Os peroneum imaging: normal appearance and pathological findings
AbstractThe os peroneum (OP) is a small sesamoid bone located inside the peroneus longus tendon (PLT), close to the cuboid. The OP can be the cause of pain and can be associated with lesions of the PLT. OP involvement in PLT disorders is frequently misdiagnosed by radiologists. Painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) refers to a variety of conditions presenting with pain localized on the lateral aspect of the cuboid area. The syndrome can be observed as a consequence of local acute trauma such as ankle sprains or chronic overuse. Because of its intra-tendinous location, in tears of the peroneus longus tendon, the OP can show c...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 5, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiological diagnosis of perinephric pathology: pictorial essay 2015
AbstractThe perinephric space, shaped as an inverted cone, sits between the anterior and posterior renal fasciae. It can play host to a variety of clinical conditions encountered daily in the reporting schedule for a radiologist. Lesions may be classified and diagnosed based on their imaging characteristics, location and distribution. A broad range of differential diagnoses can be attributed to pathology sitting within this space, often without clinical signs or symptoms. An understanding of commonly encountered conditions affecting the perinephric space, along with characteristic imaging findings, can illustrate and often...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Summary of the proceedings of the international forum 2016: “Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support - how can radiologists implement imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine?”
AbstractThe International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2016, the issue of implementing imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine was analysed. The legal environment in the USA requires that after January 1, 2017, physicians must consult government-approved, evidence-based appropriate-use criteria through a clinical decision support system when ordering advanced diagnostic imaging exams. The ESR and the National Decision Support Company are developing “ESR iGuide...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging biomarkers of dementia: recommended visual rating scales with teaching cases
AbstractThe diagnostic work up of dementia may benefit from structured reporting of CT and/or MRI and the use of standardised visual rating scales. We advocate a more widespread use of standardised scales as part of the workflow in clinical and research evaluation of dementia. We propose routine clinical use of rating scales for medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy (GCA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). These scales can be used for evaluation of both CT and MRI and are efficient in routine imaging assessment in dementia, and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Our review provides detailed imagi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Beyond bronchitis: a review of the congenital and acquired abnormalities of the bronchus
AbstractAnomalies of the bronchus can be both congenital and acquired. Several different congenital aberrations of the bronchial anatomy are commonly encountered including tracheal bronchus, accessory cardiac bronchus, and bronchial agenesis/aplasia/hypoplasia. In addition, Williams-Campbell syndrome and cystic fibrosis are two other congenital conditions that result in bronchial pathology. Acquired pathology affecting the bronchi can typically be divided into three broad categories of bronchial disease: bronchial wall thickening, dilatation/bronchiectasis, and obstruction/stenosis. Bronchial wall thickening is the common ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of plantar fascia disorders: findings on plain radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractPlantar fascia (PF) disorders commonly cause heel pain and disability in the general population. Imaging is often required to confirm diagnosis. This review article aims to provide simple and systematic guidelines for imaging assessment of PF disease, focussing on key findings detectable on plain radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sonographic characteristics of plantar fasciitis include PF thickening, loss of fibrillar structure, perifascial collections, calcifications and hyperaemia on Doppler imaging. Thickening and signal changes in the PF as well as oedema of adjacent soft tissues and...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?
AbstractErrors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3 –5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms “error” and “discrepancy” and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and system-based. Possible strategies to minimise error are considered, along with the means of dealing wit...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of patellar fractures
AbstractPatellar fractures account for approximately 1% of all skeletal fractures and may result from direct, indirect, or combined trauma. Because of the importance of patellar integrity for knee extension and the risk of associated injury to the extensor mechanism, accurate reporting and description of fracture type is paramount for appropriate management. This pictorial essay aims to review the normal anatomy of the patella, the mechanisms of injury and different types of patellar fractures, with a brief introduction to therapeutic management.Teaching Points•Patellar fractures are classified according to their morp...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases
This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite ’s life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. We include malaria, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, anisakiasis, dracunculiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Th e aim of this review is to help radiologists when dealing with these diseases or in cases where they are suspected.Teaching Points•Incidence of parasitic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diverticulitis: a comprehensive review with usual and unusual complications
AbstractDiverticulitis is characterized by inflammation of the outpouchings of the bowel wall. Imaging findings of diverticulitis include edematous thickening of the bowel wall with inflammatory changes within the adjacent mesenteric fat. Uncomplicated diverticulitis can be treated conservatively; however, complicated diverticulitis may not be responsive to medical treatment and life-threatening conditions may occur. In this review, we aimed to illustrate the ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) features of diverticulitis and its complications including perforation, phlegmon, abscess, ascending septic thrombop...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast opacification on thoracic CT angiography: challenges and solutions
AbstractContrast flow and enhancement patterns seen on thoracic CT angiography (CTA) can often be challenging and may often reveal more than is immediately apparent. A non-diagnostic CTA following the initial contrast injection can be secondary to many causes; these include both extrinsic factors, such as injection technique/equipment failure (iv cannula, power injector), and intrinsic, patient-related factors. Contrast pressure and flow graphs often contain useful information regarding the etiology of a non-diagnostic scan. Understanding these graphs will help the radiologist plan a repeat contrast injection to overcome t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mammography: an update of the EUSOBI recommendations on information for women
This article summarises the information to be offered to women about mammography. After a delineation of the aim of early diagnosis of breast cancer, the difference between screening mammography and diagnostic mammography is explained. The need to bring images and reports from the previous mammogram (and from other recent breast imaging examinations) is highlighted. Mammography technique and procedure are described with particular attention to discomfort and pain experienced by a small number of women who undergo the test. Information is given on the recall during a screening programme and on the request for further work-u...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ASL and susceptibility-weighted imaging contribution to the management of acute ischaemic stroke
AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a central role in the early diagnosis of cerebral vascular events. Today, MRI is used not only for the detection of acute ischaemic lesions, but also to fine tune the diagnosis and improve patient selection for early therapeutic decision-making. In this perspective, new tools such as arterial spin labelling (ASL) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences have been developed. These MRI sequences enable noninvasive assessment of brain damage, providing important diagnostic and prognostic information: evaluation of cerebral parenchymal perfusion; detection and aetiologi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The craniocervical junction: embryology, anatomy, biomechanics and imaging in blunt trauma
AbstractImaging of the blunt traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction can be challenging but central to improving morbidity and mortality related to such injury. The radiologist has a significant part to play in the appropriate management of patients who have suffered injury to this vital junction between the cranium and the spine. Knowledge of the embryology and normal anatomy as well as normal variant appearances avoids inappropriate investigations in these trauma patients. Osseous injury can be subtle while representing important radiological red flags for significant underlying ligamentous injury. An understan...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Infection prevention and ultrasound probe decontamination practices in Europe: a survey of the European Society of Radiology
ConclusionsThe survey results highlight a wide range of practices throughout Europe and the need to raise awareness amongst practitioners regarding the importance of infection prevention and control measures. The development of European recommendations encompassing all US examinations, together with education is a priority.Main Messages•Transmission of infection through ultrasound procedures is possible.•There is a wide range of ultrasound probe decontamination practices in Europe.•Not all practitioners use probe covers for endo-cavity or interventional ultrasound.•Not all practitioners use sterile gel ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional imaging of aortic infections
AbstractAortic infections are uncommon clinical entities, but are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we focus on the cross-sectional imaging appearance of aortic infections, including aortic valve endocarditis, pyogenic aortitis, mycotic aneurysm and aortic graft infections, with an emphasis on CT, MRI and PET/CT appearance.Teaching Points•Aortic infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality.•CT, MRI and FDG PET/CT play complementary roles in aortic infection imaging.•Radiologists should be vigilant for aortic infection manifestations to ensure timely diagnos...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lesions involving the outer surface of the bone in children: a pictorial review
ConclusionA pictorial review detailing the imaging features of surface lesions of the bone in children will be a useful aide for both radiologists and their clinical colleagues, and will help them sort their way through the maze of differential diagnoses for these abnormalities.Teaching Points• Surface lesions of bones in children comprise a distinct entity and differ from those in adults.• Imaging plays an important role towards classifying surface lesions of bones in children.• MRI features may be characteristic and aid precise diagnosis, thus guiding further management. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multi-modal imaging of the subscapularis muscle
AbstractThe subscapularis (SSC) muscle is the most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles, and plays an important role in shoulder motion and stabilization. SSC tendon tear is quite uncommon, compared to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, and, most of the time, part of a large rupture of the rotator cuff. Various complementary imaging techniques can be used to obtain an accurate diagnosis of SSC tendon lesions, as well as their extension and muscular impact. Pre-operative diagnosis by imaging is a key issue, since a lesion of the SSC tendon impacts on treatment, surgical approach, and post-operative functional prognosis of rota...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Causes of hepatic capsular retraction: a pictorial essay
This article aims to provide familiarity with this wide spectrum of conditions, including mimics of hepatic capsular retraction, by highlighting the anatomic, pathologic and imaging features that help distinguish these entities from one another.Teaching Points• Hepatic capsular retraction can occur due to various intrinsic or extrinsic hepatic causes.• Hepatic capsular retraction is observed in both benign and malignant conditions.• Recognising associated imaging features can help elicit causes of hepatic capsular retraction. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 29, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hyperparathyroidism jaw tumour syndrome: a pictoral review
AbstractHyperparathyroidism jaw tumour syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited endocrine neoplasia syndrome, which predisposes carriers to develop a triad of multiple ossifying fibromas of the maxilla and mandible, parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas (with consequent hyperparathyroidism) as well as renal and uterine tumours. The prevalence of this condition is unknown. Patients typically present initially with symptoms and signs of a jaw tumour. A high index of suspicion is required for the underlying diagnosis to be recognised, enabling appropriate management of jaw lesions, treatment of hyperparathyroidism, if pr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cinematic rendering – an alternative to volume rendering for 3D computed tomography imaging
AbstractVolume rendering (VR) represents today ’s standard three-dimensional (3-D) image post-processing technique, and often is used to visualize complex anatomical information. Recently, a novel 3-D technique for post-processing of computed tomography (CT) image data has been introduced, which is called cinematic rendering (CR). The objectiv e of this review is to illustrate the image appearance and potential value of CR in comparison with conventional VR in a number of various applications and different anatomical regions. Similar to VR, CR best visualizes high density and high contrast structures such as bones an...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Secretin-stimulated MR cholangiopancreatography: spectrum of findings in pancreatic diseases
AbstractMR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an imaging technique that has evolved over the past 2 decades and that continues to have a fundamental role in the non-invasive detection of morphologic features of the pancreatic ducts. In several studies, MRCP has shown a good correlation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the evaluation of diseases and anatomic variants of the pancreatic ductal system. However, in physiologic conditions the pancreatic ducts are not always easily recognisable. More recently, secretin-enhanced MRCP protocols have been developed for a more complete assessment of pancreatic d...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-echoplanar diffusion weighted imaging in the detection of post-operative middle ear cholesteatoma: navigating beyond the pitfalls to find the pearl
AbstractNon-echoplanar diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has established itself as the modality of choice in detecting and localising post-operative middle ear cleft cholesteatoma. Despite its good diagnostic performance, there are recognised pitfalls in its radiological interpretation which both the radiologist and otologist should be aware of. Our article highlights the various pitfalls and provides guidance for improving radiological interpretation and navigating beyond many of the pitfalls. It is recommended radiological practice to interpret the diffusion weighted images together with the ADC map and...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ARFI: from basic principles to clinical applications in diffuse chronic disease —a review
AbstractThe many factors influencing the shear wave velocity (SWV) measured with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) are examined in order to define the most correct examination technique. In particular, attention is given to the information achieved by experimental models, such as phantoms and animal studies. This review targets the clinical applications of ARFI in the evaluation of chronic diffuse disease, especially of liver and kidneys. The contribution of ARFI to the clinical workout of these patients and some possible perspectives are described.Teaching Points•Stiffness significantly varies among normal and ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Uncommon Diseases of The Popliteal Artery: A Pictorial Review
AbstractUncommon diseases of the popliteal artery include cystic adventitial disease, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) and popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA). Because all of these conditions may present with pain or intermittent claudication, imaging is crucial for differentiating them and directing management. Delayed diagnosis can lead to major complications, including acute limb ischemia. Our aim is to provide an illustrative overview of these conditions in order to make radiologists aware of them and avoid misdiagnosis for timely appropriate management.Teaching Points•Cystic adventitial disease diagnosis i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic imaging and cataloguing of female genital malformations
AbstractTo help physicians and radiologists in the diagnosis of female genito-urinary malformations, especially of complex cases, the embryology of the female genital tract, the basis for M üllerian development anomalies, the current classifications for such anomalies and the comparison for inclusion and cataloguing of female genital malformations are briefly reviewed. The use of the embryological system to catalogue female genito-urinary malformations may ultimately be more useful in correlations with clinical presentations and in helping with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic imaging of the differe...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characteristics and trends in publication of scientific papers presented at the European Congress of Radiology: a comparison between 2000 and 2010
ConclusionSeveral European nations consistently convert relatively high percentages of oral abstracts at ECR into publications, and the influence of Asian countries is increasing.Main Messages•Certain European nations consistently publish high percentages of orally presented abstracts at ECR.•The influence of several Asian countries on ECR is increasing.•Country, subspecialty and study design are significantly associated with journal publication.•Authors collaborating internationally have the highest publication rates and mean impact factors.•Among all modalities, PET-CT, MRI and CT have the highes...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 2, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries
Abstract This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communicatio...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mandatory adherence to diagnostic protocol increases the yield of CTPA for pulmonary embolism
Conclusions This study shows that mandatory adherence to a diagnostic protocol increases the yield of CTPA for PE in our centre. Main Messages • Mandatory adherence to diagnostic protocol increases the yield of CTPA for PE • Previous DVT and signs of DVT were associated with a higher yield • No patients with a low Wells score and a low D-dimer had PE (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Atraumatic splenic rupture, an underrated cause of acute abdomen
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 29, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodal imaging of the tricuspid valve: normal appearance and pathological entities
Abstract The tricuspid valve, which is the atrioventricular valve attached to the morphological right ventricle, is affected by a wide range of pathological processes. Tricuspid valve diseases are now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is the most widely available and, hence, the first-line imaging modality used in the evaluation of tricuspid valve disorders; however, CT and MRI are also increasingly used for further evaluation and characterization of these entities. In this article, we first review the normal anatomy and embryology of the tricuspid valve, f...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The 100 most cited articles investigating the radiological staging of oesophageal and junctional cancer: a bibliometric analysis
Conclusion This bibliometric analysis has identified key publications regarded as important in radiological OC staging. Articles with the highest citation rates all investigated PET imaging, suggesting this modality could be the focus of future research. Main Messages • This study identifies key articles that investigate radiological staging of oesophageal cancer. • The most common topic was accuracy of staging investigations. • The article with the highest citation rate investigated the use of texture...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thyroid computed tomography imaging: pictorial review of variable pathologies
Abstract Focal and diffuse thyroid abnormalities are commonly encountered during the interpretation of computed tomography (CT) exams performed for various clinical purposes. These findings can often lead to a diagnostic dilemma, as the CT reflects the nonspecific appearances. Ultrasound (US) examination has a superior spatial resolution and is considered the modality of choice for thyroid evaluation. Nevertheless, CT detects incidental thyroid nodules (ITNs) and plays an important role in the evaluation of thyroid cancer. In this pictorial review, we cover a wide spectrum of common and uncommon, incide...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs
Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs) are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector C...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The clothes maketh the sign
Abstract Pattern recognition is a key tool that enables radiologists to evoke certain diagnoses based on a radiologic appearance. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Polonius tells his son Laertes to dress well because “apparel oft proclaims the man”; this phrase is now expressed in modern parlance as “the clothes maketh the man”. Similarly in radiology, appearances are everything, and in the case of radiologic signs, occasionally “the clothes maketh the sign”. The radiologic signs described in this pictorial review resemble items of clothing, fabric types, headwear, or accessories ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The pterygopalatine fossa: imaging anatomy, communications, and pathology revisited
Abstract The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is a small, clinically inaccessible, fat-filled space located in the deep face that serves as a major neurovascular crossroad between the oral cavity, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, orbit, masticator space, and the middle cranial fossa. Due to its inherent complex location and connections, it can potentially act as a natural conduit for the spread of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases across the various deep spaces in the head and neck. This review aims to acquaint the reader with the imaging anatomy of the PPF, its important communications, and to identify some major pathol...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical and radiological features of extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis: a pictorial essay
Abstract The aim of this manuscript is to describe radiological findings of extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is an immune-mediated systemic disease of unknown origin, characterized by non-caseating epitheliod granulomas. Ninety percent of patients show granulomas located in the lungs or in the related lymph nodes. However, lesions can affect any organ. Typical imaging features of liver and spleen sarcoidosis include visceromegaly, with multiple nodules hypodense on CT images and hypointense on T2-weighted MRI acquisitions. Main clinical and radiological manifestations of renal sarcoidosis are nephrolithia...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESGAR 2016 Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities
Abstract The cardiovascular system is affected by a wide range of pathological processes, including neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, and congenital aetiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are state-of-the-art imaging modalities used in the evaluation of these cardiovascular disorders. MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization and multi-planar imaging/reconstruction capabilities, which makes it useful in the evaluation of cardiac morphology, ventricular and valvar function, disease characterization, and evaluation of myocardial viability. F...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: imaging update and review
Conclusion IGM is a rapidly progressive rare inflammatory condition of the breast resulting in non-necrotizing granuloma formation. Imaging features mimic breast carcinoma and diagnosis can be difficult. Radiologists’ awareness of this condition is essential to prevent delayed or unnecessary treatment. Teaching points • Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rapidly progressive inflammatory condition. • Imaging features may mimic breast carcinoma or infection. • Ultrasound shows irregular hypoechoic masses...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Paediatric brainstem: A comprehensive review of pathologies on MR imaging
This article is a compilation of the MR imaging manifestations of a spectrum of common and uncommon brainstem pathologies that can be encountered in the paediatric age group. Teaching Points • The paediatric brainstem can be afflicted by many pathologies that may overlap clinico-radiologically. • MRI is the best modality for the localisation and diagnosis of brainstem pathologies. • Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful in the diagnosis of vascular and metabolic disorders. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European Society of Radiology (ESR) and American College of Radiology (ACR) report of the 2015 global summit on radiological quality and safety
The objective was to exchange ideas and develop common strategies to improve and harmonise quality and safety in radiology on a global level. Participants debated and proposed improvement initiatives at the conclusion of the meeting. Main Messages • Radiologists must adapt to demonstrate their value to the healthcare system. • Integration of quality and safety policies is crucial for our profession. • Excellent patient care includes good communication and direct involvement in clinical problem sol...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multidetector CT of expected findings and early postoperative complications after current techniques for ventral hernia repair
Abstract Current techniques for ventral hernia repair (VHR) rely on prosthetic mesh implantation and are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Potentially serious iatrogenic complications may occur following VHR, though these are rare compared to the vast number of procedures performed each year. This paper provides an overview of contemporary open and laparoscopic surgical techniques and biomaterials, then reviews and illustrates the expected postoperative imaging appearances, and common and unusual early complications after VHR. Emphasis is placed on multidetector computed tomography (CT), which comprehensiv...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Atraumatic splenic rupture, an underrated cause of acute abdomen
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR teleradiology survey: results
Abstract With recent developments of teleradiology technology and services, it has become necessary to better evaluate its extent and use among different countries in Europe. With this goal in mind, the ESR launched two specific surveys intended to gather the current state of adoption and implementation of teleradiology in clinical practice. A special focus on differentiating between insourcing teleradiology services among partners of the same organisation and outsourcing to external services was an essential part of the design of these surveys. The first survey was addressed to 44 national societies of different ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose screening CT: a pictorial review
Abstract The typical presentation of early stage lung cancers on low-dose CT screening are non-calcified pulmonary nodules. However, there is a wide spectrum of unusual focal abnormalities that can be early presentations of lung cancer. These abnormalities include, for example, cancers associated with ‘cystic airspaces’ or scar-like cancers. The detection of lung cancer with low-dose CT can be affected by the absence of intravenous contrast medium. As a consequence, endobronchial and central lesions can be difficult to recognize, raising the potential for missed cancers. Focal lesions arising within pr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a diagnostic dilemma for the breast radiologist
Conclusion Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis has varied and non-specific appearances on ultrasound and mammography. Histopathology is essential to establish diagnosis. Teaching Points • Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis often poses a diagnostic dilemma for the radiologist by mimicking malignancy. • It has varied and non-specific appearances on mammography and ultrasound. • Histopathology is mandatory to establish the diagnosis and decide management. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI in multiple myeloma: a pictorial review of diagnostic and post-treatment findings
Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnostic work-up of patients with multiple myeloma. Since 2014, MRI findings are included in the new diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Patients with smouldering myeloma presenting with more than one unequivocal focal lesion in the bone marrow on MRI are considered having symptomatic myeloma requiring treatment, regardless of the presence of lytic bone lesions. However, bone marrow evaluation with MRI offers more than only morphological information regarding the detection of focal lesions in patients...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced imaging of colorectal cancer: From anatomy to molecular imaging
Abstract Imaging techniques play a key role in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. The introduction of new advanced anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging techniques may improve the assessment of diagnosis, prognosis, planning therapy, and assessment of response to treatment of these patients. Functional and molecular imaging techniques in clinical practice may allow the assessment of tumour-specific characteristics and tumour heterogeneity. This paper will review recent developments in imaging technologies and the evolving roles for these techniques in colorectal cancer. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multi-modal imaging of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder
Abstract Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a clinical condition characterized by progressive limitation of active and passive mobility of the glenohumeral joint, generally associated with high levels of pain. Although the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis is based mainly on clinical examination, different imaging modalities including arthrography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance arthrography may help to confirm the diagnosis, detecting a number of findings such as capsular and coracohumeral ligament thickening, poor capsular distension, extracapsular contrast leakage, and synovial hyper...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research