Patient Safety in Medical Imaging: a joint paper of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS)
AbstractThe fundamental professional roles of radiographers and radiologists are focused on providing benefit to patients with our skills, while maintaining their safety at all times. There are numerous patient safety issues in radiology which must be considered. These encompass: protection from direct harm arising from the techniques and technologies we use; ensuring physical and psychological well-being of patients while under our care; maintaining the highest possible quality of service provision; and protecting the staff to ensure they can deliver safe services. This paper summarises the key categories of safety issues...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

What the radiologist should know about artificial intelligence – an ESR white paper
AbstractThis paper aims to provide a review of the basis for application of AI in radiology, to discuss the immediate ethical and professional impact in radiology, and to consider possible future evolution.Even if AI does add significant value to image interpretation, there are implications outside the traditional radiology activities of lesion detection and characterisation. In radiomics, AI can foster the analysis of the features and help in the correlation with other omics data. Imaging biobanks would become a necessary infrastructure to organise and share the image data from which AI models can be trained. AI can be us...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The elbow: review of anatomy and common collateral ligament complex pathology using MRI
This article reviews the MR imaging protocols recommended for each diagnosis and the normal anatomy and biomechanical aspects of the medial and lateral collateral ligament complex. We also present multiple cases of typical and atypical patterns of injury. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A closer look at the stoma: multimodal imaging of patients with ileostomies and colostomies
AbstractNowadays, large numbers of ileostomies and colostomies are created during surgical management of a variety of intestinal disorders. Depending on indication, surgical technique and emergency versus elective conditions, stomas may be either temporary or permanent. As a result, patients with ileostomies and colostomies are commonly encountered in Radiology departments, particularly during perioperative hospitalisation following stoma creation or before recanalisation, and when needing CT or MRI studies for follow-up of operated tumours or chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the stoma site is commonly overloo...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The imaging appearances of various pericardial disorders
AbstractThe pericardium could be involved in a variety of clinical disorders. The imaging findings are not specific for an individual pathology in most of the cases; however, patient ’s clinical history may guide radiologist to a definitive diagnosis. Congenital absence of the pericardium could be recognized with the imaging appearance of interposed lung tissue between the main pulmonary artery and aorta. Pericardial effusion is a non-specific condition that may occur due to i nflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic disorders. Cardiac tamponade may occur in case of massive or rapid accumulation of fluid in the perica...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The skin dose of pelvic radiographs since 1896
ConclusionsAntiquated exposure data were successfully used for dose reconstruction. Extreme dose variability was a constant. Efforts to cut down doses were effective as skin doses went down from sub-erythema values to about one milligray. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mind the gap: imaging spectrum of abdominal ventral hernia repair complications
This article describes the role of imaging in diagnosis of complications in general ventral hernia surgery setting. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

All about portal vein: a pictorial display to anatomy, variants and physiopathology
AbstractThe portal vein (PV) is the main vessel of the portal venous system (PVS), which drains the blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen to the liver. There are several variants affecting the PV, and quite a number of congenital and acquired pathologies.In this pictorial review, we assess the embryological development and normal anatomy of the PVS, displaying selected cases consisting of normal variants, congenital anomalies, and a large and heterogeneous group of acquired conditions that may affect the PV. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging in the diagnosis of ulnar nerve pathologies —a neoteric approach
AbstractThe ulnar nerve is a branch of the C8 and T1 nerve roots and arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. It supplies the intrinsic muscles of the hand and assists the median nerve in functioning of the flexors. Also known as the musician ’s nerve, it is the second most common nerve involved in compressive neuropathy following the median nerve. Common sites of entrapment include cubital tunnel at the elbow, the ulnar groove in the humerus and the Guyon’s canal at the wrist. Patients present with altered sensation in the ulnar fou rth and the fifth digit and the medial side of arm with loss of fun...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perinatal post mortem ultrasound (PMUS): a practical approach
This article will focus on the role of perinatal postmortem ultrasound as an alternative imaging method for non-invasive autopsy, with emphasis on imaging technique, practical considerations and commonly encountered case examples. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pre-operative apparent diffusion coefficient values and tumour region volumes as prognostic biomarkers in glioblastoma: correlation and progression-free survival analyses
AbstractObjectivesGlioblastoma (GB) contains diverse histologic regions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are surrogates for the degree of number of cells within the tumour regions. Because an assessment of ADC values and volumes within tumour sub-compartments of GB is missing in the literature, we aimed to evaluate these associations.MethodsA retrospective cohort of 48 patients with GB underwent segmentation to calculate tumour region volumes (in cubic centimetre) and ADC values in tumour regions: normal tissue, enhancing tumour, proximal oedema, distal oedema, and necrosis. Correlation, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox h...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of cranial nerves: a pictorial overview
AbstractThe human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. The anatomy of cranial nerves is complex and its knowledge is crucial to detect  pathological alterations in case of nervous disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most frequent pathologies that may involve cranial nerves and recognize their typical characteristics of imaging. Cranial nerve dysfunctions may be the result of pathological processes of the cranial nerv e itself or be related to tumors, inflammation, infectious processes, or traumatic injuries of adjacent structures. Magnetic res...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Summary of the proceedings of the International Forum 2018: “Value-based radiology”
AbstractThe International Forum, established by the European Society of Radiology (ESR), aims to discuss important topics in the field of radiology with radiological partner societies from outside Europe. Value-based healthcare is currently a hot topic around the world and has been addressed in many papers. The ESR chose the topic “value-based radiology” for the ESR International Forum at ECR 2018 to discuss the trend within radiology to move from volume-based to value-based practice. The value-based healthcare (VBH) concept defined “value” as health outcomes achieved for patients relative to the co...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characterization of radiographers ’ mammography practice in five European countries: a pilot study
ConclusionsThe mammography practice varies across the five countries. We found country-specific traits related to mammography image acquisition, patient-centered care and quality management procedures. The lack of evidence-based knowledge suggests the importance of well-designed studies on these topics. The variability found in this pilot study encourages radiographers to question their own practice and teachers to review and revise the training programmes. Validation in larger studies including more countries is needed. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular tumors in infants and adolescents
AbstractMalignant vascular tumors as part of the vascular anomalies spectrum are extremely rare in children and young adults. Instead, benign vascular neoplasias are frequently encountered in the pediatric patient population. While vascular malformations are congenital vascular lesions, originating from a mesenchymal stem cell defect, vascular tumors are neoplastic transformations of endothelial and other vascular cells. The appropriate differential diagnosis and nomenclature according to the classification of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) is decisive to initiate correct therapy. Whi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Methodology for ESR iGuide content
AbstractThe European Society of Radiology (ESR) considers the use of evidence-based referral guidelines in clinical practice essential to ensure the appropriate utilisation of medical imaging for patients. Since 2014, the ESR has been working with the American College of Radiology (ACR) to develop referral guidelines for Europe, based on the ACR Appropriateness Criteria (AC) and appropriate use criteria developed by the ACR Rapid Response Committee.This paper sets out the methodology used by the ESR ’s Referral Guidelines Subcommittee to adapt the ACR criteria for use in the European clinical decision support (CDS) p...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How clinical imaging can assess cancer biology
AbstractHuman cancers represent complex structures, which display substantial inter- and intratumor heterogeneity in their genetic expression and phenotypic features. However, cancers usually exhibit characteristic structural, physiologic, and molecular features and display specific biological capabilities named hallmarks. Many of these tumor traits are imageable through different imaging techniques. Imaging is able to spatially map key cancer features and tumor heterogeneity improving tumor diagnosis, characterization, and management. This paper aims to summarize the current and emerging applications of imaging in tumor b...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodality imaging of paragangliomas of the head and neck
AbstractParagangliomas arise from paraganglion cells which serve varied regulatory tasks in the body. When these cells demonstrate neoplasia within the head and neck, they typically present in characteristic locations including the carotid space, the jugular foramen, the middle ear, and along the course of the vagus nerve. The goal of this article is to review the relevant anatomy related to head and neck paragangliomas, as well as their typical imaging characteristics on cross-sectional imaging including CT, MR, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine studies. Additionally, differential considerations, as well as relevant involv...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

IT development in radiology - an ESR update on the Digital Imaging Adoption Model (DIAM)
This article will first provide an overview of the DIAM framework; subsequently, it will consider what its adoption has revealed so far, both through the analysis of global data and through specific case studies; finally, it will outline the future potential and goals of the project. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2019: Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodality imaging of indolent B cell lymphoma from diagnosis to transformation: what every radiologist should know
AbstractIndolent B cell lymphomas are a group of lymphoid malignancies characterized by their potential to undergo histologic transformation to aggressive lymphomas. While different subtypes of indolent B cell lymphomas demonstrate specific clinical and imaging features, histologic transformation can be suspected on cross-sectional imaging when disproportionate lymph node enlargement or new focal lesions in extranodal organs are seen. On PET/CT, transformed indolent lymphoma may show new or increased nodal FDG avidity or new FDG-avid lesions in different organs. In this article, we will (1) review the imaging features of d...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of acute and chronic unilateral and bilateral thalamic lesions
AbstractThe thalami are bilateral ovoid grey matter cerebral structures bordering the third ventricle on both sides, which participate in functions such as relaying of sensory and motor signals, regulation of consciousness, and alertness. Pathologies affecting the thalami can be of neoplastic, infectious, vascular, toxic, metabolic, or congenital origin.The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive approach to the thalamus focusing on its anatomy, the main pathologies affecting this structure and their radiological semiology on CT and MRI. We will also illustrate the importance of multimodal MR imaging (morpholo...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT imaging findings of epiploic appendagitis: an unusual cause of abdominal pain
AbstractEpiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain, determined by a benign self-limiting inflammation of the epiploic appendages. It may manifest with heterogeneous clinical presentations, mimicking other more severe entities responsible of acute abdominal pain, such as acute diverticulitis or appendicitis. Given its importance as clinical mimicker, imaging plays a crucial role to avoid inaccurate diagnosis that may lead to unnecessary hospitalization, antibiotic therapy, and surgery. CT represents the gold standard technique for the evaluation of patients with indeterminate acute abdominal pain. Imaging...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How to manage accidental and unintended exposure in radiology: an ESR white paper
AbstractSince February 2018, the Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU-BSS) requires all EU member states to implement a system for recording and analysis of all accidental or unintended medical exposures (Article 63). An ESR questionnaire in May 2018 among ESR member countries including all EU member states (MS) revealed a very heterogeneous and unsatisfactory situation in transposition of the EU-BSS. Some MS just translated this part of the directive, others used effective dose as reporting criteria and others used physical dose parameters from the modalities. This white paper will help national scientific organisations advice t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pathology of the carotid space
AbstractThe complex anatomy of the carotid space within a small confined area is unique to the head and neck and allows for a vast array of pathology. This paper will review the anatomy of the carotid space from the skull base to the thorax, defining its borders at multiple levels, as well as its contents. The paper will also describe the myriad of mass lesions and vascular pathologies that may occur within the carotid space. The discussion will include anatomic considerations in differential diagnoses, imaging features, and lesion characteristics across multiple imaging modalities including CT, MRI, ultrasound, and conven...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of hip and thigh muscle injury: a pictorial review
AbstractMuscle injuries of the hip and thigh are a highly relevant issue in competitive sports imaging. The gold standard in diagnostic imaging of muscle injuries is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Radiologists need to be familiar with typical MRI findings in order to accurately detect and classify muscle injuries. Proper interpretation of the findings is crucial, especially in elite athletes. In soccer players, muscle injuries of the hip and thigh are the most common reason for missing a game.The present pictorial review deals with the diagnostic assessment, especially MRI, of muscle injuries of the hip and thigh. Typic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Response evaluation after neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer using modern MR imaging: a pictorial review
AbstractIn recent years, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become the standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Until recently, patients routinely proceeded to surgical resection after CRT, regardless of the response. Nowadays, treatment is tailored depending on the response to chemoradiotherapy. In patients that respond very well to CRT, organ-preserving treatments such as watch-and-wait are increasingly considered as an alternative to surgery. To facilitate such personalized treatment planning, there is now an increased demand for more detailed radiological response evaluation after chemora...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of MRI in staging and follow-up of endometrial and cervical cancer: pitfalls and mimickers
AbstractMRI plays important roles in endometrial and cervical cancer assessment, from detection to recurrent disease evaluation. Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract in Western countries. EC patients are divided into risk categories based on histopathological tumor type, grade, and myometrial invasion depth. EC is surgically staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system. Since FIGO (2009) stage correlates with prognosis, preoperative staging is essential for tailored treatment. MRI reveals myometrial invasion depth, which correlates wi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interventional radiology in European radiology departments: a joint survey from the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE)
ConclusionsFive points of action can be suggested based on the survey results. There is a need to assure 24-h service of IR in all radiological departments; networking can be the solution in case staffing problems arise. To attract students, IR needs to be recognized early as a possible career option. Although IR is included in the ESR Curriculum for Undergraduate Radiological Education, this is not the case everywhere, and it must be. There is a “gender issue” in IR since the majority of specialists are male. The lack of role models is probably the main reason why women do not pursue an interventional career. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of right ventricular failure in acute pulmonary embolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a pictorial essay for the interventional radiologist
AbstractPulmonary embolus (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death with more than 600,000 cases occurring in the USA per year. About 45% of patients with acute PE will have acute right ventricular failure, and up to 3.8% of patients will develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with progressive, severe, chronic heart failure. The right ventricle (RV) is constructed to accommodate a low-resistance afterload. Increases in afterload from acute massive and submassive PE and CTEPH may markedly compromise the RV function leading to hemodynamic collapse and death. The purpose of this educat...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can the imaging manifestations of melioidosis prognosticate the clinical outcome? A 6-year retrospective study
ConclusionsIn this study, we have described the spectrum of imaging manifestation of melioidosis and evaluated its association with clinical outcome. Respiratory system involvement in melioidosis showed significant association with unfavourable outcome. Diabetes mellitus, a common risk factor for melioidosis, is more prone for infection of the spleen and musculoskeletal system. Thus awareness of imaging manifestations of melioidosis can complement microbiological diagnostic tests for accurate early diagnosis and management. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dural masses: meningiomas and their mimics
AbstractMeningiomas are the most common dural tumour. They are regularly being seen as an incidental finding on brain imaging and treated conservatively. However, there are many other dural masses which mimic their appearances, including primary neoplastic processes, metastases, granulomatous diseases and infection. While some of these are rare, others such as metastases and tuberculosis arise relatively frequently in practice. Although not pathognomonic, key features which increase the probability of a lesion being a meningioma include intralesional calcifications, skull hyperostosis, local dural enhancement and increased...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Significant incidental cardiac disease on thoracic CT: what the general radiologist needs to know
ConclusionThis article reviews significant incidental cardiac findings which may be encountered on chest CT studies. After completing this review, the reader should not only be familiar with recognizing clinically significant cardiac findings seen on thoracic CT examinations but also have the confidence to direct their further management. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Is the diagnostic radiological image an underutilised resource? Exploring the literature
AbstractThe number of diagnostic imaging examinations being undertaken in the UK is rising. Due to the expensive nature of producing these examinations and the risks associated with exposing living tissue to the ionising radiation used by many of the imaging techniques, this growth comes with both a financial and a human cost.In a time of limited resources, it is important that we are able to maximise the benefits which we extract from these resources. Therefore, a broad search of the current literature was undertaken to assess our current understanding of the nature of benefit available from diagnostic radiological images...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Percutaneous consolidation of bone metastases: strategies and techniques
AbstractPatients with cancer can present with bone metastases (BM), which are frequently complicated by different types of fractures necessitating prompt management to avoid serious impairment in terms of quality of life and survival.Percutaneous image-guided bone consolidation has rapidly emerged as an alternative to surgical fixation and is mainly reserved for patients who are deemed unfit for surgical management. Two percutaneous techniques, osteoplasty and osteosynthesis, are available and are selected based on the biomechanics of the target bones as well as the fracture types.The aim of this narrative review is to pre...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thyroglossal duct pathology and mimics
AbstractCongenital anterior neck masses comprise a rare group of lesions typically diagnosed in childhood. Most commonly, lesions are anomalies of the thyroglossal duct, namely the thyroglossal duct cyst, along with ectopic thyroid tissue. Although usually suspected based on clinical examination, imaging can confirm the diagnosis, assess the extent, and evaluate for associated complications. Imaging characteristics on ultrasound, CT, and MRI may at times be equivocal; differential considerations include branchial cleft cyst, dermoid/epidermoid, laryngocele, thymic cyst, lymphatic malformation, and metastatic disease. Thus,...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: A panorama of radial nerve pathologies- an imaging diagnosis: a step ahead
The original article [1] contained an omission in authorship detail; authors Aakanksha Agarwal and Abhishek Chandra are instead joint first authors. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma after locoregional therapy
AbstractLiver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) constitute one of the major causes of morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs worldwide. Multiple treatment options are available for HCC depending on the clinical status of the patient, size and location of the tumor, and available techniques and expertise. Locoregional treatment options are multiple. The most challenging part is how to assess the treatment response by different imaging modalities, but our scope will be assessing the response to locoregional therapy for HCC by MRI. This will be addressed by conventional MR methods using LI-RADS v2018 and ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Strategic research agenda for biomedical imaging
AbstractThis Strategic Research Agenda identifies current challenges and needs in healthcare, illustrates how biomedical imaging and derived data can help to address these, and aims to stimulate dedicated research funding efforts.Medicine is currently moving towards a more tailored, patient-centric approach by providing personalised solutions for the individual patient. Innovation in biomedical imaging plays a key role in this process as it addresses the current needs for individualised prevention, treatment, therapy response monitoring, and image-guided surgery.The use of non-invasive biomarkers facilitates better therapy...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvic floor —a pictorial review
AbstractPelvic floor dysfunctions represent a range of functional disorders that frequently occur in adult women, carrying a significant burden on the quality of life, and its incidence tends to increase attending to the expected aging of the population. Pelvic floor dysfunctions can manifest as incontinence, constipation, and prolapsed pelvic organs. Since pelvic floor weakness is frequently generalized and clinically underdiagnosed, imaging evaluation is of major importance, especially prior to surgical correction. Given some interobserver variability of soft-tissue measurements, MR defecography allows a noninvasive, rad...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The value of CSF flow studies in the management of CSF disorders in children: a pictorial review
AbstractCSF flow disorders are frequently encountered in children. The advent of MR technology with the emergence of new pulse sequences allowed better understanding of CSF flow dynamics. In this pictorial review, we aim to conduct a comprehensive review of the MR protocol used to study CSF flow disorders and to discuss the utility of each pulse sequence in the adopted protocol. We will focus on the key anatomical structures that should be examined to differentiate hydrocephalus form ventricular dilatation ex-vacuo. The MR features of obstructive and communicating hydrocephalus will be discussed, in addition to the manifes...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced endoscopic interventions on the pancreas and pancreatic ductal system: a primer for radiologists
AbstractIn recent years, technological advancements including endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance and availability of specifically designed stents further expanded the indications and possibilities of interventional endoscopy. Although technically demanding and associated with non-negligible morbidity, advanced pancreatic endoscopic techniques now provide an effective minimally invasive treatment for complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis.Aiming to provide radiologists with an adequate familiarity, this pictorial essay reviews the indications, techniques, results and pre- and post-procedural cross-sectional imagi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abdominal applications of ultrasound fusion imaging technique: liver, kidney, and pancreas
AbstractFusion imaging allows exploitation of the strengths of all imaging modalities simultaneously, eliminating or minimizing the weaknesses of every single modality. Ultrasound (US) fusion imaging provides benefits in real time from both the dynamic information and spatial resolution of the normal US and the high-contrast resolution and wider field of view of the other imaging methods. US fusion imaging can also be associated with the use of different ultrasound techniques such as color Doppler US, elastography, and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), for better localization and characterization of lesions. The present paper i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultra-high-resolution subtraction CT angiography in the follow-up of treated intracranial aneurysms
AbstractIn subtraction CT angiography (CTA), a non-contrast CT acquisition is subtracted from a contrast-enhanced CTA acquisition. Subtraction CTA can be applied in the detection, classification, and follow-up of intracranial aneurysms and is advantageous over conventional angiography because of its non-invasive nature, shorter examination time, and lower costs. Recently, an ultra-high-resolution CT scanner has been introduced in clinical practice offering an in-plane spatial resolution of up to 0.234  mm, approaching the resolution as seen during conventional invasive digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The twof...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging features of adrenal masses
AbstractThe widespread use of imaging examinations has increased the detection of incidental adrenal lesions, which are mostly benign and non-functioning adenomas. The differentiation of a benign from a malignant adrenal mass can be crucial especially in oncology patients since it would greatly affect treatment and prognosis. In this setting, imaging plays a key role in the detection and characterization of adrenal lesions, with several imaging tools which can be employed by radiologists. A thorough knowledge of the imaging features of adrenal masses is essential to better characterize these lesions, avoiding a misinterpre...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of thoracic hernias: types and complications
AbstractThoracic hernias are characterised by either protrusion of the thoracic contents outside their normal anatomical confines or extension of the abdominal contents within the thorax. Thoracic hernias can be either congenital or acquired in aetiology. They can occur at the level of the thoracic inlet, chest wall or diaphragm. Thoracic hernias can be symptomatic or fortuitously discovered on imaging obtained for other indications. Complications of thoracic hernias include incarceration, trauma and strangulation with necrosis. Multiple imaging modalities are available to evaluate thoracic hernias. Radiographs usually off...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fibrous dysplasia for radiologists: beyond ground glass bone matrix
This article aims to not only summarise the spectrum of radiological findings of osseous and extra-osseous abnormalities associated with FD but also to highlight the pat hological base of the disease evolution, corresponding imaging changes and complications based on the disease distribution. We also have provided current recommendations for clinical management and follow-up of patients with FD.Teaching Points•FD is often a part of complex disease, involving not only bone but also multiple other organs.•FD lesions are characterised by age-related histological, radiographical and clinical transformations.•Rad...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Is right-sided ligamentum teres hepatis always accompanied by left-sided gallbladder? Case reports and literature review
AbstractRight-sided ligamentum teres (RSLT) hepatis is a rare anatomical variant in which the fetal umbilical vein is connected to the right paramedian trunk of the portal vein. Despite its rarity, it is crucial for surgeons and intervention specialists because of its frequent association with intrahepatic vascular and biliary anomalies. Inattention to these anomalies before intervention, especially living-donor liver transplantation, can have life-threatening consequences. The relationship between gallbladder location and RSLT is still controversial, with RSLT regarded as one of the critical features of left-sided gallbla...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Easily detected signs of perineural tumour spread in head and neck cancer
AbstractPerineural tumour spread (PNTS) in head and neck oncology is most often caused by squamous cell carcinoma. The most frequently affected nerves are the trigeminal and facial nerves. Up to 40% of patients with PNTS may be asymptomatic. Therefore, the index of suspicion should be high when evaluating imaging studies of patients with head and neck cancer. This review describes a “quick search checklist” of easily detected imaging signs of PNTS.Teaching Points•A distinctive feature of head and neck tumours is growth along nerves.•Perineural tumour spread is most often caused by squamous cell carcin...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics and liquid biopsy in oncology: the holons of systems medicine
AbstractRadiomics is a process of extraction and analysis of quantitative features from diagnostic images. Liquid biopsy is a test done on a sample of blood to look for cancer cells or for pieces of tumourigenic DNA circulating in the blood. Radiomics and liquid biopsy have great potential in oncology, since both are minimally invasive, easy to perform, and can be repeated in patient follow-up visits, enabling the extraction of valuable information regarding tumour type, aggressiveness, progression, and response to treatment. Both methods are in their infancy, with major evidence of application in lung and gastrointestinal...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research