Odontogenic keratocyst: imaging features of a benign lesion with an aggressive behaviour
AbstractThe latest (4th) edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Head and Neck Tumours, published in January 2017, has reclassified keratocystic odontogenic tumour as odontogenic keratocyst. Therefore, odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are now considered benign cysts of odontogenic origin that account for about 10% of all odontogenic cysts. OKCs arise from the dental lamina and are characterised by a cystic space containing desquamated keratin with a uniform lining of parakeratinised squamous epithelium. The reported age distribution of OKCs is considerably wide, with a peak of incidence in the third ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Routine MRCP in the management of patients with gallbladder stones awaiting cholecystectomy: a single-centre experience
ConclusionsMRCP is a reliable evaluation for the detection of common bile duct (CBD) stones, reducing the misdiagnosis of retained choledocholithiasis with normal biochemical predictors and US examination.Main messages• MRCP is a non-invasive method for the detection of CBD stones.• Preoperative MRCP reduces the misdiagnosis of retained choledocholithiasis.• Detection of choledocholithiasis is mandatory prior to cholecystectomy to avoid surgical morbidity (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Convolutional neural networks: an overview and application in radiology
AbstractConvolutional neural network (CNN), a class of artificial neural networks that has become dominant in various computer vision tasks, is attracting interest across a variety of domains, including radiology. CNN is designed to automatically and adaptively learn spatial hierarchies of features through backpropagation by using multiple building blocks, such as convolution layers, pooling layers, and fully connected layers. This review article offers a perspective on the basic concepts of CNN and its application to various radiological tasks, and discusses its challenges and future directions in the field of radiology. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of arterial stroke mimics: a pictorial review
AbstractAcute ischaemic stroke represents the most common cause of new sudden neurological deficit, but other diseases mimicking stroke happen in about one-third of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best technique to identify those ‘stroke mimics’. In this article, we propose a diagnostic approach of those stroke mimics on MRI according to an algorithm based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which can be abnormal or normal, followed by the results of other common additional MRI sequences, such as T2 with gradient recall ed echo weighted imaging (T2-GRE) and fluid-attenuated inversion recover...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validation of the educational effectiveness of a mobile learning app to improve knowledge about MR image quality optimisation and artefact reduction
ConclusionThe study identified the potential of the smartphone app as an effective educational tool to support MR radiographers ’ knowledge in recognising and characterising MR image quality errors.Key Points•A high level of knowledge to optimise MR image quality is crucial.•Ongoing education in image quality optimisation is required.•The potential role of app as an effective educational tool is identified. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tracking the glossopharyngeal nerve pathway through anatomical references in cross-sectional imaging techniques: a pictorial review
AbstractThe glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) is a rarely considered cranial nerve in imaging interpretation, mainly because clinical signs may remain unnoticed, but also due to its complex anatomy and inconspicuousness in conventional cross-sectional imaging. In this pictorial review, we aim to conduct a comprehensive review of the GPN anatomy from its origin in the central nervous system to peripheral target organs. Because the nerve cannot be visualised with conventional imaging examinations for most of its course, we will focus on the most relevant anatomical references along the entire GPN pathway, which will be divided in...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Location, length, and enhancement: systematic approach to differentiating intramedullary spinal cord lesions
This article will provide a systematic approach to the evaluation of intramedullary spinal cord lesions —with emphasis on location, length and segment distribution, and enhancement pattern—to help narrow the differential diagnosis. In doing so, we will review various spinal cord pathologies, including demyelinating and metabolic conditions, neoplasms, and vascular lesions.Summary/conclusionAlthough intramedullary spinal cord abnormalities can be a challenge for the radiologist, a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis with a focus on lesion location, cord length and segment involvement, as well as en...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 12, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiological identification and analysis of soft tissue musculoskeletal calcifications
AbstractMusculoskeletal calcifications are frequent on radiographs and sometimes problematic. The goal of this article is to help radiologists to make the correct diagnosis when faced with an extraosseous musculoskeletal calcification. One should first differentiate a calcification from an ossification or a foreign body and then locate the calcification correctly. Each location has a specific short differential diagnosis, with minimal further investigation necessary. Intra-tendon calcifications are most frequently associated with hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD). In most cases, intra-articular calcifications are ca...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Burned bodies: post-mortem computed tomography, an essential tool for modern forensic medicine
AbstractCurrently, post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become an accessible and contemporary tool for forensic investigations. In the case of burn victims, it provides specific semiologies requiring a prudent understanding to differentiate between the normal post-mortem changes from heat-related changes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to provide to the radiologist the keys to establish complete and focused reports in cases of PMCT of burn victims. Thus, the radiologist must discern all the contextual divergences with the forensic history, and must be able to report all the relevant elements to answer to the fore...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Postmortem fetal magnetic resonance imaging: where do we stand?
AbstractPostmortem fetal magnetic resonance imaging (PMFMRI) is increasingly used thanks to its good overall concordance with histology paralleling the rising incidence of parental refusal of autopsy. The technique could become a routine clinical examination but it needs to be standardized and conducted by trained radiologists. Such radiologists should be aware of not only the (congenital and acquired) anomalies that can involve the fetus, but also of the “physiological” postmortem changes. In this article, we intend to focus on the contribution of PMFMRI based on the existing literature and on our own experien...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The amount of calcifications in pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients is underestimated in computed tomographic imaging; a post-mortem correlation of histological and computed tomographic findings in two cases
ConclusionsWith CT imaging vascular calcifications and skin alterations can be monitored in PXE patients. However, many of the subtle PXE-related abnormalities found in other organ systems during the autopsy were not visualised by CT scans. Furthermore, we extended the current knowledge on the disease location of PXE with subcutaneous, oesophageal and pleural lesions.Teaching Points• CT can be used to monitor gross vascular calcifications in PXE patients.• Many subtle PXE-related abnormalities are not visualised by CT scans.• PXE-related alterations can also be found in oesophagus, pleura and subcutaneous fa...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques of the spine and spinal cord in children and adults
AbstractIn this article, we illustrate the main advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques used for imaging of the spine and spinal cord in children and adults. This work focuses on daily clinical practice and aims to address the most common questions and needs of radiologists. We will also provide tips to solve common problems with which we were confronted. The main clinical indications for each MR technique, possible pitfalls and the challenges faced in spine imaging because of anatomical and physical constraints will be discussed. The major advanced MRI techniques dealt with in this article are CSF, (cerebroso...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESGAR 2018 Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical applications of diffusion weighted imaging in neuroradiology
AbstractDiffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has revolutionised stroke imaging since its introduction in the mid-1980s, and it has also become a pillar of current neuroimaging. Diffusion abnormalities represent alterations in the random movement of water molecules in tissues, revealing their microarchitecture, and occur in many neurological conditions. DWI provides useful information, increasing the sensitivity of MRI as a diagnostic tool, narrowing the differential diagnosis, providing prognostic information, aiding in treatment planning and evaluating response to treatment. Recently, there have been several technical improve...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Grading of carotid artery stenosis with computed tomography angiography: whether to use the narrowest diameter or the cross-sectional area
AbstractObjectivesTo compare the estimation of carotid artery stenosis by computed tomography angiography (CTA) based on cross-sectional area versus the smallest diameter measurement, and test the accuracy of both CTA measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) as a reference method.MethodsFor 113 carotid arteries with stenosis ≥50% we analysed the differences in the estimated stenosis level between both CTA methods and CDUS using the Bland-Altman approach. Further, we calculated sensitivity, specificity and plotted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for both CTA methods.ResultsThe mean differenc...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

EuSoMII Academy 2017
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Xantogranulomatous pyeloneprhritis in children
AbstractXanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) is an unusual and severe form of chronic inflammatory lesion of the kidney, characterised by the destruction of the renal parenchyma and the presence of multinucleated giant cells and lipid-laden macrophages, inflammatory infiltration and intensive renal fibrosis. There are a few cases in the literature which describe the disease in children. The pathomechanism of XPN is poorly understood. Renal obstruction with concomitant urinary tract infection is the most commonly associated pathological finding. The process is typically unilateral and may be focal or diffuse. In both ca...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Telemedicine-based system for quality management and peer review in radiology
AbstractObjectivesQuality assurance is the key component of modern radiology. A telemedicine-based quality assurance system helps to overcome the “scoring” approach and makes the quality control more accessible and objective.MethodsA concept for quality assurance in radiology is developed. Its realization is a set of strategies, actions, and tools. The latter is based on telemedicine-based peer review of 23,199 computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images.ResultsThe conception of the system for quality management in radiology represents a chain of actions: “discrepancies evaluation...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A review of existing and potential computer user interfaces for modern radiology
AbstractThe digitalization of modern imaging has led radiologists to become very familiar with computers and their user interfaces (UI). New options for display and command offer expanded possibilities, but the mouse and keyboard remain the most commonly utilized, for usability reasons. In this work, we review and discuss different UI and their possible application in radiology. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging displays in the context of interventional radiology, and discuss interest in touchscreens, kinetic sensors, eye detection, and augmented or virtual reality. We show that UI design specifical...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MR imaging findings in some rare neurological complications of paediatric cancer
AbstractNeurological complications of paediatric cancers are a substantial problem. Complications can be primary from central nervous system (CNS) spread or secondary from indirect or remote effects of cancer, as well as cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this review, we present the clinical and imaging findings of rare but important neurological complications in paediatric patients with cancer. Neurological complications are classified into three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-remission. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, hyperviscosity syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocyt...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Masses of developmental and genetic origin affecting the paediatric craniofacial skeleton
This article provides a comprehensive approach for the evaluation of children with masses or mass-like lesions of developmental and genetic origin affecting the craniofacial skeleton. Typical findings are illustrated and the respective roles of computed tomography (CT), cone beam CT (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences and ultrasonography (US) are discussed for the pre-therapeutic assessment, complex treatment planning and post-treatment surveillance. Key imaging findings and characteristic clinical manifestations are reviewed. Pitfalls of image interpretation are address...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: European radiographers ’ challenges from mammography education and clinical practice—an integrative review
Affiliation number 2 was rendered incorrectly. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 25, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abdominal manifestations of IgG4-related disease: a pictorial review
AbstractIn the last decade, autoimmune pancreatitis has become recognised as part of a wider spectrum of IgG4-related disease, typically associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels and demonstrating a response to corticosteroid therapy. Radiologically, there is imaging overlap with other benign and neoplastic conditions. This pictorial review discusses the intra-abdominal manifestations of this disease on cross-sectional imaging before and after steroid treatment and the main radiological features which help to distinguish it from other key differentials.Teaching Points• Autoimmune pancreatitis is part of a spectrum of...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 25, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multidetector CT of iatrogenic and self-inflicted vascular lesions and infections at the groin
AbstractThe number and complexity of endovascular procedures performed via either arterial or venous access are steadily increasing. Albeit associated with higher morbidity compared to the radial approach, the traditional common femoral artery remains the preferred access site in a variety of cardiac, aortic, oncologic and peripheral vascular procedures. Both transarterial and venous cannulation (for electrophysiology, intravenous laser ablation and central catheterisation) at the groin may result in potentially severe vascular access site complications (VASC). Furthermore, vascular and soft-tissue groin infections may dev...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rectal cancer MRI: protocols, signs and future perspectives radiologists should consider in everyday clinical practice
We present a practical overview regarding the state of the art of the MRI protocol, the main signs that radiologists should consider for their reports during their clinical activity and future perspectives.Teaching Points•MRI protocol for rectal cancer staging and re-staging.•MRI findings that radiologists should consider for reports during everyday clinical activity.•Perspectives regarding the development of latest technologies. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the sublingual and submandibular spaces
This article reviews the relevant anatomy, clinical highlights and distinguishing imaging features necessary for accurate characterisation.Teaching Points•The mylohyoid sling is a key anatomical landmark useful in surgical planning.•Congenital lesions and infectious/inflammatory processes constitute the majority of pathology.•Depth of invasion is key when staging tumours in the oral cavity. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of Meckel ’s cave in normal and disease conditions
AbstractMeckel ’s cave is a dural recess in the posteromedial portion of the middle cranial fossa that acts as a conduit for the trigeminal nerve between the prepontine cistern and the cavernous sinus, and houses the Gasserian ganglion and proximal rootlets of the trigeminal nerve. It serves as a major pathway i n perineural spread of pathologies such as head and neck neoplasms, automatically upstaging tumours, and is a key structure to assess in cases of trigeminal neuralgia. The purpose of this pictorial review is threefold: (1) to review the normal anatomy of Meckel’s cave; (2) to describe imaging find ings ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Elucidating early CT after pancreatico-duodenectomy: a primer for radiologists
AbstractPancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) represents the standard surgical treatment for resectable malignancies of the pancreatic head, distal common bile duct, periampullary region and duodenum, and is also performed to manage selected benign tumours and refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite improved surgical techniques and acceptable mortality, PD remains a technically demanding, high-risk operation burdened with high morbidity (complication rates 40 –50% of patients). Multidetector computed tomography (CT) represents the mainstay modality to rapidly investigate the postoperative abdomen, and to provide a consisten...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of urgencies and emergencies in the lung cancer patient
AbstractLung cancer patients often experience potentially life-threatening medical urgencies and emergencies, which may be a direct or indirect result of the underlying malignancy. This pictorial review addresses the most common thoracic, neurological and musculoskeletal medical emergencies in lung cancer patients, including superior vena cava syndrome, pulmonary embolism, spontaneous pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, massive haemoptysis, central airway obstruction, oesophagorespiratory fistula, malignant spinal cord compression, carcinomatous meningitis, cerebral herniation and pathological fracture. Emphasis is placed on ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging the operated colon using water-enema multidetector CT, with emphasis on surgical anastomoses
AbstractWater-enema multidetector CT (WE-MDCT) provides a detailed multiplanar visualisation of mural, intra- and extraluminal abnormalities of the large bowel, relying on preliminary bowel cleansing, retrograde luminal distension, pharmacological hypotonisation and intravenous contrast enhancement. In patients with a history of colorectal surgery for either carcinoma or Crohn ’s disease (CD), WE-MDCT may also be performed via a colostomy, which allows depicting the anatomy and position of the residual large bowel and evaluates the calibre, length, mural and extraluminal features of luminal strictures. Therefore, WE-...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after hysterectomy
AbstractIndicated to manage a variety of disorders affecting the female genital tract, hysterectomy represents the second most common gynaecological operation after caesarean section. Performed via an open, laparoscopic or vaginal approach, hysterectomy is associated with non-negligible morbidity and occasional mortality. Iatrogenic complications represent a growing concern for gynaecologists and may result in prolonged hospitalisation, need for interventional procedures or repeated surgery, renal impairment and malpractice claims. As a result, radiologists are increasingly requested to investigate patients with suspected ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Image-guided minimally invasive treatment for small renal cell carcinoma
AbstractSurgical partial nephrectomy is still considered as the “gold standard” for the definitive management of small malignant renal masses, whereas treatment with image-guided percutaneous ablation is still mainly reserved for those patients who cannot undergo nephron-sparing surgical resection due to advanced age, underlying comorbidities or compromised renal function. Nonetheless, the recent evidence that underlines the long-term oncological equipoise of percutaneous ablation methods with surgical resection in combination with the reduced complication rate and cost supports the use of an image-guided minim...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abdominal imaging findings in adult patients with Fontan circulation
AbstractThe Fontan procedures, designed to treat paediatric patients with functional single ventricles, have markedly improved the patient ’s survival into adulthood. The physiology of the Fontan circuit inevitably increases systemic venous pressure, which may lead to multi-system organ failure in the long-term follow-up. Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) can progress to liver cirrhosis with signs of portal hypertension. Focal n odular hyperplasia-like nodules commonly develop in FALD. Imaging surveillance is often performed to monitor the progression of FALD and to detect hepatocellular carcinoma, which infrequ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How to use the Kaiser score as a clinical decision rule for diagnosis in multiparametric breast MRI: a pictorial essay
AbstractDue to its superior sensitivity, breast MRI (bMRI) has been established as an important additional diagnostic tool in the breast clinic and is used for screening in patients with an elevated risk for breast cancer. Breast MRI, however, is a complex tool, providing multiple images containing several contrasts. Thus, reading bMRI requires a structured approach. A lack of structure will increase the rate of false-positive findings and sacrifice most of the advantages of bMRI as additional work-up will be required. While the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System) lexicon is a major step toward standardised ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Malformed vertebrae: a clinical and imaging review
AbstractA variety of structural developmental anomalies affect the vertebral column. Malformed vertebrae can arise secondary to errors of vertebral formation, fusion and/or segmentation and developmental variation. Malformations can be simple with little or no clinical consequence, or complex with serious structural and neurologic implications. These anomalies can occasionally mimic acute trauma (bipartite atlas versus Jefferson fracture, butterfly vertebra versus burst fracture), or predispose the affected individual to myelopathy. Accurate imaging interpretation of vertebral malformations requires knowledge of ageappropr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Added value of double reading in diagnostic radiology,a systematic review
ConclusionsThe systematic review found rather low discrepancy rates. The benefit of double reading must be balanced by the considerable number of working hours a systematic double-reading scheme requires. A more profitable scheme might be to use systematic double reading for selected, high-risk examination types. A second conclusion is that there seems to be a value of sub-specialisation for increased report quality. A consequent implementation of this would have far-reaching organisational effects.Key Points• In double reading, two or more radiologists read the same images.• A systematic literature review was pe...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Endocavitary contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS): a novel problem solving technique
AbstractContrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a technique that has developed as an adjunct to conventional ultrasound. CEUS offers a number of benefits over conventional axial imaging with computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, primarily as a “beside” test, without ionising radiation or the safety concerns associated with iodinated/gadolinium-based contrast agents. Intravascular use of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) is widespread with extensive evidence for effective use. Despite this, the potential utility of UCAs in physiologica l and non-physiological cavities has not been fully explored...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter from the new Editor-in-Chief for Insights into Imaging
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ABCs of the degenerative spine
AbstractDegenerative changes in the spine have high medical and socioeconomic significance. Imaging of the degenerative spine is a frequent challenge in radiology. The pathogenesis of this degenerative process represents a biomechanically related continuum of alterations, which can be identified with different imaging modalities. The aim of this article is to review radiological findings involving the intervertebral discs, end plates, bone marrow changes, facet joints and the spinal canal in relation to the pathogenesis of degenerative changes in the spine. Findings are described in association with the clinical symptoms t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR paper on the proper use of mobile devices in radiology
AbstractMobile devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) have become key methods of communication, data access and data sharing for the population in the past decade. The technological capabilities of these devices have expanded very rapidly; for example, their in-built cameras have largely replaced conventional cameras. Their processing power is often sufficient to handle the large data sets of radiology studies and to manipulate images and studies directly on hand-held devices. Thus, they can be used to transmit and view radiology studies, often in locations remote from the source of the imaging data. They are not recommended...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A practical guide for planning pelvic bone percutaneous interventions (biopsy, tumour ablation and cementoplasty)
The objective of this article is to propose a systematic approach for image-guided pelvic bone procedures, as well as to provide some technical tips. We illustrate the article with multiple examples, and diagrams of the approaches and important structures to avoid to perform these procedures safely.Teaching Points•Pelvic bone procedures are safe to perform if anatomical landmarks are recognised.•The safest approach varies depending on the pelvic level.•CT is the modality of choice for guiding pelvic percutaneous procedures.•Fluoroscopy is recommended when real-time monitoring is mandatory.•MRI can ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular CT and MRI: a practical guide to imaging protocols
AbstractNon-invasive cross-sectional imaging techniques play a crucial role in the assessment of the varied manifestations of vascular disease. Vascular imaging encompasses a wide variety of pathology. Designing vascular imaging protocols can be challenging owing to the non-uniform velocity of blood in the aorta, differences in cardiac output between patients, and the effect of different disease states on blood flow. In this review, we provide the rationale behind —and a practical guide to—designing and implementing straightforward vascular computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiology reporting —from Hemingway to HAL?
AbstractThe job of the diagnostic radiologist is two-fold: identifying and interpreting the information available from diagnostic imaging studies and communicating that interpretation meaningfully to the referring clinician. However skilled our interpretive abilities, our patients are not well served if we fail to convey our conclusions effectively. Despite the central importance of communication skills to the work of radiologists, trainees rarely receive significant formal training in reporting skills, and much of the training given simply reflects the trainer ’s personal preferences. Studies have shown a preference...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Collaboration, campaigns and champions for appropriate imaging: feedback from the Zagreb workshop
AbstractLeading radiologists and representatives from national radiation protection regulatory authorities and health ministries from 19 countries of the European region worked together with five experts at the workshop on justification and appropriate use of imaging in Zagreb, Croatia, from 26 to 28 October 2017 jointly organised by the IAEA and the European Society of Radiology. The workshop served as a forum to exchange information on challenges and solutions for improving justification and the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging. Common barriers to improving the use of imaging referral guidelines were discussed and t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 12, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Summary of the proceedings of the International Forum 2017: “Position of interventional radiology within radiology”
AbstractThe International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected topics of global relevance in radiology. In 2017, the issue of the position of interventional radiology (IR) within radiology was analysed. IR is expanding because of the increased patient demand for minimally invasive therapies performed under imaging guidance, and its success in improving patient outcomes, reducing in-hospital stays, reducing morbidity and mortality of treatment in many organs and organ-systems. Despite the many successes of IR, public awareness ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hyperechoic breast images: all that glitters is not gold!
AbstractHyperechogenicity is a sign classically reported to be in favour of a benign lesion and can be observed in many types of benign breast lesions such as hamartoma, lipoma, angiolipoma, haemangioma, haematoma, fat necrosis, fibrosis and galactocele, among others. However, some rare malignant breast lesions can also present a hyperechoic appearance. Most of these hyperechoic malignant lesions present other characteristics that are more typically suggestive of malignancy such as posterior shadowing, a more vertical axis or irregular margins that help to guide the diagnosis. Post magnetic resonance imaging, second-look u...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR paper on structured reporting in radiology
This article outlines the requirements for a successful structured reporting strategy (definition of c ontent and structure, standard terminologies, tools and protocols). A potential implementation strategy is outlined. Moving from conventional prose reports to structured reporting is endorsed as a positive development, and must be an international effort, with international design and adoption of st ructured reporting templates that can be translated and adapted in local environments as needed. Industry involvement is key to success, based on international data standards and guidelines.Key Points•Standardisation of r...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the scrotum: beyond sonography
AbstractThe aim of this article is to describe the role of second-level imaging techniques after an initial ultrasonography evaluation in the assessment of scrotal diseases. While ultrasonography remains central as the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of pathologic conditions of the scrotum, the role of magnetic resonance imaging continues to evolve: it can actually be valuable as a problem-solving tool when sonographic findings are equivocal or inconclusive. Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum may provide accurate detection and characterization of scrotal diseases, well depicting the precise location of s...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Endometriosis: clinical features, MR imaging findings and pathologic correlation
ConclusionOwing to the possibility to perform a complete assessment of all pelvic compartments at one time, MRI represents the best imaging technique for preoperative staging of endometriosis, in order to choose the more appropriate surgical approach and to plan a multidisciplinary team work.Teaching Points• Endometriosis includes ovarian endometriomas, peritoneal implants and deep pelvic endometriosis.• MRI is a second-line imaging technique after US.• Deep pelvic endometriosis is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility.• Endometriosis is characterized by considerable diagnostic delay.&bull...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Major pancreatic resections: normal postoperative findings and complications
ConclusionsRadiologists should be aware of surgical procedures, postoperative anatomy and normal postoperative imaging findings to better detect complications and recurrent disease.Teaching Points•Morbidity after pancreatic resections is high.•CT is the most effective postoperative imaging technique.•Imaging depicts the anastomoses and the new postoperative anatomy.•Pancreatic fistula is the most common complication after partial pancreatic resection. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research