The Effects of Aging on Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) in a North African Population
ConclusionThe development and aging of the lung touched non-respiratory functions and so modified FeNO values in healthy North African subjects. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - January 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Concentration of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-D) and Its Correlation with Functional and Clinical Parameters in Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis from a Brazilian Reference Center
AbstractIntroductionSerum vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) is a lymphangiogenic growth factor that is considered a valuable tool in the diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Previous studies have reported a wide variability in VEGF-D serum levels in LAM patients and it seems to be associated with pulmonary impairment and lymphatic involvement.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study from 2009 to 2017 that evaluated VEGF-D serum levels in a cohort of LAM patients who were never treated with mTOR inhibitors and compared them to healthy age-matched volunteers. Clinical and functional parameters were ass...
Source: Lung - January 8, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Predictors of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
AbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease which impacts quality of life, mood, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for patients with moderate to severe OSA. CPAP ameliorates respiratory disturbances, leading to improvements in daytime sleepiness, quality of life, blood pressure, and cognition. However, despite the high efficacy of this device, CPAP adherence is often sub-optimal. Factors including: socio-demographic/economic characteristics, disease severity, psychological factors, and side-effects are thought to affect CPAP adheren...
Source: Lung - January 7, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nanogold Assay Improves Accuracy of Conventional TB Diagnostics
ConclusionsOur study shows that TB nanogold assay is accurate, rapid, and holds the potential for use as an add-on initial test to improve accuracy of SSM and CXR in detecting patients of active pulmonary TB in developing countries. Future studies should involve larger sample size for further assessment of test accuracy. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - January 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurements and Screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Sleep-Laboratory Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study
ConclusionsIn a sleep-lab setting, our findings suggest that FeNO measurements are inconsequential in the screening of OSA in adults. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - January 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

8-Foot-Up-and-Go Test is Associated with Hospitalizations and Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Prospective Pilot Study
AbstractPurposeTo assess the prognostic value of the 8-foot-up-and-go test (8-FUGT) in pilot cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).MethodsThirty-four patients with IPF (68  ± 8 years) underwent 8-FUGT at baseline and were followed for up to 40 months. Receiver operating characteristics and age-adjusted Cox hazard ratios (HR) were analyzed for 8-FUGT, hospitalizations, and mortality. Correlation coefficients were determined between 8-FUGT and other exercise test s.Results8-FUGT  ≥ 6.9 s was found to be associated with hospitalization (sensitivity&thi...
Source: Lung - January 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of Antigen Type in Survival in Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - December 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cytotoxic Natural Killer Subpopulations as a Prognostic Factor of Malignant Pleural Effusion
ConclusionsOur data suggest that both the PF/PB ratios of cytotoxic subpopulations CD57+ NK and CD16+ NK are useful as a prognostic factor of MPE. Other subpopulations (CD56 bright CD16 − and CD56 dim CD16− NK) could help to diagnose MPE. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - December 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Iftikhar and Colleagues Reply: Methodology Clarified
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - December 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sigh Syndrome in Pediatric Asthma
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - December 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pleural Effusions in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Clinical and Prognostic Significance
ConclusionsPEs are common in DLBCL and foreshadow a poor prognosis. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - November 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of High Glucose on Human Alveolar Macrophage Phenotype and Phagocytosis of Mycobacteria
ConclusionAlteration in the expression of certain receptors may contribute to defective sentinel function of AMs, promoting susceptibility to TB in a diabetic host. Variability in cell surface marker expression under direct glucose exposure compared to exposure via co-culture reveals that cell signaling between endothelial cells and AMs may play a crucial role in the phenotypic expression of AMs. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - November 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Significant Delay in the Detection of Desaturation between Finger Transmittance and Earlobe Reflectance Oximetry Probes during Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy: Analysis of 104 Cases
AbstractPurposeThere is clinical significance to a delay in response time for detecting desaturation by pulse oximetry. Our aim in this study was to compare the response time of the reflectance and transmittance saturation probes during fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) under monitored anesthesia care.MethodsA prospective study included 104 patients scheduled for FOB. Patients were monitored with transmittance (finger) and reflectance (ear) oximetry probes. The response time was evaluated during desaturation and resaturation. We also acquired blood tests for arterial oxygen saturation to assess the agreement with the oximetry ...
Source: Lung - November 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori Infection Does Not Impact on Lung Transplant Outcome
AbstractBackgroundHelicobacter pylori (HP) is a spiral, gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonises the human gastric mucosa and is associated with gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal disorders. Since no data are yet available on HP infection in lung transplant patients, we evaluated the prevalence and impact of HP infection in a population of such patients.MethodsSixty-seven lung transplant patients were enrolled in the study (35 females and 32 males, age 48.4  ± 13.3 years), 54 underwent bilateral and 13 single lung transplant. Serum antibodies against HP and CagA were assayed...
Source: Lung - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Effect of Using Different Types of Forceps in the Efficacy of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy
ConclusionsThe results of the study showed that using cupped forceps in performing TBBX had fewer complications (pneumothorax and bleeding) and a higher diagnostic yield in comparison with alligator forceps, but the difference did not reach a statistical significant value. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prognostic Factors in Adult Patients with Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis
ConclusionsOlder age, lower FEV1 % of predicted, and lower MEP were independently linked to unfavorable outcomes. FACED and BSI were not accurate in predicting mortality in our cohort. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - November 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Identification of Phenotypes in People with COPD: Influence of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, Body Composition and Skeletal Muscle Strength
AbstractIntroductionPeople with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present high prevalence of physical inactivity that leads to a negative effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study investigated COPD phenotypes according to their levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as body composition and skeletal muscle strength.MethodsThis is an observational and cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and COPD clinical control were collected and all participants underwent assessments of lung function, HRQoL, dyspnoea, levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, body...
Source: Lung - November 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acknowledgment of Reviewers 2016 and 2017
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - November 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Static and Dynamic Lung Volumes in Swimmers and Their Ventilatory Response to Maximal Exercise
ConclusionsThe swimmers utilised their larger static volumes (FVC) differently during exercise by meeting their ventilation volume through long and deep breaths. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - November 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

High Serum Fractalkine/CX3CL1 in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Relationship with Emphysema Severity and Frequent Exacerbation
ConclusionOur results suggest that the serum level of CX3CL1 is related to the MSCT emphysema index. Chemokine CX3CL1 might be a useful predictor for identifying frequent exacerbation and emphysema severity in patients with COPD. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Difference Between Slow and Forced Vital Capacity and Its Relationship with Dynamic Hyperinflation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
AbstractThe aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between slow and forced vital capacity (SVC –FVC) difference with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) during the 6-min walking test (6MWT) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-four subjects with COPD (12 males; 67 ± 6 years; forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1] 56  ± 18% predicted) performed lung function tests by spirometry and plethysmography. DH was assessed by serial measurements of inspiratory capacity (IC) performed during the 6MWT and defined as ∆IC &...
Source: Lung - October 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Thoracic Air-Leak Syndrome Complicating Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation
We report a case of thoracic air-leak syndrome, an extremely rare complication developed after an episode of organizing pneumonia due to graft-vs-host disease in a 19-year-old male. This unusual non-infectious pulmonary complication occurred 527  days after allogeneic HSCT and led to the patient’s death within 1 month due to cardio-respiratory failure. Herein, we highlight chest-imaging aspects which are typical. Early detection by high-resolution chest CT could improve patient management. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough Effectiveness and Pulmonary Hygiene Practices in Patients with Pompe Disease
AbstractPurposeWhile factors leading to hypoventilation have been well studied in Pompe disease, cough effectiveness and airway clearance practices are less understood. We aimed to identify significant factors that influence peak cough flow (PCF) in Pompe, and to detect whether pulmonary hygiene practices were reflective of reduced PCF.MethodsThis is a prospective observational study of 20 subjects with Pompe disease (infantile-onset: 7, juvenile-onset: 6, adult-onset: 14). Subjects performed spirometry, maximal respiratory pressures, and cough (voluntary:n = 24, spontaneous:n = 3). Subjects or ...
Source: Lung - October 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Characterization and Triggers of Dyspnea in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Chronic Heart Failure: Effects of Weather and Environment
This study investigated dyspnea triggers and factors associated with worsening dyspnea in patients with COPD or HF.MethodsCOPD support group members and HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and no airway obstruction answered a questionnaire describing different weather conditions (rising/falling air pressure, sunny, foggy, rainy, windy, snowy, hazy, high ozone levels, and airborne pollen) and environmental circumstances (cooking, grilling, perfumes, cigarette smoke, gasoline odor, and flower scents) and were asked to estimate the occurrence and severity of dyspnea under these conditions using predefined scale...
Source: Lung - October 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Diagnostic Yield, Safety, and Impact of Flexible Bronchoscopy in Non-HIV Immunocompromised Critically Ill Patients in the Intensive Care Unit
ConclusionFB can be safely performed in immunocompromised critically ill patients in the ICU. The yield can be improved when FB is done prior to initiation of empiric antimicrobials, within 24  h of admission to the ICU, and in patients with focal disease. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in Imaging and Automated Quantification of Malignant Pulmonary Diseases: A State-of-the-Art Review
AbstractQuantitative imaging in lung cancer is a rapidly evolving modality in radiology that is changing clinical practice from a qualitative analysis of imaging features to a more dynamic, spatial, and phenotypical characterization of suspected lesions. Some quantitative parameters, such as the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT-derived standard uptake values (SUV), have already been incorporated into current practice as it provides important information for diagnosis, staging, and treatment response of patients with lung cancer. A growing body of evidence is emerging to support the use of quantitative parameters from other modalities...
Source: Lung - October 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Objective and Subjective Sleep Efficiency in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Impact on Quality of Life
The objective of our study was to evaluate subjective and objective sleep quality in adult CF patients and its effect on HRQoL.Materials and methodsThis was a descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study of CF patients  >  18 years of age. Patients underwent nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) and were administered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI) and the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (CFQR 14 + Spain).ResultsThe study included 23 patients, 14 women (61%). The mean age of the participants was 32  + 18 years. The mean PSQI score was...
Source: Lung - October 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Endothelial Function in COPD Is in an Intermediate Position Between Healthy Subjects and Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Is Related to Physical Activity
AbstractPatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the onset of cardiovascular event. Previous studies showed an impaired endothelial function (measured by flow-mediated dilation, FMD) in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. To the best of our knowledge no study has compared FMD in COPD and in cardiac (coronary artery disease, CAD) patients. We aimed to assess FMD in healthy subjects, COPD, CAD, and COPD  + CAD. The main result is that FMD in COPD is reduced and is in an intermediate position be...
Source: Lung - October 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Objective and Subjective Sleep Efficiency in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Impact on Quality of Life
The objective of our study was to evaluate subjective and objective sleep quality in adult CF patients and its effect on HRQoL.Materials and methodsThis was a descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study of CF patients  >  18 years of age. Patients underwent nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) and were administered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI) and the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (CFQR 14 + Spain).ResultsThe study included 23 patients, 14 women (61%). The mean age of the participants was 32  + 18 years. The mean PSQI score was...
Source: Lung - October 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Endothelial Function in COPD Is in an Intermediate Position Between Healthy Subjects and Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Is Related to Physical Activity
AbstractPatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the onset of cardiovascular event. Previous studies showed an impaired endothelial function (measured by flow-mediated dilation, FMD) in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. To the best of our knowledge no study has compared FMD in COPD and in cardiac (coronary artery disease, CAD) patients. We aimed to assess FMD in healthy subjects, COPD, CAD, and COPD  + CAD. The main result is that FMD in COPD is reduced and is in an intermediate position be...
Source: Lung - October 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Increased Sputum IL-17A Level in Non-asthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis
AbstractBackgroundNon-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is one common cause of chronic cough which is characterized as airway eosinophilic inflammation like asthma but lack of airway hyper-responsiveness. Previous studies showed that Th2-pathway plays a role in NAEB, but the role of non-Th2 pathway in mechanism of NAEB remains unknown. Recently, IL-17A, a Th17-pathway cytokine, has been demonstrated to be involved in asthma development. However, the relationship between Th17-pathway and NAEB is unknown.MethodsWe aim to assess the airway level of IL-17A in the subjects with NAEB. Relationships between the IL-17A leve...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases: A Comprehensive Review
AbstractChronic airway inflammatory diseases remain a major problem worldwide, such that there is a need for additional therapeutic targets and novel drugs. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a group of non-selective cation channels expressed throughout the body that are regulated by various stimuli. TRP channels have been identified in numerous cell types in the respiratory tract, including sensory neurons, airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. Different types of TRP channels induce cough in sensory neurons via the vagus nerve. Permeability and cytokine production are also regu...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy of Anti IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 Drugs for Treatment of Eosinophilic Asthma: A Network Meta-analysis
ConclusionsAll drugs except for tralokinumab showed improvements in FEV1, ACQ, and AQLQ. Only reslizumab and dupilumab were associated with statistically significant reductions in asthma exacerbation rates. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Interpretation of HRCT Scans in the Diagnosis of IPF: Improving Communication Between Pulmonologists and Radiologists
AbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD). In this review, we describe the central role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of IPF and discuss how communication between pulmonologists and radiologists might be improved to make the interpretation of HRCT scans more effective. Clinical information is important in the interpretation of HRCT scans, as the likelihood that specific radiologic features reflect IPF is not absolute, but dependent on the clinical context. In cases where the clinical context or HRCT pattern are inconclusive, multi...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prediction of Post-operative Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Lung Cancer: Methodological Issues
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Strategies for the Integration of Cough and Swallow to Maintain Airway Protection in Humans
ConclusionThese results give insight into the differences between the cat and human models in airway protective strategies related to the coordination of cough and swallow behaviors, allowing for better understanding of dystussia and dysphagia. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Increased Sputum IL-17A Level in Non-asthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis
AbstractBackgroundNon-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is one common cause of chronic cough which is characterized as airway eosinophilic inflammation like asthma but lack of airway hyper-responsiveness. Previous studies showed that Th2-pathway plays a role in NAEB, but the role of non-Th2 pathway in mechanism of NAEB remains unknown. Recently, IL-17A, a Th17-pathway cytokine, has been demonstrated to be involved in asthma development. However, the relationship between Th17-pathway and NAEB is unknown.MethodsWe aim to assess the airway level of IL-17A in the subjects with NAEB. Relationships between the IL-17A leve...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism and Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Secondary to Aspergillus , in a Compost Plant Worker: Case Report and Review of Literature
We present a case of a 52-year-old man with recurrent venous thromboembolism with HP secondary to bioaerosol exposure in a compost plant. Biochemical evaluation found no evidence of underlying hypercoagulable state, with only remarkable findings of elevated levels of total serum immunoglobulin E and raisedAspergillus sp. IgG antibodies. The patient decided to change his working environment to one without exposure to compost or other fungal elements. His symptoms and pulmonary function tests gradually improved without any subsequent intervention. The patient chose against the advice of his care providers to discontinue warf...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Esophageal Lung in Association with Pulmonary Vascular Anomalies
We present a 7.8-month-old girl with recurrent pneumonia, growth retardation, and tachypnea. Computed tomography revealed a particularly unusual esophageal lung, in association with pulmonary vascular anomalies of right pulmonary veins atresia and right pulmonary artery hypoplasia. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Management of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Review and a Single Center Experience
ConclusionsDIPNECH is a rare pathology that can profoundly affect a patient ’s quality of life. Paroxysmal coughing episodes can be difficult to treat. Our limited single center experience shows encouraging response to use of somatostatin analogs, azithromycin, and everolimus in the management of debilitating DIPNECH associated symptoms. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Needs, Perceptions and Education in Sarcoidosis: A Live Interactive Survey of Patients and Partners
This study improves awareness of needs and perceptions of patients with sarcoidosis and their partners. Sarcoidosis leads to anxiety and psychological distress and impairs well-being of patients and their partners. Attention for psychological support, better disease education, and more supportive care for partners is warranted. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

N-Terminal Prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) as a Diagnostic Biomarker of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD)
ConclusionAt the cut-off value of 1505  pg/mL NT-proBNP could be used as a diagnostic marker for LVSD in acute exacerbation of COPD. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Changes in the Burden of Comorbidities in Patients with COPD and Asthma –COPD Overlap According to the GOLD 2017 Recommendations
AbstractPurposeComorbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect quality of life and increase mortality. Asthma –COPD overlap (ACO) may express a different profile of comorbidities compared to COPD alone. It is unclear how recent changes in GOLD recommendations affect the profile of comorbidities in COPD and ACO.MethodsEight hundred and thirty-four patients with COPD were recruited from 67 Hungarian secondary care outpatient clinics, 469 of them had ACO. Comorbidities were defined by respiratory specialists based on medical history, patient report, and medications. COPD grades were def...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Dasatinib Suppresses TGF β-Mediated Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Inhibits Pulmonary Fibrosis
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that DAS inhibited TGF β-mediated EMT of alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells and attenuated BLM-induced lung fibrosis in mice by suppressing the TGFβ/Smad pathway. DAS may be a promising and novel anti-fibrotic agent for preventing lung fibrosis. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Risk Stratification in Patients with Complicated Parapneumonic Effusions and Empyema Using the RAPID Score
ConclusionOur findings suggest that the RAPID score is a robust tool which could be used to identify patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema who may be at an increased risk of mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and who may incur a higher cost of treatment. Randomized controlled trials identifying the most effective initial treatment modality for medium- and high-risk patients are needed. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inflammatory and Fibrinolytic System in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
AbstractAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most advanced form of acute lung injury (ALI). This is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe hypoxemia. According to Berlin definition of ARDS, this is defined based on the timings, radiographic changes, edema formation, and severity on the PaO2/FiO2 ratio. During ARDS, the loss of integrity of the epithelium causes the septic shock. The degree of epithelial injury is the major prognostic marker of ARDS. In addition to this, inflammatory cell migration, fibro-proliferation, and activation of apoptosis also play an important role in the pathophy...
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Utility of Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Transbronchial Biopsy in Patients with Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
ConclusionsOur study suggests that the combination of TBBX with BAL significantly increases the likelihood that the procedure will provide adequate additional information to allow a confident MDD diagnosis of HP and may reduce the need for SLB in the diagnostic workup of HP. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ventilator Weaning: How Far from the Final Quantum Leap?
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ventilator Weaning and Excursion Time Index: One Step Closer to the Quantum Leap?
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ischiocrural Strength May Be a Better Prognostic Marker Than Quadriceps Strength in COPD
We present the results of a retrospective study with longitudinal follow-up of 60 patients with severe COPD followed for 7  years. During follow-up 22 patients died, mainly of respiratory cause. We have observed that the strength of knee flexor muscles (ischiocrural) and dominant handgrip were independent predictors of mortality in severe COPD patients. However, knee extensor strength (quadriceps) was not an independen t predictor of mortality. This is the first study which highlights the importance of knee flexor musculature as a prognostic factor in COPD. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - September 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research