Demystifying the persistent pneumothorax: role of imaging
Abstract Evaluation for pneumothorax is an important indication for obtaining chest radiographs in patients who have had trauma, recent cardiothoracic surgery or are on ventilator support. By definition, a persistent pneumothorax constitutes ongoing bubbling of air from an in situ chest drain, 48 h after its insertion. Persistent pneumothorax remains a diagnostic dilemma and identification of potentially treatable aetiologies is important. These may be chest tube related (kinks or malposition), lung parenchymal disease, bronchopleural fistula, or rarely, oesophageal-pleural fistula. Although radiographs remai...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multidimensional evaluation of tracheobronchial disease in adults
Abstract The large airways can be affected by a wide spectrum of acquired benign and malignant diseases. These lesions may present as focal or diffuse processes and with narrowing or widening of the airway. Some of these may be asymptomatic for quite some time and may be incidentally detected on imaging, while others may be symptomatic, causing airway compromise. There may be a characteristic radiograph and computed tomography (CT) appearance, suggesting a narrow differential. When the imaging findings are not definitive, tissue may be obtained for pathological analysis. It behooves the radiologist to be familiar ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Post traumatic deafness: a pictorial review of CT and MRI findings
Abstract Hearing loss is a common functional disorder after trauma, and radiologists should be aware of the ossicular, labyrinthine or brain lesions that may be responsible. After a trauma, use of a systematic approach to explore the main functional components of auditory pathways is essential. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the disruption of the conductive chain, which may be due to ossicular luxation or fracture. This pictorial review firstly describes the normal 2-D and 3-D anatomy of the ossicular chain, including the incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joints. The role of 3-D CT in the post-traumatic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An ontogenetic approach to gynecologic malignancies
Abstract Ontogenetic anatomy is the mapping of body compartments established during early embryologic development, particularly well demarcated in the adult pelvis. Traditional cancer surgery is based on wide tumour excision with a safe margin, whereas the ontogenetic theory of local tumour spread claims that local dissemination is facilitated in the ontogenetic compartment of origin, but suppressed at its borders in the early stages of cancer development. Optimal local control of cancer is achieved by whole compartment resection with intact margins following ontogenetic “planes”. The principles embod...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Spectrum of MRI features of ganglion and synovial cysts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hoffa’s fat pad abnormalities, knee pain and magnetic resonance imaging in daily practice
Abstract Hoffa’s (infrapatellar) fat pad (HFP) is one of the knee fat pads interposed between the joint capsule and the synovium. Located posterior to patellar tendon and anterior to the capsule, the HFP is richly innervated and, therefore, one of the sources of anterior knee pain. Repetitive local microtraumas, impingement, and surgery causing local bleeding and inflammation are the most frequent causes of HFP pain and can lead to a variety of arthrofibrotic lesions. In addition, the HFP may be secondarily involved to menisci and ligaments disorders, injuries of the patellar tendon and synovial disorders. P...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-neoplastic diseases of the fallopian tube: MR imaging with emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging
Conclusion MRI is the method of choice to study adnexal pelvic masses. Qualitative and quantitative functional imaging with DWI can be of help in characterization of tubaric diseases, provided that findings are interpreted in conjunction with those obtained with conventional MRI sequences. Teaching Points • Nondilated fallopian tubes are not usually seen on MR images. • MRI is the method of choice to characterize and localize utero-adnexal masses. • MRI allows characterization of lesions...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of breast augmentation: a pictorial review
This article reviews the MRI features of different breast augmentation techniques, their associated complications, and the role of MRI in the assessment of concurrent breast abnormalities. Teaching Points • MRI has the highest sensitivity and specificity for implant rupture detection. • MRI is able to discriminate the nature of implanted prosthesis or injected materials. • Sensitivity of cancer detection by MRI is not reduced through implants. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI evaluation prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): When to acquire and how to interpret
Abstract Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is increasingly being used in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not candidates for surgery. ECG-gated CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in the preoperative planning for these devices. As the number of patients undergoing these procedures increases, a subset of patients is being recognized who have contraindications to iodinated contrast medium, either due to a prior severe allergic type reaction or poor renal function. Another subgroup of patients with low flow and low gradient aortic stenosis is being recognized that are usually assesse...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ocular ultrasonography focused on the posterior eye segment: what radiologists should know
This article focuses on the US anatomy and pathologic conditions that affect the posterior ocular segment. Teaching points • US is specially indicated when ocular fundus cannot be assessed on ophthalmoscopy. • Multipurpose equipment with high-frequency transducers is optimal for imaging the eye. • Ultrasound can reliably depict ocular anatomy and pathology as detachments and tumours. • Dynamic examination is vital for distinguishing certain pathologic conditions as detachments. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spectrum of MRI features of ganglion and synovial cysts
Abstract Ganglion and synovial cysts occur mainly, but not necessarily, in association with osteoarthritis. Presentation varies widely, ranging from small, incidentally detected, asymptomatic lesions to giant ones that might be the source of symptoms, either due to their compressive effect on adjacent structures or due to complications, such as rupture. On magnetic resonance imaging they are typically presented as smooth, well-circumscribed, thin-walled, unilocular, and homogeneously T2-hyperintense lesions. An identifiable thin stalk communicating to the joint space is not infrequent. Nevertheless, depending on t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bilateral temporal lobe disease: looking beyond herpes encephalitis
Abstract The temporal lobes have unique architecture, and functionality that makes them vulnerable to certain disease processes. Patients presenting with bilateral temporal lobe disease are often confused and have altered consciousness, and are therefore unable to provide cogent histories. For these reasons, imaging plays an important role in their workup and management. Disease entities causing bilateral temporal lobe involvement can be infectious, metabolic, neoplastic, and degenerative aetiologies, as well as trauma and cerebrovascular events. We will first describe the structural and functional anatomy of the...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reporting knee meniscal tears: technical aspects, typical pitfalls and how to avoid them
Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most accurate imaging technique in the diagnosis of meniscal lesions and represents a standard tool in knee evaluation. MRI plays a critical role in influencing the treatment decision and enables information that would obviate unnecessary surgery including diagnostic arthroscopy. An accurate interpretation of the knee depends on several factors, starting with technical aspects including radiofrequency coils, imaging protocol and magnetic field strength. The use of dedicated high-resolution orthopaedic coils with a different number of integrated elements is mandator...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging findings of splenic emergencies: a pictorial review
Abstract Although traumatic injuries are the cause of common splenic emergencies in the emergency room, various nontraumatic conditions may also affect the spleen with possible life-threatening results. In this pictorial review, we present imaging findings of usual and unusual splenic emergencies. It is essential to be familiar with key imaging findings and advantages of different modalities to reach a definitive diagnosis. Teaching points • Delayed splenic rupture is commonly related to subcapsular hematoma. • Subtle haemorrhage i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How to diagnose acute appendicitis: ultrasound first
Abstract Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common abdominal emergency with a lifetime prevalence of about 7 %. As the clinical diagnosis of AA remains a challenge to emergency physicians and surgeons, imaging modalities have gained major importance in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected AA in order to keep both the negative appendectomy rate and the perforation rate low. Introduced in 1986, graded-compression ultrasound (US) has well-established direct and indirect signs for diagnosing AA. In our opinion, US should be the first-line imaging modality, as graded-compression US has excellent specificity...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Old and outdated radiology equipment in Croatia—radiation safety and economic consequences
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incidence of numerical variants and transitional lumbosacral vertebrae on whole-spine MRI
Conclusions Numerical variants of the spine are common, and were found to be almost 2.5 times as frequent as transitional lumbosacral vertebrae in the study population. Only whole-spine imaging can identify numerical variants and the anatomical nature of transitional vertebrae. The tendency is toward an increased number of mobile vertebrae in men and a decreased number in women. Main messages • Numerical variants of the spine are more common than transitional vertebrae. • Spinal numerical variants can be reliably ide...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - A - Postgraduate Educational Programme
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - E - Authors’ Index
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - D - Satellite Symposia
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - B - Scientific Sessions and Clinical Trials in Radiology
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - F - List of Authors & Co-Authors
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - G - List of Moderators
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2016 Book of Abstracts - C - Scientific and Educational Exhibits
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in early detection of prostate cancer
Abstract Most prostate cancers (PC) are currently found on the basis of an elevated PSA, although this biomarker has only moderate accuracy. Histological confirmation is traditionally obtained by random transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, but this approach may underestimate PC. It is generally accepted that a clinically significant PC requires treatment, but in case of an non-significant PC, deferment of treatment and inclusion in an active surveillance program is a valid option. The implementation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) into a screening program may reduce the risk of overdetectio...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Use of cryoablation beyond the prostate
Abstract Cryoablation has been used for many years as a surgical ablation technique in the prostate and kidney. However, since the introduction of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and robotic surgery for prostate tumours, its popularity in the urologic community has declined. In the early 2000s, innovations in cryoablation technology allowed the use of thinner probes, which were suitable for percutaneous application. As a result, radiologists began using cryoablation, first in the liver, and then in other organs or tissues such as the kidney, lung, breast, pancreas, bone, and soft tissue. In most of these...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Summary of the proceedings of the International Summit 2015: General and subspecialty radiology
Abstract The need for subspecialisation in radiology and the relationship of general and subspecialist radiologists is very diverse in different regions of the world according to the reports presented at the ESR International Summit, organised by the ESR during the European Congress of Radiology in March 2015 in Vienna. The International Summit is held once a year by the ESR and its national and international radiological partner societies from outside Europe with the aim to address and discuss selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, the relationship between general and subspecialist radiolog...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 11, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The new Interventional Radiology/Diagnostic Radiology dual certificate: “higher standards, better education”
Abstract The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) has approved a “new” residency: dual Certification in Interventional Radiology (IR) / Diagnostic Radiology (DR). This IR/DR program intends to better prepare future IR doctors. Residency programs can apply for the IR/DR program beginning in 2015, with full nationwide implementation of the IR/DR residency likely to ramp up by 2022. The IR/DR dual certificate can be attained via an “Integrated” or “Independent” IR/DR residency pathway. The IR/DR training pathway may lead the way to the future training of IR/DR physicians w...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MR-arthrography and CT-arthrography in sports-related glenolabral injuries: a matched descriptive illustration
Abstract The combination of a large range of motion and insufficient bony stabilization makes the glenohumeral joint susceptible to injuries including dislocation in young athletes. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MR-arthrography) and computed tomography arthrography (CT-arthrography) play an important role in the preoperative workup of labroligametous injuries. This paper illustrates MR-arthrography and CT-arthrography findings acquired at the same time on the same subjects to illustrate common causes and sequelae of shoulder instability. Teaching Points • MR-arthrogra...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI for the preoperative evaluation of femoroacetabular impingement
Abstract Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) refers to a condition characterized by impingement of the femoral head–neck junction against the acetabular rim, often due to underlying osseous and/or soft tissue morphological abnormalities. It is a common cause of hip pain and limited range of motion in young and middle-aged adults. Hip preservation surgery aims to correct the morphological variants seen in FAI, thereby relieving pain and improving function, and potentially preventing early osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanisms of chondral and labral injury in FAI to facilitate ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 29, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early X-ray workers: an effort to assess their numbers, risk, and most common (skin) affliction
Conclusions After 1896, the radiation risk decreased very fast at first and more slowly thereafter to nearly zero in 1935. Many victims became quite old, partly because of the slower progress of tissue reactions at lower radiation doses, partly because of the success of often multiple surgical interventions. Main messages US and German X-ray users amounted to several hundreds to thousand in 1900–1908. The risk eventually to die from radiation was a...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 29, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interventricular membranous septal aneurysm: CT and MR manifestations
Abstract Advanced cardiac imaging is a valuable method to investigate cardiac malformations. The detection of the interventricular membranous septum has clinical significance due to thrombogenic and arrythmogenic predisposition, as well as a role in obstructing the pulmonary flow. This review describes six clinical presentations in which advanced cardiac imaging has been the tool for evaluation, with special emphasis in CT angiography and cardiac MRI sequences. Teaching Points • The interventricular membranous septum can predispose patients to thrombogenic and arrythmoge...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 21, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MR imaging of ovarian masses: classification and differential diagnosis
Conclusion MRI is an essential problem-solving tool to determine the site of origin of a pelvic mass, to characterize an adnexal mass, and to detect local invasion. The main advantages of MRI are the high contrast resolution and lack of ionizing radiation exposure. Although different pathological conditions may show similar radiologic manifestations, radiologists should be aware of MRI features of ovarian lesions that may orientate differential diagnosis. Teaching Points • Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in detection, characterization and staging of adnexal mas...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 16, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Branchial cleft anomalies: a pictorial review of embryological development and spectrum of imaging findings
Abstract The branchial arches are the embryological precursors of the face, neck and pharynx. Anomalies of the branchial arches are the second most common congenital lesions of the head and neck in children, with second branchial arch anomalies by far the most common. Clinically, these congenital anomalies may present as cysts, sinus tracts, fistulae or cartilaginous remnants with typical clinical and radiological findings. We review the normal embryological development of the branchial arches and the anatomical structures of the head and neck that derive from each arch. The typical clinical and radiological appe...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 10, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging the postoperative patient: long-term complications of gastrointestinal surgery
Conclusions Knowledge of the most frequent complications after gastrointestinal surgery in the late postoperative period is of paramount importance for every radiologist, so that potentially life-threatening situations can be promptly diagnosed and adequate therapy can be planned. Teaching points • Long-term postoperative complications of gastrointestinal tract surgery can be divided into procedure-related and disease-related categories. • The most common proce...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT imaging features of atrioventricular shunts: what the radiologist must know
Abstract In the last decade, cardiac computed tomography (CT) has gained mainstream acceptance for the noninvasive exclusion of significant coronary disease in a selected population. Improvements in electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered imaging techniques also allow, by extension, a proper evaluation of the complete heart anatomy. Given the increasing worldwide clinical implementation of cardiac CT for coronary artery evaluation, radiologists can, incidentally, be confronted with unfamiliar and previously unsuspected non-coronary cardiac pathologies, including congenital morphological defects. This presence of congen...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasonography of thyroid nodules: a pictorial review
Abstract Thyroid nodules are a common occurrence in the general population, and these incidental thyroid nodules are often referred for ultrasound (US) evaluation. US provides a safe and fast method of examination. It is sensitive for the detection of thyroid nodules, and suspicious features can be used to guide further investigation/management decisions. However, given the financial burden on the health service and unnecessary anxiety for patients, it is unrealistic to biopsy every thyroid nodule to confirm diagnosis. The British Thyroid Association (BTA) has recently produced a US classification (U1–U5) o...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 26, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers
Conclusions There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. Main messages • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attende...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 23, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and CT-guided transthoracic core lung biopsy
Conclusion PPFE is an underdiagnosed IIP, so radiologist awareness of it needs to be widespread in patients with fibrosis with apical-caudal distribution. Coexistence of different lung diseases strengthens the idea of a predisposing factor. TTB proved to be a good diagnostic tool and can be considered the first choice for invasive assessment of these patients. PFFE has a variable course with no established therapeutic options; therefore a multidisciplinary team is crucial in the approach to patients with ILD. Main messages/Teaching Points • PPFE should be considered in...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 17, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Systemic treatment in breast cancer: a primer for radiologists
Abstract Cytotoxic chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and molecular targeted therapy are the three major classes of drugs used to treat breast cancer. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and bone scintigraphy each have a distinct role in monitoring response and detecting drug toxicities associated with these treatments. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the various systemic therapies used in breast cancer, with an emphasis on the role of imaging in assessing treatment response and detecting treatment-related tox...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 13, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Paediatric imaging radiation dose awareness and use of referral guidelines amongst radiology practitioners and radiographers
Conclusions Poor awareness of radiation doses associated with paediatric imaging examinations and the non-use of referral guidelines may impede imaging practitioners’ role in the justification and optimisation of paediatric imaging examinations. Education and training activities to address such shortcomings are recommended. Key Points • Imaging practitioners demonstrated poor radiation dose awareness for 5 paediatric imaging examinations. • Most radiology practitioners and radiographers were ‘not sure’ or ‘did not’ use refer...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 12, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lights and shadows of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in acute myocarditis
Abstract Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered a primary tool for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis, due to its unique potential for non-invasive identification of the various hallmarks of the inflammatory response, with relevant impact on patient management and prognosis. Nonetheless, a marked variation in sensitivity and negative predictive value has been reported in the literature, reflecting the intrinsic drawbacks of current diagnostic criteria, which are based mainly on the use of conventional CMR pulse sequences. As a consequence, a negative exam cannot reliably exclude the diagnosis, especially ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 10, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions: exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging
Abstract Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features. We herein describe orbital tumours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma), op...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 31, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hepatic tuberculosis: a multimodality imaging review
Conclusions Imaging plays a valuable role in the detection of tubercular hepatic lesions. Also, imaging can be helpful in their characterisation and for assessing associated complications. Teaching points • Hepatic TB has myriad imaging manifestations and is often confounded with neoplastic lesions. • Imaging patterns include miliary TB, macronodular TB, serohepatic TB and tubercular cholangitis. • Concurrent splenic, nodal or pulmonary involvements are helpful pointers towards the diagn...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 24, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A practical guide for performing arthrography under fluoroscopic or ultrasound guidance
Abstract We propose a practical approach for performing arthrography with fluoroscopic or ultrasound guidance. Different approaches to the principal joints of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist and fingers), lower limb (hip, knee, ankle and foot) as well as the facet joints of the spine are discussed and illustrated with numerous drawings. Whenever possible, we emphasise the concept of targeting articular recesses, which offers many advantages over traditional techniques aiming at the joint space. Teaching Points • Arthrography remains a fore...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 22, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Postoperative radiograph of the hip arthroplasty: what the radiologist should know
Abstract This pictorial review aims to provide the radiologist with simple and systematic guidelines for the radiographic evaluation of a hip prosthesis. Currently, there is a plethora of commercially available arthroplasties, making postoperative analysis not always straightforward. Knowledge of the different types of hip arthroplasty and fixating techniques is a prerequisite for correct imaging interpretation. After identification of the type of arthroplasty, meticulous and systematic analysis of the following parameters on an anteroposterior standing pelvic radiograph should be undertaken: leg length, vertical ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging characteristics of pleural tumours
Abstract Malignant mesothelioma is doubtless the more known pleural tumour. However, according to the morphology code of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), there are several histological types of pleural neoplasms, divided into mesothelial, mesenchymal and lymphoproliferative tumours, that may be misdiagnosed. In this paper we summarise and illustrate the incidence aspects and the clinical, pathological and radiological features of these neoplasms. Teaching Points • According to the ICD-O, there are 11 different hi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 16, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: spontaneous renal haemorrhage in end-stage renal disease
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The imaging conundrum of hepatic lymphoma revisited
Abstract The imaging manifestations of hepatic lymphoma, both in its primary and secondary form, are extremely variable and overlap with a number of other more common hepatic diseases. However, in the appropriate clinical context, combining the imaging and laboratory features can aid in making the correct diagnosis. Since the management and prognosis of lymphomas are significantly different from other malignancies, early diagnosis and prompt commencement of therapy is of paramount importance. The various morphological appearances of hepatic lymphoma on imaging have been described here along with their possible di...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 6, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research