Granulomatous diseases of the breast and axilla: radiological findings with pathological correlation
ConclusionsGranulomatous processes of the breast are rare. The diagnosis can, however, be made if there is relevant history (prior trauma, silicone breast implants, lactation), laboratory (systemic or infectious processes) and imaging findings (fistula, nipple retraction). Recognising these entities is important for establishing pathological concordance after biopsy and for preventing unnecessary treatment.Teaching pointsBreast granulomatous are rare but can mimic breast carcinoma on imagingImaging with clinical and laboratory findings can correctly diagnosis specific granulomatous breast diseasesRecognition of the imaging...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of non-neoplastic duodenal diseases. A pictorial review with emphasis on MDCT
AbstractA wide spectrum of abnormalities can affect the duodenum, ranging from congenital anomalies to traumatic and inflammatory entities. The location of the duodenum and its close relationship with other organs make it easy to miss or misinterpret duodenal abnormalities on cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopy has largely supplanted fluoroscopy for the assessment of the duodenal lumen. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, especially multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enable comprehensive assessment of the duodenum and surrounding viscera. Although overlapping imaging findings can ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Delineation of two intracranial areas and the perpendicular intracranial width is sufficient for intracranial volume estimation
ConclusionsDelineation of two specific intracranial areas is sufficient for intracranial volume estimation.Main messages• Delineation of two specific intracranial areas is sufficient for intracranial volume estimation.• The estimates had a Pearson correlation of 0.997 with intracranial volume.• The estimation should take no more than 5 min. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mechanical birth-related trauma to the neonate: An imaging perspective
This article seeks to familiarize the reader with the clinical spectrum, significance and multimodality imaging appearances of neonatal multi-organ birth-related trauma and its sequela e, where applicable.Teaching points•Mechanical trauma related to birth usually occurs with pre-existing feto-maternal risk factors.•Several organ systems can be affected; neurologic, musculoskeletal or visceral injuries can occur.•Injuries can be mild and transient or disabling, even life-threatening.•Imaging plays an important role in injury identification and triage of affected neonates. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT imaging of primary pancreatic lymphoma: experience from three referral centres for pancreatic diseases
ConclusionsPPL presents as a large mass lesion with delayed homogeneous enhancement; peri-pancreatic fat stranding and vessel encasement are present, without vascular infiltration. Pancreatic duct dilatation is rare.Key points•Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare haematological disease• PPL presents imaging features in common with pancreatic carcinoma but also some distinctive findings• The majority of PPLs are large lesions with delayed homogeneous enhancement• Peri-pancreatic fat stranding and vessel encasement are common in PPL• Vascular infiltration and pancreatic duct dilatation are rar...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cone beam CT of the musculoskeletal system: clinical applications
DiscussionCurrent CBCT equipment allows use for imaging of various musculoskeletal applications. Because of its low cost and relatively low irradiation, CBCT may have an emergent role in making a more precise diagnosis, assessment of local extent and follow-up of fractures and dislocations of small bones and joints. Due to its exquisite high spatial resolution, CBCT in combination with arthrography may be the preferred technique for detection and local staging of cartilage lesions in small joints. Evaluation of degenerative joint disorders may be facilitated by CBCT compared to CR, particularly in those anatomical areas in...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Infection prevention and control in ultrasound - best practice recommendations from the European Society of Radiology Ultrasound Working Group
ConclusionsGood standards of basic hygiene and thorough decontamination of all US equipment as well as appropriate use of US gel and transducer covers are essential to keep patients safe.Main messages• Transducers must be cleaned/disinfected before first use and after every examination.• Low level disinfection is sufficient for standard US on intact skin.• High level disinfection is mandatory for endo-cavity US and all interventions.• Dedicated transducer covers must be used for endo-cavity US and all interventions.• Sterile gel should be used for all endo-cavity US and all interventions. (Source: ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the management of perianal Crohn ’s disease
AbstractPerianal fistulas are a major problem in many patients with Crohn ’s disease. These are usually complex fistulas that adversely affect patients’ quality of life, and their clinical management is difficult. Medical treatment sometimes achieves cessation of discharge and closure of the external opening; however, it is difficult to assess the status of the rest o f the fistula tract. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice with which to evaluate the condition of perianal fistulas and allows for assessment of the status of inaccessible areas. Magnetic resonance imaging also allows the clinician t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule: size matters, but do not ignore the power of morphology
AbstractSubsequent to the widespread use of multidetector computed tomography and growing interest in lung cancer screening, small pulmonary nodules are more frequently detected. The differential diagnosis for a solitary pulmonary nodule is extremely broad and includes both benign and malignant causes. Recognition of early lung cancers is vital, since stage at diagnosis is crucial for prognosis. Estimation of the probability of malignancy is a challenging task, but crucial for follow-up and further work-up. In addition to the clinical setting and metabolic assessment, morphological assessment on thin-section computed tomog...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An update of pitfalls in prostate mpMRI: a practical approach through the lens of PI-RADS v. 2 guidelines
ConclusionsA detailed knowledge of normal and abnormal findings in mpMRI of the prostate is pivotal for an accurate management of the wide spectrum of clinical scenarios that radiologists may encounter during their daily practice.Teaching Points•Some para-physiologic appearances of the prostate may mimic cancer.•Knowledge of normal and abnormal findings in prostate mpMRI is pivotal.•Any radiologist involved in prostate mpMRI reporting should be aware of pitfalls. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 23, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Body composition determinants of radiation dose during abdominopelvic CT
AbstractObjectivesWe designed a prospective study to investigate the in-vivo relationship between abdominal body composition and radiation exposure to determine the strongest body composition predictor of dose length product (DLP) at CT.MethodsFollowing institutional review board approval, quantitative analysis was performed prospectively on 239 consecutive patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT. DLP, BMI, volumes of abdominal adipose tissue, muscle, bone and solid organs were recorded.ResultsAll measured body composition parameters correlated positively with DLP. Linear regression (R2 = 0.77) revealed that tot...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 23, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Beyond the embolus: “do not miss” diffusion abnormalities of ischaemic and non-ischaemic neurological disease
AbstractGiven the rapid evolution and technological advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), including the proliferation of comprehensive stroke centres and increasing emphasis on interventional stroke therapies, the need for prompt recognition of stroke due to acute large vessel occlusion has received significant attention in the recent literature. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke, as images appear positive within minutes of ischaemic injury, and a high signal-to-noise ratio enables even punctate infarcts to be readily detecte...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detector-based spectral CT with a novel dual-layer technology: principles and applications
AbstractDetector-based spectral computed tomography is a novel dual-energy CT technology that employs two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low- and high-energy data in all patients using standard CT protocols. In addition to the conventional polyenergetic images created for each patient, projection-space decomposition is used to generate spectral basis images (photoelectric and Compton scatter) for creating multiple spectral images, including material decomposition (iodine-only, virtual non-contrast, effective atomic number) and virtual monoenergetic images, on-demand according to clinical need. These images a...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Injectable facial fillers: imaging features, complications, and diagnostic pitfalls at MRI and PET CT
AbstractInjectable fillers are widely used for facial rejuvenation, correction of disabling volumetric fat loss in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy, Romberg disease, and post-traumatic facial disfiguring. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the anatomy of facial fat compartments, as well as with the properties and key imaging features of commonly used facial fillers, filler-related complications, interpretation pitfalls, and dermatologic conditions mimicking filler-related complications. The distribution of facial fillers is characteristic and depends on the anatomy of the superficial fat compartmen...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI for adenomyosis: a pictorial review
AbstractAdenomyosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. It is a disease of the inner myometrium and results from infiltration of the basal endometrium into the underlying myometrium. Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the main radiologic tools for this condition. A thickness of the junctional zone of at least 12  mm is the most frequent MRI criterion in establishing the presence of adenomyosis. Adenomyosis can appear as a diffuse or focal form. Adenomyosis is often associated with hormone-dependent lesions such as leiomyom...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast cancer mammographic diagnosis performance in a public health institution: a retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsThe results are appropriate when compared to the values proposed by the BIRADS 5th edition. Additionally, the study provided self-reflection considering our radiological practice, which is essential for improvements and collaboration regarding breast cancer detection. It may stimulate better radiological practice performance and continuing education, despite possible infrastructure and facility limitations.Main Messages• Accurate quality performance rates are possible despite financial and governmental limitations.• Low-income institutions should develop standardised teamwork to improve radiological pr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Enterocutaneous fistulas: a primer for radiologists with emphasis on CT and MRI
AbstractEnterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) represent abnormal communications between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin. Nowadays, the majority (~80%) of ECFs develops secondary to abdominal surgeries; alternative, less common causes include chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn ’s disease, tumours, and radiation enteritis in descending order of frequency. These rare disorders require thorough patient assessment and multidisciplinary management to limit the associated morbidity and mortality. This pictorial review includes an overview of causes, clinical manifestations, complications and mana...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 29, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Awareness and knowledge of radiation dose and associated risks among final year medical students in Norway
ConclusionOverall medical students ’ knowledge of radiation dose and the risks associated with ionising imaging examinations was reported to be low.Main messages•Medical students ’ knowledge about radiation and associated risk is poor•Students are not aware of radiation doses for common radiological procedures•The majority of students underestimated radiation doses for specific examinations•Students with confidence reported greater knowledge than students with no confidence (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 26, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Benchmarking adult CT-dose levels to regional and national references using a dose-tracking software: a multicentre experience
AbstractObjectivesTo benchmark CT-dose data for standard adult CT studies to regional and national reference levels using a dose-tracking system.MethodsData from five CT systems from three hospitals were collected over a 1- to 2.5-year period (2012 –2014), using the same type of dose management system. Inclusion criteria were adult patients and standard CT-head, CT-abdomen-pelvis, CT-thorax, CT-lumbar spine, CT-pulmonary embolism, CT-cervical spine and CT-thorax-abdomen studies, with one helical scan. Volumetric CT-dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP) and scan length from 31,709 scans were analysed statist...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR concept paper on value-based radiology
AbstractThe European Society of Radiology (ESR) established a Working Group on Value-Based Imaging (VBI WG) in August 2016 in response to developments in European healthcare systems in general, and the trend within radiology to move from volume- to value-based practice in particular. The value-based healthcare (VBH) concept defines “value” as health outcomes achieved for patients relative to the costs of achieving them. Within this framework, value measurements start at the beginning of therapy; the whole diagnostic process is disregarded, and is considered only if it is the cause of errors or complications. Ma...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 30, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Plain radiography in patients treated with intrathecal drug delivery using an implantable pump device
ConclusionsPlain radiological images are the mainstay for the diagnosis of catheter-related adverse events in intrathecal drug delivery. Radiologists play an important role in an early diagnosis. An awareness of abnormal radiological findings seems important to avoid a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome.Teaching points•Untimely cessation of intrathecal drug delivery can lead to a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome.•Initially mild symptoms can lead to an exacerbation of a withdrawal syndrome.•Most intrathecal catheter-related problems are visible on plain radiography.•Common causes of catheter proble...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The value of advanced MRI techniques in the assessment of cervical cancer: a review
ConclusionsNew advanced MRI techniques allow improved analysis of tumour biology and the tumour microenvironment. They can improve TNM staging and show promise for tumour classification and for assessing the risk of tumour recurrence. They may be helpful for developing optimised and personalised therapy for patients with cervical cancer.Teaching points• Conventional MRI plays a key role in the evaluation of cervical cancer.• DWI improves tumour delineation and detection of nodal metastases in cervical cancer.• Advanced MRI techniques show promise regarding histological grading and subtype differentiation.&bu...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pulmonary fibrosis on the lateral chest radiograph: Kerley D lines revisited
AbstractThe retrosternal clear space (RCS) is a lucent area on the lateral chest radiograph located directly behind the sternum. The two types of pathology classically addressed in the RCS are anterior mediastinal masses and emphysema. Diseases of the pulmonary interstitium are a third type of pathology that can be seen in the RCS. Retrosternal reticular opacities, known as Kerley D lines, were initially described in the setting of interstitial oedema. Pulmonary fibrosis is another aetiology of Kerley D lines, which may be more easily identified in the RCS than elsewhere on the chest radiograph.Teaching points• The RC...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A critical appraisal of the quality of adult musculoskeletal ultrasound guidelines using the AGREE II tool: an EuroAIM initiative
ConclusionsOverall, quality of MSK-US guidelines ranges from low to average when evaluated using the AGREE II tool. The editorial independence domain was the most critical, thus deserving more attention when developing future guidelines.Main messages• Four of five guidelines on MSK-US had an average quality level.• Scope/purpose had the highest score (71.1% ± 18.7%).• Editorial independence had the lowest score (26.3% ± 19.3%).• Interobserver agreement was very good (ranges: 0.932–0.956). (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 28, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast magnetic resonance imaging: tips for the diagnosis of silicone-induced granuloma of a breast implant capsule (SIGBIC)
The objective of this study is to present cases of SIGBIC diagnosed in our service and to discuss the main findings that allow its diagnosis.Teaching Points•Breast implants induce fibrous capsule formation at the periphery of the implant.•Gel bleeding is inherent in all types of silicone breast implants.•Gel bleeding induces silicone-induced granuloma of breast implants.•Main diagnostic tips: heterogeneous mass, black-drop sign and late enhancement. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-perforated peptic ulcer disease: multidetector CT findings, complications, and differential diagnosis
AbstractDespite availability of effective therapies, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) remains a major global disease, resulting from a combination of persistentHelicobacter pylori infection and widespread use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Albeit endoscopy definitely represents the mainstay diagnostic technique, patients presenting to emergency departments with unexplained abdominal pain generally undergo multidetector CT as an initial investigation. Although superficial ulcers generally remain inconspicuous, careful multiplanar CT interpretation may allow to detect deep ulcers, secondary mural and extraluminal signs o...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging-guided chest biopsies: techniques and clinical results
ConclusionPercutaneous lung biopsy is a safe procedure even though a few complications are possible: pneumothorax, pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis are common complications, while air embolism and seeding are rare, but potentially fatal complications.Teaching points• Imaging-guided biopsy is one of the main methods to obtain lung nodule specimens.• CT has the highest accuracy for diagnosis as an imaging guide.• Compared to FNAB, CNB has a higher accuracy for diagnosis.• Pneumothorax and parenchymal pulmonary haemorrhage care the most frequent complications.• Several clinical and technical vari...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers ’ posture during mammography activities
ConclusionsThe alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures.Main messages•Radiographers ’ postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders•Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient)•Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early postoperative imaging after non-bariatric gastric resection: a primer for radiologists
AbstractSurgical resection represents the mainstay treatment and only potentially curative option for gastric carcinoma, and is increasingly performed laparoscopically. Furthermore, other tumours and selected cases of non-malignant disorders of the stomach may require partial or total gastrectomy. Often performed in elderly patients, gastric resection remains a challenging procedure, with significant morbidity (14 –43% complication rate) and non-negligible postoperative mortality (approximately 3%). This paper provides an overview of contemporary surgical techniques for non-bariatric gastric resection, reviews and il...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: a review of the dangers and difficulties in MR scanning and attempts to improve safety
AbstractAn increasing number of patients are being treated with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), many of which are MR conditional. There is a lack of literature on the safe scanning of MR conditional CIEDs. This review article discusses MR imaging safety in patients with implanted CIEDs. Guidelines on safe use and indications of imaging patients with MR conditional CIEDs are described, followed by a pictorial essay of the radiographic features of these devices. We also discuss the challenges of monitoring the patient in the MR environment, advances in MRI conditional imaging of devices, availability, ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 17, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Liver segmentation: indications, techniques and future directions
ConclusionsLiver segmentation has multiple clinical applications and is expanding in scope. Clinicians can employ semi-automated or fully automated segmentation options to more efficiently integrate volumetry into clinical practice.Teaching points•Liver volume is assessed via organ segmentation on CT and MRI examinations.•Liver segmentation is used for volume assessment prior to major hepatic procedures.•Segmentation approaches may be categorised according to the amount of user input involved.•Emerging applications include surgical planning and integration with MRI-based biomarkers. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESGAR 2017 Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 23, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tips and tricks for a safe and effective image-guided percutaneous renal tumour ablation
AbstractImage-guide thermal ablations are nowadays increasingly used to provide a minimally invasive treatment to patients with renal tumours, with reported good clinical results and low complications rate. Different ablative techniques can be applied, each with some advantages and disadvantages according to the clinical situation. Moreover, percutaneous ablation of renal tumours might be complex in cases where there is limited access for image guidance or a close proximity to critical structures, which can be unintentionally injured during treatment. In the present paper we offer an overview of the most commonly used abla...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High-frame rate vector flow imaging of the carotid bifurcation
AbstractCarotid artery atherosclerotic disease is still a significant cause of cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. A new angle-independent technique, measuring and visualizing blood flow velocities in all directions, called vector flow imaging (VFI) is becoming available from several vendors. VFI can provide more intuitive and quantitative imaging of vortex formation, which is not clearly distinguishable in the color Doppler image. VFI, as quantitative method assessing disturbed flow patterns of the carotid bifurcation, has the potential to allow better understanding of the diagnostic value of complex flow and to enha...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The new EU General Data Protection Regulation: what the radiologist should know
AbstractThe European Society of Radiology (ESR) informs its membership and its associated Institutional Members about the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union (EU,) which will apply from 25 May 2018. Radiologists and radiology departments should be prepared to comply with several new rules for the protection of imaging data. Although the new GDPR applies to all domains of the public and private sectors, some specific derogations are defined for data concerning health, aiming at protecting the rights of data subjects and confidentiality of their personal health data, whilst preserving the bene...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?
ConclusionsFull-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value.Teaching Points•To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections•To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens•To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens•To recognise specific int...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A critical appraisal of the quality of adult dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry guidelines in osteoporosis using the AGREE II tool: An EuroAIM initiative
ConclusionsOverall, the quality of DXA guidelines is satisfactory when evaluated using the AGREE II instrument. The Editorial Independence domain was the most critical, thus deserving more attention when developing future guidelines.Main messages•Three of four guidelines on DXA had a high quality level (>60%).•Scope/purpose had the highest score (86.8  ± 3.7%).•Editorial Independence had the lowest score (54.7  ± 12.5%).•Interobserver agreement ranged from fair (0.230) to good (0.702). (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the oesophagus: beyond cancer
AbstractNon-malignant oesophageal diseases are critical to recognize, but can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed radiologically. In this paper, we cover the salient clinical features and imaging findings of non-malignant pathology of the oesophagus. We organize the many non-malignant diseases of the oesophagus into two major categories: luminal disorders and wall disorders. Luminal disorders include dilatation/narrowing (e.g. achalasia, scleroderma, and stricture) and foreign body impaction. Wall disorders include wall thickening (e.g. oesophagitis, benign neoplasms, oesophageal varices, and intramural hematoma), wall th...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 17, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European radiographers ’ challenges from mammography education and clinical practice – an integrative review
ConclusionsThe introduction of harmonized mammography guidelines across Europe may serve as an evidence-based tool to be implemented in practice and education. However, the variability in human and material resources as well as the different cultural contexts should be considered during this process.Teaching Points• Radiographers’ awareness of their professional identity and enhancing multiprofessional cooperation in mammography.• Radiographers’ responsibilities regarding image quality (IQ) and optimal breast imaging performance.• Patient-centred mammography services focusing on the psychosocial ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 16, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Overview of the radiographers ’ practice in 65 healthcare centers using digital mammography systems in Portugal
ConclusionsThe study revealed opportunities to optimise radiographers ’ practice in DM regarding the selection of exposure parameters. A robust and consistent training programme in DM and established local protocols can help to reduce the variations observed and improve clinical practice.Main Messages• Radiographers adopted different practices selecting AEC modes and T/F combinations.• Radiographer practice is more consistent using DR than using CR systems.• The main causes for rejecting images were the visibility of skin folding and PM absence.• Radiographers were partly unaware of the dose indic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 16, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Utility of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular thickening
AbstractLeft ventricular (LV) thickening can be due to hypertrophy (concentric, asymmetric, eccentric) or remodelling (concentric or asymmetric). Pathological thickening may be caused by pressure overload, volume overload, infiltrative disorders, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, athlete ’s heart or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the comprehensive evaluation of LV thickening, including: establishing diagnosis, determining LV geometry, establishing aetiology, quantification, identifying prognostic factors, serial follow-up and t reatment response. In this article, we re...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ecr 2017 – book of abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 16, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Central airway pathology: clinic features, CT findings with pathologic and virtual endoscopy correlation
ConclusionThis review presents the complete spectrum of the central airway pathology with its clinical, pathological and radiological features.Teaching points•Dividing diseases into diffuse and focal lesions helps narrow the differential diagnosis.•Focal lesions with nodularity are more likely to correspond to tumours.•Focal lesions with stenosis are more likely to correspond to inflammatory disease.•Posterior wall involvement is the main feature in diffuse lesions with stenosis. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine
AbstractReflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiological findings of unilateral tuberculous lung destruction
ConclusionsTotal unilateral post-tuberculous lung destruction is an irreversible complication with the following main radiological features: predominantly left-sided location, decreases in the diameter of the ipsilateral pulmonary vessels, herniation of the contralateral lung and hypertrophy of the ribs and/or thickening of extrapleural fat.Teaching Points•Unilateral tuberculous lung destruction is an irreversible complication of tuberculosis.•Left-side predominance and herniation of the contralateral lung are characteristic.•Decreased diameter of the ipsilateral pulmonary vessels occurred in all patients.&b...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the ulcerated carotid atherosclerotic plaque: a review of the literature
AbstractCarotid atherosclerotic disease constitutes a major modern health problem whose diagnosis primarily relies on imaging. Grading of stenosis has been long used as the main factor for risk stratification and guiding of management. Nevertheless, increasing evidence has shown that additional plaque characteristics such as plaque composition and surface morphology play an important role in the occurrence of symptoms, justifying the term “vulnerable plaque”. Carotid plaque surface characteristics either in the form of surface irregularities or ulceration represent an important factor of vulnerability and are a...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gallbladder adenomyomatosis: imaging findings, tricks and pitfalls
AbstractGallbladder adenomyomatosis (GA) is a benign alteration of the gallbladder wall that can be found in up to 9% of patients. GA is characterized by a gallbladder wall thickening containing small bile-filled cystic spaces (i.e., the Rokitansky –Aschoff sinuses, RAS). The bile contained in RAS may undergo a progressive concentration process leading to crystal precipitation and calcification development. A correct characterization of GA is fundamental in order to avoid unnecessary cholecystectomies. Ultrasound (US) is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing GA; the use of high-frequency probes and a precise ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 26, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

“Unforgettable” – a pictorial essay on anatomy and pathology of the hippocampus
AbstractThe hippocampus is a small but complex anatomical structure that plays an important role in spatial and episodic memory. The hippocampus can be affected by a wide range of congenital variants and degenerative, inflammatory, vascular, tumoral and toxic-metabolic pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging technique for evaluating the hippocampus. The main indications requiring tailored imaging sequences of the hippocampus are medically refractory epilepsy and dementia. The purpose of this pictorial review is threefold: (1) to review the normal anatomy of the hippocampus on MRI; (2) to discuss th...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a cutting edge overview on imaging features
AbstractMature cystic teratoma (MCT) is the most common neoplasm of the ovary and includes at least two well- differentiated germ cell layers. Different combinations of mature tissue derivatives with varying arrangements in the tumour cause a wide spectrum of radiological presentation ranging from a purely cystic mass to a complex cystic mass with a considerable solid component. In different imaging modalities, each radiological feature reflects a specific pathologic equivalent that forms because of diverse compositions of histological components. Understanding uncommon findings as well as the classic signs with basic know...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Os peroneum imaging: normal appearance and pathological findings
AbstractThe os peroneum (OP) is a small sesamoid bone located inside the peroneus longus tendon (PLT), close to the cuboid. The OP can be the cause of pain and can be associated with lesions of the PLT. OP involvement in PLT disorders is frequently misdiagnosed by radiologists. Painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) refers to a variety of conditions presenting with pain localized on the lateral aspect of the cuboid area. The syndrome can be observed as a consequence of local acute trauma such as ankle sprains or chronic overuse. Because of its intra-tendinous location, in tears of the peroneus longus tendon, the OP can show c...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 5, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research