Burden, access, and disparities in kidney disease.
Abstract Kidney disease is a global public health problem, affecting over 750 million persons worldwide. The burden of kidney disease varies substantially across the world, as does its detection and treatment. In many settings, rates of kidney disease and the provision of its care are defined by socio-economic, cultural, and political factors leading to significant disparities. World Kidney Day 2019 offers an opportunity to raise awareness of kidney disease and highlight disparities in its burden and current state of global capacity for prevention and management. Here, we highlight that many countries still lack a...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Crews DC, Bello AK, Saadi G, World Kidney Day Steering Committee Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Therapeutic plasma exchange for children with kidney disorders: Definitions, prescription, indications, and complications.
Abstract Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that involves the removal of a large volume of plasma that is replaced with a replacement fluid, which is usually 5% albumin or fresh-frozen plasma. This therapeutic modality presents several technical challenges in children but has become increasingly used in pediatric nephrology. Owing to advances in technology, scientists have gained substantial knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis underlying many pediatric renal diseases, supporting the use of TPE in treating these disorders. This review presents a synopsis of the literature as it relates to the acce...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alhasan KA Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Birth weight, gestational age, and blood pressure: Early life management strategy and population health perspective.
Abstract The incidence of hypertension (HTN) is rising worldwide with an estimated prevalence of 22%, 7.5 million deaths (12.8%). It is a major risk factor for coronary heart diseases and hemorrhagic strokes. In Oman, the crude prevalence of HTN was 33.1%, whereas the age-adjusted prevalence was 38.3%. Among Gulf Cooperation Countries, 47.2% of the individuals were hypertensive, and women were more likely to have HTN than men. Similarly, the prevalence of low-birth-weight (LBW) is also rising globally with the more prevalent incidence in developing countries reaching almost a rate just lower than 20.0/100 births. ...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Al Salmi I, M Shaheen FA, Hannawi S Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Chyluria in pregnancy: Etiology, diagnosis, and management perspective.
Abstract Chyluria is clinically described as passage of milky urine. Chyle is absorbed by intestinal lacteals and is composed of emulsified fats, few proteins, and fibrin in varying proportions. Parasitic chyluria is caused mainly by Wuchereria bancrofti infection. The incidence of chyluria in pregnancy is not uncommon in endemic regions. The literature pertaining tomedical management of chyluria in pregnancy is scant. The antifilarial drugs have potential teratogenic risk and are not recommended in pregnant patients. Hence, there is a management dilemma for managing patients with chyluria during pregnancy. In thi...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Purkait B, Garg G, Singh M, Sharma A, Pandey S, Sankhwar SN Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Association of hepcidin and anemia in early chronic kidney disease.
Abstract Hepcidin is being extensively studied for anemia and inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Hepcidin is thought to regulate iron metabolism by iron blockade through various mechanisms. Patients with CKD have early cardiac mortality due to anemia and subclinical inflammation; hence, we studied hepcidin as a biomarker in patients with early stage of CKD in relation to anemia and inflammation. In our cross-sectional study, a total of 80 patients were enrolled of whom, there were 25, 26, and 29 patients in CKD stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Patients were divided into normal iron level (39),...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sonkar SK, Singh NK, Sonkar GK, Pandey S, Bhosale V, Kumar A, Usman K Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Acute cortical necrosis in pregnancy still an important cause for end-stage renal disease in developing countries.
In conclusion, strategies need to be implemented in reducing the preventable causes for RCN which is not only catastrophic in terms of renal outcomes but also for social and psychological perspectives as well. PMID: 31031368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kaul A, Lal H, Mishra P, Jain M, Prasad N, Pradhan M, Patel MR, Gupta A, Sharma RK Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Seroconversion following hepatitis B vaccination in children with chronic kidney disease.
This study aimed to assess the seroconversion and persistence of protective immunity following hepatitis B vaccination in children with CKD. This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary pediatric nephrology centre to assess the seroconversion and maintenance of antibody titers (>10 mIU/mL) at one year following hepatitis B vaccination (10 μg at 0, 1, and 2 months) in children with CKD Stages II to V. Those who did not seroconvert after the schedule were re-vaccinated, and antibody titers were checked. Categorical data were expressed as proportions and analyzed using the Chi-square test. Pearson's ...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kamath N, Vasudevan A, Iyengar A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Status of fasting in Ramadan of chronic hemodialysis patients all over Egypt: A multicenter observational study.
Abstract There is a paucity of data concerning safety of fasting in Ramadan in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis (HD). The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of fasting in Ramadan in HD patients in Egypt and the possible effect of fasting on clinical and biochemical variables. This observational multicentric study was carried out during 2016 when fasting duration was around 16 h. PMID: 31031370 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Megahed AF, El-Kannishy G, Sayed-Ahmed N Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

A study of detection and comparison of immunofluorescence on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue with fresh frozen renal biopsy specimen.
Abstract Direct immunofluorescence on the fresh frozen tissue is established way of demonstrating of immunoglobulins and complement deposition in renal biopsies. IF studies can be done on paraffin-fixed tissue (IF-P) and give comparable results to those obtained on frozen tissue for most pathogenic immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin fragments; although, the detection of C3c may be more problematic. In our study, we used proteinase-K method for antigen retrieval. We aimed to detect immunoglobulins and complements in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from renal biopsies and have comparison of I...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Solanki R, Solanki MK, Hemrajani D, Saha J Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Postoperative complications in living liver donors: A retrospective study, single-center experience in Saudi Arabia.
This study is designed to identify postoperative complications in LDLT in a tertiary care center King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). This was a retrospective cohort study. All donors at KAMC between January 2003 and December 2015 were reviewed through a hospital database and patient charts to determine the postoperative complications based on the modified Clavien classification system. All donors were relatives of the recipients and assessed before the surgery. A total of 101 donors underwent LDLT: 75 were male and 26 were female, with a mean age of 27.7 ± 6.6. The breakdown of specific surgical procedures was as fo...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Althonaian NA, Alsaiari AS, Almanea WA, Alsubaie NJ, Almuharimi AA, Althubaiti A, Altamimi AR, Abdullah KO, Ohali WA Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Impact of age and gender matching on long-term graft function and actual graft survival in live-related renal transplantation: Retrospective study from Sindh Institute of Urology and transplantation, Pakistan.
Abstract In renal transplantation, donor and allograft age are known to have an important influence on the outcome of the graft, reflecting functional renal mass. We evaluated the impact of gender and age matching in living-donor renal transplantation on long-term graft survival and actual graft function over five years from the day of transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed 500 primary live-related donor renal transplants performed from August 2007 to December 2008 at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan. Donors and recipients were divided into two age groups [young (YD) and elde...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shahani MM, Iqbal T, Idrees MK Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Acute-phase proteins as promoters of abdominal aortic calcification in chronic dialysis patients.
Abstract The aim of this study was to find a correlation between acute-phase proteins (APPs) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) as well as the impact APPs on AAC in chronic dialysis patients (CDPs). Native lateral lumbar radiography and biochemical analysis were performed in 112 CDPs (aged 60.0 ± 5.43 years) to estimate and score AAC and biochemical values of APPs. The mean AAC score was 8.39 ± 5.43. We detected 16 (14.28%) CDPs without AAC and 96 (85.71%) CDPs with AAC (10 ± 5.43). The number of CDPs with AAC ≤4 was 34 (30.36%) with mean AAC score of 1.85 ± 1.94. By multiple r...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Avramovski P, Avramovska M, Sotiroski K, Sikole A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

The role of matrix metalloproteinases 2 in atherosclerosis of patients with chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) has been implicated in chronic disease and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no knowledge about the correlations between serum levels of MMP-2, proteinuria and atherosclerosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). We investigated whether serum MMP-2 levels were associated with proteinuria, intima-media thickness (IMT) in DN patients. Diabetic patients not on hemodialysis (n = 50) were enrolled for the study. MMP-2 levels were measured using an ELISA system. IMT was evaluated by highresolution ultrasonography. Univariate analyses revealed that MMP-2 (P = 0.01...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Soliman AR, Sadek KM, Thabet KK, Ahmed DH, Mohamed OM Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Renal manifestations of dengue viral infection.
Abstract Dengue-related renal manifestations such as proteinuria, hematuria in the absence of thrombocytopenia, rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury (AKI) are not uncommon. There is relatively sparse data on the renal manifestations of dengue viral infection (DVI). Hence, a retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence, characteristics, and clinical outcome of DVI with renal manifestations. A total of 2416 patients were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of dengue fever during the study period from 2012 to 2015. Data were collected from the electronic medical records and were analyzed ...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Eswarappa M, Reddy SB, John MM, Suryadevara S, Madhyashatha RP Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Short- and long-term follow-up of living kidney donors.
Abstract Living-donor kidney transplantation is a well-established treatment of end-stage renal disease in Tunisia. Over the years, concerns have increased about the harmlessness of kidney donation. This longitudinal single center study was carried out to evaluate the safety of nephrectomy as well as further medical and surgical outcomes among donors. We collected and analyzed clinical, biological, biochemical and kidney size data at the time of nephrectomy and at M1, M3, M6, Y1, Y2, and Y4 after donation measured by ultrasound. All donor nephrectomies performed in the nephrology and transplantation unit of Sahlou...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Abdellaoui I, Azzabi A, Sahtout W, Sabri F, Hmida W, Achour A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury in children: A study of etiology, clinical profile, and short-term outcomes at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.
This article reports the etiology, clinical profile, and short-term outcomes of children managed for AKI at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Children aged one month to 15 years managed for AKI (identified by pediatric RIFLE criteria) from January 2017 to December 2017 were followed up for a short period of four weeks following the AKI. Multivariate Cox regression model was used to analyze the predictors of mortality. An annual prevalence of 26 AKI cases per 1000 children was recorded with 43 AKI cases from 1634 children seen during the 12-month period. The median age was 48 months. Twe...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anigilaje EA, Adebayo AI, Ocheni SA Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Attendees' feedback on king abdulaziz medical city pilot chronic kidney disease education class.
Abstract Despite similar or better patient outcomes, peritoneal dialysis and pre-emptive kidney transplantation are underutilized in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, most patients with end-stage renal disease begin dialysis in unplanned fashion necessitating the commencement of dialysis using central venous catheter access. We aimed to investigate if early patient education can help in overcoming these barriers. The study is a survey-based study at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh Dialysis Center. In January 2017, we started a monthly Chronic Kidney Disease Education Class in our center. Since then, 14 classes have take...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elhassan EA, Al-Ruwaymi M, Osman AI, Al-Sayyari AA Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Clinicopathological features and risk factors analysis of IgA nephropathy associated with acute kidney injury: A single-center retrospective study.
This study was a hospital-based retrospective analysis of clinicopthological data of IgA nephropathy. The study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Assam, India from the period from January 2012 to December 2016. A total of 169 patients who met the inclusion or exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patient data (clinical/demographic and laboratory data including renal biopsy) were collected and were analyzed to assess the risk factors for AKI in IgA nephropathy. For the purpose of analyses, the patients were divided into two groups, AKI (n = 28) and non-AKI group (n...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mahanta PJ, Agarawalla B, Sharma M Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Long-term clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis patients: 10-year experience of a single unit from Tunisia.
Abstract Published data on the outcome of maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) since the initiation of PD in Tunisia is poor. The purpose of this study is to report long-term clinical outcomes of PD patients through a 10-year experience at a single unit. This is a retrospective review of the medical records of 182 PD patients who were followed up from January 2006 to June 2016. All patients were followed till death, renal transplant, switch over to hemodialysis (HD) or the end of the study in June 2016. The mean age of the incident patients was 43.93 ± 16.95 years. Nineteen (10.4%) were aged>65 years and...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lasfar LB, Guedri Y, Zellama D, El Meknassi I, Azzebi A, Mrabet S, Fradi A, Toumi S, Sabri F, Amor SB, Sahtout W, Achour A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: An experience of a tertiary care center in Nepal.
In this study, 80.4% had some clinical symptomatology. Of the clinical manifestations, 41.3% had polyarthritis, edema (20.7%), and malar rash (17.4%). Anti-nuclear antibody was positive in 80.4% and ds DNA in 70.7%. Renal biopsy showed more number of patients 27 (35%) had Stage IV LN, followed by Stage I, 19 (24%), and Stage II, 16 (20%) LN. Median urinary protein in Class I was 1.05 g, Class II (0.63 g), Class III (1.5 g), Class IV (2.44 g), Class V (3.99 g), and Class VI (4.7 g). Only Stage IV had Kappa of 0.269 {P = 0.003) showing agreement between proteinuria and histological staging which was statistically significant (P
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bartaula B, Subedi M, Dhakal S, Mudbhari B, Tripathi PM, Sharma SK Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Clinical profile of tuberculosis in patients with chronic kidney disease: A report from an endemic Country.
The objective is to study the clinical profile of tuberculosis (TB) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is retrospective study of CKD patients who were diagnosed to have TB over a period of seven years at a tertiary care hospital. TB was diagnosed in 115 patients with an incidence of 4200/100,000. Mean age of the patients was 46.9 ± 16 years. Sixty-two patients (53.9%) were male. Causes of CKD were diabetic nephropathy and hypertension in 11.3% each, chronic glomerulonephritis in 31.3%, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis in 39.1%, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and post-renal transplant CKD in 3.5...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vikrant S Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Epidemiologic data of biopsy-proven renal diseases: Experience from a single center in South India.
Abstract An analysis of the renal biopsy data is important to understand the regional prevalence of various biopsy-proven renal diseases (BPRDs). We analyzed our renal biopsy registry over a period of 15 years. We retrospectively reviewed all the renal biopsies performed at Arun Kidney Centre, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, from January 2004 to March 2018. All biopsies were analyzed using immunofluorescence and light microscopy. A total of 924 renal biopsies were considered for the analysis. The mean age of the patients was 32 ± 14.77 years, with a male:female ratio of 1.5:1. Nephrotic syndrome (46.1%) was the...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bandi VK, Nalamati A, Kasinaboina B, Chundru SS Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

The spectrum of renal diseases observed in native renal biopsies in a single North Indian tertiary care center.
Abstract We analyzed the spectrum of biopsy-proven renal disease in a single tertiary care center in North India from 2007 to 2016. A total of 420 biopsies were analyzed. Patients were excluded if clinical details were unavailable or if either the histopathology core or the IF core was inadequate. In the final analysis, 359 biopsies were included. All clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and immunofluorescence (IF) findings were recorded in each case. The usefulness of IF in reaching a definitive diagnosis was also analyzed. The patients were in the age range of 2-94 years; 23.1% were children and 76.9% were a...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sarwal D, D'Cruz S, Singh Punia RP, Minz RW Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Clinical and histopathological profile of lupus nephritis and response to treatment with cyclophosphamide: A single center study.
The objective of this study is to study the clinical and histopathological profile of LN and the response to treatment with cyclophosphamide. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care center in Assam, India, where 176 LN patients who underwent renal biopsy were included. The presenting features, laboratory parameters such as proteinuria, hematuria, and the histopathological class of the patients were studied. Among the 176 patients, 89.8% were female and 10.2% were male and maximum patients (61.3%) were in the age group of 20-40 years. Pedal edema was present in 100% of the patients, decreased urine outpu...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sharma M, Das HJ, Doley PK, Mahanta PJ Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Etiology and frequency of hospital admissions in maintenance hemodialysis patients in chronic kidney disease.
Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease are a global health problem worldwide. In developing countries, it is a particular challenge to deliver optimal hemodialysis (HD) due to prevailing socioeconomic conditions. This has multiple downstream effects, including frequent hospitalizations and increased morbidity. We conducted this retrospective study to identify the etiology of hospital admission in HD patients and to detect the duration and costs associated with their hospitalizations. A total of 42 maintenance HD patients were hospitalized during this time frame and their hospitalizations...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nath JD, Kashem A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Thiocolchicoside associated with epileptic seizures in a chronic hemodialysis patient.
Abstract Thiocolchicoside (TCC) is a widely used centrally acting muscle relaxant. Epileptic seizures from the use of TCC are rarely reported. A 67-year-old male patient with endstage renal disease that was caused by hypertension was on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) for 22 months. He had taken TCC 8 mg capsules twice daily for four days due to painful myofascial spasm in neck and face muscles. At the end of the HD session, he had generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Epileptic seizures were brought under control with sodium valproate, and no recurrence of epileptic seizures was observed. PMID: 31031388 [PubMed -...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yilmaz F, Yılmaz SG, Keleş M Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Ciclosporin-induced accessory breast tissue: Dramatic improvement after dose adjustment.
Abstract Accessory breast tissue is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen as a mass anywhere along the course of embryologic mammary streak in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. Ciclosporin therapy has been associated with benign breast disease in women. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of accessory breast tissue growth associated with ciclosporin therapy and regression after adjusting the dose. A 48-year-old woman had renal transplantation in 2009 with her brother as the donor. Her transplant follow-up over eight...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mahmoud Karrar WN, Elsafi AA, Abboud OI Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis in a patient with retroviral infection.
Abstract A 38-year-old woman, diagnosed as Person Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for three years, presented with features of fever, rashes, joint pain, dyspnea and pedal edema. On evaluation, a diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Lupus Nephritis (LN) triggered by HIV infection was made based on clinical and serological evidence. She was continued on HAART, and immuno-suppressive therapy was co-administered resulting in the resolution of her symptoms. Lupus-like histopathological findings have been reported in patients with HIV-related kidne...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raj TY, Sujith S, Srinivasaprasad ND, Valavan KT, Hema M, Kurien AA, Fernando E Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a renal transplant patient.
Abstract Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease that affects immunocompromised hosts. Most often the disease is reported in association with leukemia, lymphoma, and AIDS. With recent advancements in immunosuppressive medications and subsequent rise in solid organ transplantations, it is becoming more prevalent in this population. Both the diagnosis and treatment of PML remains a challenge to the transplant community. The disease remains mostly underreported and undertreated. The diagnostic uncertainty in a renal transplant patient leads us to do the brain biopsy for suspic...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Guru PK, Vissing MB, Agarwal A, Krishna M Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Primary membranous nephropathy with concomitant IgA nephropathy.
We present a rare case of concomitant IgA and primary MN in a single patient treated successfully with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, corticosteroids, and calcineurin inhibitors. The peak proteinuria was near 7.5-8 g protein/g creatinine by various measures. Serum creatinine remained normal, and anti-PLA2R was detectable and decreased with successful treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of two glomerular disorders in patients with glomerulonephritis and atypical presentations for any single disorder. PMID: 31031392 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Khorsan R, Hanna RM, Ameen K, Arman F, Nobakht N, Hasnain H, Hyunh A, Rastogi A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Kaposi sarcoma development following microscopic polyangiitis treatment.
We present a case in which the subject developed KS following a course of immunosuppressive therapy for their systemic vasculitides. PMID: 31031393 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Biricik M, Eren M, Bostan F, Yılmaz Ü, İnci A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Complement factor H gene polymorphisms and vivax malaria associated thrombotic microangiopathy.
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in about 1% of cases of malaria; however, in these cases, the mortality rate can be as high as 45%. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) as a cause of AKI in malaria is rare with only a handful cases documented in literature so far. Alternate complement pathway (ACP) dysregulation as a major mechanism of injury in the development of thrombotic microangiopathies is well known. It is proposed that patients with preexisting defects in ACP are usually clinically silent, until stress condition such as infections help manifest them. Herein, we describe the presence of two complement...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Agrawal P, Kumar A, Parwaiz A, Rawat A, Tiewsoh K, Nada R Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Regression of renal angiomyolipomas with oral rapamycin therapy in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex disease.
We present a case of a 32-year-old female who had been diagnosed tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) two years ago. In view of serious hemorrhagic complication risk of the selective embolization, we commenced her on oral rapamycin therapy for regression of angiomyolipomas (AMLs). On the 1st year of rapamycin treatment, bilateral renal AMLs were regressed and bilateral selective embolization of the AML was performed after the 1st year of treatment. Rapamycin therapy may regress renal lesions in TSC disease. Therefore, it may increase surgical intervention. PMID: 31031395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kid...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Torun D, Micozkadioglu H, Gedikoglu M, Ozelsancak R, Tekkarismaz N Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

A rare case of pancake kidney with glomerulonephritis.
We report a case of pancake kidney which was detected incidentally while treating a patient with renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. PMID: 31031396 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mamidi V, Elayaperumal I, Chakola JJ, Venkata Sai PM, Matcha J Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Star fruit-induced renal failure: Summarization of cases from Thailand.
PMID: 31031397 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joob B, Wiwanitkit V Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Daily pill burden and pill burden from phosphate binders in Japanese dialysis patients: Single center study.
PMID: 31031398 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Imai N, Osako K, Kaneshiro N, Shibagaki Y Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Microalbuminuria in dengue: Rate of occurrence and when it will be resolved?
PMID: 31031399 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Serosurveillance and prompt treatment of toxoplasmosis among renal recipients is needed: A path probability analysis.
PMID: 31031400 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - March 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joob B, Wiwanitkit V Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Spectrum of glomerular diseases in Arab countries: A systematic review.
In conclusion, FSGS and LN are the most common types of primary and secondary glomerular diseases, respectively, in all evaluated Arab countries. The trend of all types of glomerular diseases has not changed in the last three decades. We strongly recommend that each Arab country should have its own renal biopsy registry. PMID: 30588955 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation)
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alwahaibi NY, Al Issaei HK, Al Dhahli BS Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Comparative analysis for optimizing the modified release tacrolimus (Advagraf) after kidney transplantation: A prospective randomized trial.
Abstract Immunosuppression management in clinical transplantation aims to balance delivery of efficacy against adverse reactions using therapeutic drug monitoring. Adherence to posttransplant immunosuppressive medications and minimizing variability in drug exposure are important considerations in preventing rejection and maximizing overall transplant outcomes. The availability of once-daily tacrolimus may add a potential benefit by simplifying immunosuppressive regimens, though improving compliance among transplant recipients. The aim of our study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of the once-daily formula...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bakr MA, Nagib AM, Donia AF, Denewar AA, Abu-Elmagd MM, Abbas MH, Abdel-Rahman AM, Mashaly ME, Elsaftawy MM, Ghoneim MA Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Effect of thyroid function status in hemodialysis patients on erythropoietin resistance and interdialytic weight gain.
Abstract Thyroid function abnormalities are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Here, we investigated their frequency and impact on intradialytic hemodynamics and erythropoietin resistance index (ERI). Demographic and laboratory data including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), interdialytic weight gain, and intradialytic blood pressure (BP) changes were measured, and ERI was calculated. The prevalence and causes of abnormities in TSH and free thyroxine (FT4) and their effects on ERI and intradialytic hemodynamics were then assessed. One hundred and thirty patients (mean age, 57.1 ± 19.2 years; 66.4% diab...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bin Saleh FS, Naji MN, Eltayeb AA, Hejaili FF, Al Sayyari AA Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Assessment of left ventricular mass changes after arteriovenous fistula surgical banding in end-stage renal disease.
In this study, we describe a cohort of asymptomatic patients with LVH who underwent AVF banding with a two-dimensional-echocardiogram done before and after the intervention to evaluate the association between AVF surgical banding and left ventricular mass (LVM) changes. Our results show that AVF surgical banding did not alter the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) with a mean prebanding LVMI of 70.3 ± 57.5 g/m2 and mean postbanding LVMI of 81.9 ± 55.9 g/m2, (P = 0.4). Our study shows that AVF flow reduction by surgical banding did not alter LVMI, and therefore LVH, in end-stage renal disease patients who have...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Cortesi C, Duque JC, Mai S, Martinez L, Dejman A, Vazquez-Padron R, Salman L, Tabbara M Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Clinical and laboratory findings of patients with diabetes undergoing kidney biopsy.
This study represents the findings of the whole country for more than 10 years. It showed that only a small percentage of patients with DM undergo kidney biopsy. These patients have many clinical and laboratory abnormalities including those of specific immuno-logical investigations. Progression of DM nephropathy seems to be further aggravated by many coexisting risk factors of dyslipidemia and/or obesity. The prevalence of non-DKD is remarkably frequent in diabetics in whom nephrologists should consider kidney biopsy as an appropriate measure to enable better management. PMID: 30588959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: S...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mohammed E, Atris A, Al Salmi I, Al-Menawi L, Shaheen F, Hannawi S Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

A single-center 4-year experience with 47 pediatric renal transplants: Evolving trends.
Abstract Outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) has improved over the last several decades. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes pediatric KT in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Between May 2013 and November 2016, we performed renal transplantation in 47 children, 30 (64%) males, and 17 (36%) females. All patients received antibody induction with basiliximab or antithymocyte globulin along with triple immunosuppressive therapy with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Twenty-four (51%) and 14 (30%) patients were on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialys...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: El Hennawy HM, Al Hashemy A, Al Harbi N, Habhab WT, Fahmy AE Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Impact of Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia on survival in patients with hepatorenal failure.
Abstract Enterobacteriaceae are now the predominant pathogens isolated in patients with liver cell failure associated with bloodstream infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who were admitted for the diagnosis of hepatorenal failure (HRF) between June 1999 and May 2008 to investigate the risk factors of Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia (EB). EB was defined as the isolation of an EB species from at least one blood culture within three months following diagnosis of HRF. Variables were collected from the medical records and analyzed in relation to EB. Twenty-four (32.5%) of the 73 patients dev...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Soliman AR, Ahmed RM, Abdalla A, Soliman M, Saeed M Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Posttransplant diabetes mellitus among live-related kidney transplant recipients: Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation experience.
Abstract This cross-sectional study conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) among live-related kidney transplant recipients and their short-term prognosis and included renal transplant recipients (nondiabetic before transplant) of either gender, aged 18-60 years with transplant duration two to six months. Patients with two reading of fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL were labeled as diabetic. A total of 191 patients (154 males and 37 females) with the age between 18 to 60 years (31...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mohammad KG, Idrees MK, Ali T, Akhtar F Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Assessment of knowledge and attitude toward organ donation among the Saudi population in Riyadh City.
Abstract We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of the Saudi population and students of health science colleges as well as healthcare workers in Riyadh city about organ donation (OD). Data of this study were collected from 648 Saudi residents of Riyadh city using interviewer-administered questionnaires and online surveys. The participants included 503 from the general population and 145 health science professionals. The subjects included 252 males and 396 females with mean age of 27.09 ± 9 years. Majority of the participants (60%) were aware of OD from media as the main source of information, while o...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alsharidah DS, Al-Dossari FS, AlMahmoud N, Alanzan BA, Binkhulaif RJ, Bakhsh EM, Alkhalaf AA, Bin Huzim BA, Sarhan NT, Sulayem LM, ElFeky DS, Syed S Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Impact of correction of anemia in end-stage renal disease patients on cerebral circulation and cognitive functions.
Abstract End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been associated with accelerated vascular disease of the cerebral circulation due to uremic toxins. Furthermore, anemia increases cerebral oxygen extraction fraction which impairs the cerebral vasodilatory capacity. We evaluated the effect of correction of anemia on cerebral blood flow by measuring the mean blood flow velocity, resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in relation to cognitive functions. We measured the mean blood flow velocity, RI, and PI in MCA of 120 ESRD patients when the hemoglobin (Hb) ranges be...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shaker AM, Mohamed OM, Mohamed MF, El-Khashaba SO Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Effectiveness of prehemodialysis preparatory program on improving coping among chronic kidney disease patients.
Abstract Diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and initiation of dialysis treatment is reported to be stressful for patients. It is essential that patients use effective coping strategies to deal with these stressors, since ineffective coping could have several adverse effects on various treatment-related as well as personal aspects of life, thereby lowering the quality of life in these patients. The study used a quasi-experimental design. The study population comprised 100 adult patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 CKD whose glomerular filtration rate was deteriorating and required to undergo hemodialysis (HD) t...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jadhav ST, Lee P, D'souza CV Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research

Arteriovenous fistula outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.
Abstract Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) remodeling is an active area of research in vascular biology given the high rates of primary failure, complications, and cost burden for the health-care system. Comorbidities such as diabetes and different types of vascular disease are known to influence AVFs outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of immunosuppression, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, on AVF primary failure and patency. This retrospective study assessed the impact of HIV infection and T-cell counts on AVF outcomes. Using a retrospective cohort of 495 patients, we compared...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Duque JC, Martinez L, Tabbara M, Salman LH, Vazquez-Padron RI, Dejman A Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research