and what cows eat of the feed provided to them, has a significant impact on cow health and productivity. The design and management of the feeding area impact the feeding behavior of dairy cows. To ensure good eating patterns, dairy cows need sufficient space to eat simultaneously, and a bunk design that minimizes competition, ensures good feed access, and minimizes risk of injury. Continuous feed access throughout the day, through adequate feeding levels, and frequent feed delivery and push-ups, also contribute to ensuring good eating behavior. (Source: Veterinary Cl...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Trevor J. DeVries Source Type: research

Maximizing Comfort in Tiestall Housing
It is important to maximize tiestall comfort by designing and building for the cow. Optimizing cow comfort improves cow health and productivity, leading to greater producer satisfaction. Tiestall housing is the name given to dairy cattle housing where the cows are individually tethered in distinct stalls. Stalls must be designed to accommodate the size of the cow and to provide freedom of movement to reduce hock lesions while maintaining clean stalls. The stall also must accommodate easy access to feed and water as part of the stall design. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Harold K. House, Neil G. Anderson Source Type: research

Optimizing Resting Behavior in Lactating Dairy Cows Through Freestall Design
This article provides information necessary to assist in creation of freestall facilities in which cows thrive through designs that optimize the resting behavior of dairy cattle and provide a safe, comfortable, clean, and dry place to lie down with easy access to feed and water. Comfortable stalls require a deep-bedded surface, affording cows the cushion they need to lie down for 12  hours per day and the traction necessary to facilitate rising and lying movements. Stalls should be sized to accommodate cows using them and prevent obstructions to lunge and bob areas and impediments to normal rising and lying movements....
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nigel B. Cook Source Type: research

Ventilation Systems for Adult Dairy Cattle
Ventilation systems for adult dairy cattle can be divided into natural and mechanical systems. Mechanical systems include tunnel and cross ventilation. Hybrid systems incorporate both mechanical and natural ventilation design elements. All systems need to provide appropriate airspeeds at the stalls, adequate ventilation rates, and a methodology to operate year-round. Typically, mechanical ventilation systems cost double to operate compared with natural systems, and the differences between mechanical systems are modest. Selection of high-efficiency fans and regular maintenance are higher priorities for proper fan operation ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mario R. Mondaca Source Type: research

Maternal Behavior and Design of the Maternity Pen
Labor is likely a painful and stressful experience for dairy cows. Understanding maternal behavior can help inform the design of maternity pens that best accommodate the cow. The maternity pen should provide the cow an opportunity to seclude from other cows and barn activity. It should also be well-bedded, dry, and cleaned regularly to create a comfortable environment and minimize the spread of pathogens to the cow and her calf. Management of the maternity pen should aim to reduce environmental and social stressors to encourage a smooth transition for cows into the lactating herd. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North Ameri...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kathryn L. Proudfoot Source Type: research

Designing Facilities for the Adult Dairy Cow During the Nonlactation and Early Lactation Period
Improvements during transition, following a blueprint that allows for all cows to eat from the feedbunk simultaneously and have access to a comfortable soft bed, avoiding regrouping stress 2 to 7  days before calving. Approaches to prefresh cow housing have incorporated dedicated pens for cows and heifers, sequential fill approaches in larger herds and all-in-all-out pens to maintain social stability throughout the prefresh or dry period. This blueprint has improved postpartum health and ea rly lactation milk performance. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nigel B. Cook Source Type: research

Considerations for Cooling Dairy Cows with Water
Heat stress results in substantial economic losses to the dairy industry and is problematic for animal welfare. Soaking cattle with water is an effective form of heat abatement. This technique cools cattle when water evaporates from the skin and drips from the animal, and cools the microclimate. To evaluate cooling effectiveness and make appropriate adjustments to heat abatement, animal-based indicators should be recorded in addition to environmental measures. Ideally, heat abatement should be provided to all life stages of dairy cattle and soakers should be combined with shade. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jennifer M.C. Van Os Source Type: research

Designing Automated Milking Dairy Facilities to Maximize Labor Efficiency
This article focuses on barn design and pen layout to maximize labor efficiency in herds with single-box automatic milking systems. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jouni Pitk äranta, Virpi Kurkela, Virpi Huotari, Marjo Posio, Courtney E. Halbach Source Type: research

The Dairy Cattle Housing Dilemma
Animal welfare has historically been defined at the intersection of 3 key concepts: (1) health and biological functioning, (2) affective state, and (3) natural living. For farmed animals, such as dairy cattle, health and biological functioning are often prioritized, sometimes at the expense of natural living. In this work, the authors discuss the perceived conflict between the duty of care exercised by producers and the resulting consequences to natural behavior expression. They also provide considerations on how indoor housing systems for dairy cattle may be refined to better permit natural behaviors, with particular emph...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annabelle Beaver, Caroline Ritter, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk Source Type: research

Lying Time and Its Importance to the Dairy Cow
This article review s the relevant literature to establish the recommended stocking density with freestall systems. Novel housing systems and the considerations of transition cows are also reviewed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Peter D. Krawczel, Amanda R. Lee Source Type: research

Design and Management of Proper Handling Systems for Dairy Cows
The design and management of proper handling systems for dairy cows begin with a cow handling management plan that considers the cow and the stock person ’s behavior. The safety of the cow and stock person is important to the plan and design decisions. Cow welfare can be addressed in a proper cow handling system design. Key components of a handling system are the skills of the stock person, the cow handling management plan, and the design of the ha ndling facility. Good design enhances stockmanship ability and minimizes stress for cows and stock persons, lowering the risk of injury to both. (Source: Veterinary Clinic...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: David W. Kammel, Karl Burgi, Jim Lewis Source Type: research

Preface
Globally, as the dairy industry has consolidated into fewer larger herds, there has been a shift from grazing to confinement housing, predominantly in freestall facilities. When I arrived in Wisconsin at the turn of the century, herd expansions were in full flow and barns were being constructed with little thought to the needs of the cow. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nigel B. Cook Source Type: research

Housing to Optimize Comfort, Health, and Productivity of Dairy Cattle
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nigel B. Cook Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ROBERT A. SMITH, DVM, MS (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Nigel B. Cook (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Developmental Programming in Livestock Production (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - January 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Use of Rapid Culture Systems to  Guide Clinical Mastitis Treatment Decisions
The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on culture results can reduce antibiotic use by more than 50% without sacrificing treatment efficacy. Local laboratories reporting results in a 24-hour period, or adoption of on-farm milk culture systems, allow producers to make strategic treatment decisions. On-farm culture systems are most reliable when used to classify infections in broad diagnostic categories such as no growth, gram-positive, or gram-negative growth. Diagnostic accuracy is crucial for on-farm culture systems to be efficacious and economically advantageous. Quality assurance is necessary for the success...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alfonso Lago, Sandra M. Godden Source Type: research

Making Antibiotic Treatment Decisions for Clinical Mastitis
Treatment of bovine mastitis is the most common reason that antibiotics are used for adult dairy cows. Although antibiotics are essential to treat severe cases of clinical mastitis, using antibiotics to treat many cases of nonsevere clinical mastitis does not result in improved bacteriologic or clinical outcomes. Mastitis treatment protocols should be pathogen specific; no antimicrobial therapy is recommended for many culture-negative or gram-negative cases when detected. Before withholding antibiotic therapy, it is important to assess the ability of affected cows to mount a successful immune response. When the immune syst...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pamela L. Ruegg Source Type: research

Understanding the Milk Microbiota
The milk microbiota is an intriguing area of research because milk with no bacterial growth in culture was long thought to be sterile. Recent DNA sequencing techniques have been developed that do not require bacteria to be culturable, and DNA from new bacteria have been reported in milk from dairy cow mammary glands with or without mastitis. Methodologies and results vary among research groups, and not enough is known about the milk microbiota for the results to be used for diagnosis or prognosis of mastitis. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephanie A. Metzger, Laura L. Hernandez, Garret Suen, Pamela L. Ruegg Source Type: research

Mastitis Control in Automatic Milking Systems
Automatic milking systems, or robotic milking systems, are now well established as a milk harvesting technology in Europe, Nth America and Australasia. This system is quarter based harvesting where human activity is not routinely required for milking or initial mastitis detection activities. Mastitis risk factors common with conventional milking are: environmental contamination, teat congestion and teat hyperkeratosis risk. The risk factors which differ include: pre-milking preparation, impact formation, and overmilking risk. Mastitis detection technology varies between automatic milking unit types, but all should be chara...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John F. Penry Source Type: research

Genetic Selection for Mastitis Resistance
Mastitis is a prevalent and costly disease on dairy farms. Improved management and hygiene can reduce the risk of infection by contagious or environmental pathogens, and genetic selection can confer permanent improvement in mastitis resistance. National veterinary recording systems in the Nordic countries have allowed direct selection for sire families with low incidence of clinical mastitis for 3 decades, whereas other countries have practiced indirect selection for lower somatic cell count. Recently, pooling of producer-recorded data from on-farm herd management software programs has enabled selection for reduced inciden...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kent A. Weigel, George E. Shook Source Type: research

Impact and Mitigation of Heat Stress for Mastitis Control
Heat stress abatement is not difficult to implement, and at a minimum all cows should have shade access regardless of housing or pasture access. Active cooling of lactating cows and dry cows can have dramatic effects on productive function and enhance immune status as well. Whereas the method of abatement may vary depending on humidity conditions at a particular location, cooling can be achieved in any environment. Therefore, producers should emphasize appropriate heat stress abatement throughout the production cycle to improve productivity and health, including limiting mastitis. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North Ameri...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Geoffrey E. Dahl Source Type: research

Methods for Diagnosing Mastitis
A diagnosis of mastitis is based on clinical observations or direct/indirect measures of the inflammatory response to infection, whereas a diagnosis of an intramammary infection is based on identification of the infectious agent. Somatic cell count/somatic cell score are common diagnostic tests for the detection of subclinical mastitis. Culture and polymerase chain reaction can be useful in the diagnosis of an intramammary infection; however, both have their advantages and disadvantages. Diagnosing the bacterial agent causing the intramammary infection can help to determine treatment and prevention strategies on the farm, ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pamela R.F. Adkins, John R. Middleton Source Type: research

Optimization of Clinical Mastitis Records on Dairies
Deriving value from clinical mastitis records requires accurate and consistent records and tools for efficient summary and analysis. Variation in clinical mastitis case definition or detection intensity across dairies does not preclude consistent data recording. Dairy management software can improve consistency of clinical mastitis records by prompting users for quarter(s) affected, treatment, and severity. User-defined record systems must establish and follow protocols for clinical mastitis data recording. All records must have the same information in the same order and use the same abbreviations. Clinical mastitis episod...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John R. Wenz Source Type: research

Mammary Gland Immunobiology and Resistance to Mastitis
The ability of dairy cattle to prevent infectious pathogens from causing mastitis is related to the efficiency of the mammary immune system. The primary roles of the bovine immune system are to prevent bacterial invasion of the mammary gland, eliminate existing infections, and restore mammary tissues to normal function. Mammary gland immunity uses a multifaceted network of physical, cellular, and soluble factors to protect the cow from the diverse array of mastitis-causing pathogens. Strategies to optimize mammary gland defenses can be an effective way to prevent the establishment of new intramammary infections and limit t...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lorraine M. Sordillo Source Type: research

An Update on the Effect of Clinical Mastitis on the Welfare of Dairy Cows and Potential Therapies
This article focuses on recent advances in the assessment, therapy, and effects of mastitis on cow behavior and welfare. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe, Kenneth E. Leslie, Turner H. Swartz Source Type: research

Mastitis in Dairy Cows
Mastitis has always been an important disease of dairy cows, and its occurrence has a negative impact on animal well-being and farm profitability. Veterinarians have played an important role in controlling mastitis, but as the epidemiology of the disease has changed, our role has broadened. It is important to recognize that dramatic changes have occurred in farm technologies and herd structure, and public concerns about farm practices, such as antibiotic usage, have increased. All of these changes influence how veterinary practitioners interact with farmers to reduce the negative impact of mastitis on dairy farms. (Source:...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pamela L. Ruegg, Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Mastitis
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pamela L. Ruegg, Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research