ECR 2015 Book of Abstracts - G - List of Moderators
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 24, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2015 Book of Abstracts - C - Scientific and Educational Exhibits
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 24, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of haemodialysis: renal and extrarenal findings
Abstract Electrolyte alterations and extra-renal disorders are quite frequent in patients undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The native kidneys may be the site of important pathologies in patients undergoing dialysis, especially in the form of acquired renal cystic disease with frequent malignant transformation. Renal neoplasms represents an important complication of haemodialysis-associated acquired cystic kidney disease and imaging surveillance is suggested. Extra-renal complications include renal osteodistrophy, brown tumours, and thoracic and cardiovascular complications. Other important fields i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 14, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MDCT of blunt renal trauma: imaging findings and therapeutic implications
Conclusions The interpretation of CT findings in blunt renal trauma may be improved and made faster by the knowledge of their therapeutic consequences. Teaching Points • The majority of blunt renal injuries do not require surgical treatment. • CT findings in blunt renal injury must be evaluated considering their therapeutic consequences. • Some CT findings in blunt renal trauma are not included in the AAST classification. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 14, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Common and uncommon intracranial arterial anatomic variations in multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA). What radiologists should be aware of
Conclusions The knowledge of intracranial anatomic variations could be very important for the treatment planning of patients who need neurointervention or to explain uncommon and unexpected clinical findings. CTA can reliably provide this kind of information by depicting intracranial anatomic variations. Teaching Points • Knowledge of intracranial anatomic variations is important. • Radiologist should be aware of the intracranial anatomic variations. • Computed tomography angiography can reliably depict intracranial a...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 14, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Aortic emergencies—diagnosis and treatment: a pictorial review
Conclusion Aortic emergencies have to be detected quickly. CTA is the imaging method of choice and helps to decide whether elective, urgent or emergent treatment is necessary with EVAR and open surgical repair as the main treatment approaches. Teaching Points • To present aortic pathology caused by trauma • To present acute aortic syndrome (aortic dissection, intramural haematoma and penetrating ulcers) • To present symptomatic and ruptured aortic aneurysm • To present ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 1, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine tumours of the female genital tract: a case-based imaging review with pathological correlation
Conclusion While dealing with ovarian carcinoids, extra-ovarian extension, bilaterality and multinodularity raise the suspicion of metastatic disease. NE tumours of the endometrium and other gynaecological locations are very rare. Teaching Points • Primary or secondary neurondocrine (NE) tumours of the female genital tract are rare. • Cervical small cell carcinoma and ovarian carcinoids are the most common gynaecological NE tumours. • Cervical small cell carcinomas usually behave aggressively. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 16, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Baastrup’s disease (kissing spines syndrome): a pictorial review
Abstract Excessive lordosis is a common finding and may produce mechanical pressure that causes repetitive strains of the interspinous ligament with subsequent degeneration and collapse. Baastrup’s disease (kissing spine syndrome) is a term referring to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes due to degenerative changes of the spine. Baastrup’s disease usually affects the lumbar spine, with L4-L5 being the most commonly affected level. There is higher occurrence at ages over 70 and no gender predilection. Symptoms include back pain with midline distribution that worsens during extension, is ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 13, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dentomaxillofacial imaging with panoramic views and cone beam CT
Abstract Panoramic and intraoral radiographs are the basic imaging modalities used in dentistry. Often they are the only imaging techniques required for delineation of dental anatomy or pathology. Panoramic radiography produces a single image of the maxilla, mandible, teeth, temporomandibular joints and maxillary sinuses. During the exposure the x-ray source and detector rotate synchronously around the patient producing a curved surface tomography. It can be supplemented with intraoral radiographs. However, these techniques give only a two-dimensional view of complicated three-dimensional (3D) structures. As in th...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 10, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Inflammatory bowel disease—the role of cross-sectional imaging techniques in the investigation of the small bowel
Conclusion: MR enterography is the technique of choice in children with known IBD, for the investigation of the small bowel and the whole GI tract. US should be the first choice examination in children with suspected IBD, while CT should be reserved for cases in which MRI is contraindicated or in acute emergency situations when US is inadequate. Teaching Points • Cross-sectional imaging of the small bowel is essential in paediatric IBD. • Endoscopy is unable to assess extramural disease and examine the entire small bowel. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 24, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A practical approach to imaging the axilla
Abstract Imaging of the axilla typically occurs when patients present with axillary symptoms or newly diagnosed breast cancer. An awareness of the axillary anatomy is essential in order to generate an accurate differential diagnosis and guide patient management. The purpose of this article is to review the indications for axillary imaging, discuss the logistics of the scanning technique and percutaneous interventions, and present the imaging findings and management of a variety of breast diseases involving the axilla. Teaching points • Knowledge of normal axillary anatom...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 23, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours: a pictorial review
Conclusions Although IMTs in some organs are not uncommon, they are not usually included in the differential diagnosis of masses. Their radiological features suggest malignant neoplasms, whereas they are not. Consequently, this is an underdiagnosed entity and only after an histological exam could a definitive diagnosis be achieved. Teaching Points • Their radiological features suggest malignant neoplasms, whereas they are not • CT and MR imaging are the most used tools in their evaluation • IMT ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of interventional radiology in the management of complications after pancreatic surgery: a pictorial review
Abstract Pancreatic resections are surgical procedures associated with high incidence of complications, with relevant morbidity and mortality even at high volume centres. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in the management of these events and interventional radiology plays a crucial role in the treatment of patients developing post-surgical complications. This paper offers an overview on the interventional radiological procedures that can be performed to treat different type of complications after pancreatic resection. Procedures such as percutaneous drainage of fluid collections, percutaneous transhepatic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 17, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Visual grading characteristics and ordinal regression analysis during optimisation of CT head examinations
Conclusions The combined use of VGC and ordinal logistic regression analysis led to clinical decisions being taken on the implementation of the optimised protocols. This improved method of image quality analysis provided the evidence to support imaging protocol optimisation, resulting in significant radiation dose savings. Main Messages • There is need for scientifically based image quality evaluation during CT optimisation. • VGC and ordinal regression analysis in combination led to better informed clinical decisions. &b...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 16, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging spectrum of renal oncocytomas: a pictorial review with pathologic correlation
Conclusion The differences in tumour cellularity (high cellularity or low cellularity with abundant stroma) and haemorrhagic/cystic change contribute to a wide spectrum of imaging findings of renal oncocytomas. Imaging findings substantially overlap those of common subtypes of clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Multifocal renal oncocytomas are not rare, and making the diagnosis of oncocytoma with concomitant renal cell carcinoma is difficult. In addition, renal oncocytomas that demonstrate interval growth or develop in the setting of end-stage renal disease may be mistaken for malignancy. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 14, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Beyond broken spines–what the radiologist needs to know about late complications of spinal cord injury
Conclusion SCI patients present a unique diagnostic challenge, as they may present with symptoms that are difficult to localise because of abnormal sensation and autonomic instability. Imaging plays an important role in the emergent setting, rapidly differentiating the most commonly encountered complications from less common, unanticipated complications. Radiologists need to be attuned to both the expected findings and potential complications, which may be unique to SCI patients, to ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment in the emergency setting. Main Messages • Medic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 11, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Structured reporting: a fusion reactor hungry for fuel
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 5, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Stress fracture of the pelvis and lower limbs including atypical femoral fractures—a review
This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of stress fractures and their reflection in the imaging appearances. The role of varying imaging modalities is laid out and typical findings are demonstrated. Emphasis is given to sometimes less well-appreciated fractures, which might be missed and can have devastating consequences for longer term patient outcomes. In particular, atypical femoral shaft fractures and their relationship to bisphosphonates are discussed. Migrating bone marrow oedema syndrome, transient osteoporosis and spontaneous osteonecrosis are reviewed as manifestations of stress fractures. Radiother...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 2, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pictorial review of normal postoperative cross-sectional imaging findings and infectious complications following laparoscopic appendectomy
Abstract Laparoscopic appendectomy is increasingly accepted as the preferred surgical treatment for acute appendicitis and represents one of the most common emergency operations performed in both adult and paediatric populations. However, in patients with perforated appendicitis laparoscopy is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative intraabdominal infections compared to open appendectomy. Nowadays urgent imaging is commonly requested by surgeons when postoperative complications are suspected. Due to the widespread use of laparoscopy, in hospitals with active surgical practices clinicians and radiol...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 28, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T1 mapping: characterisation of myocardial interstitial space
This article reviews current imaging techniques, emerging applications and the future potential and limitations of CMR for T1 mapping. Teaching points • Myocardial fibrosis is a common endpoint in a variety of cardiac diseases. • Myocardial fibrosis results in myocardial stiffness, heart failure, arrhythmia and sudden death. • T1-mapping CMR techniques enable the quantification of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. • Native T1 reflects myocardial disease involving the myocyte and interstitium. • The use of gadolinium allows m...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiation awareness among radiology residents, technologists, fellows and staff: where do we stand?
Conclusions Our results show a variable level of knowledge about radiation dose and risk among radiology residents, fellows, staff radiologists and technologists, but overall knowledge is inadequate in all groups. There is significant underestimation of dosage and cancer risk from common examinations, which could potentially lead to suboptimal risk assessment and excessive or unwarranted studies posing significant radiation hazard to the patient and radiology workers. Main Messages • Knowledge of radiation dose and risk is poor among all radiology workers. &b...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 21, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

International Summit 2014: Organisation of clinical ultrasound in the world
Abstract Ultrasound (US) is a widely used imaging modality throughout the world, yet differences in usage remain among countries or regions, according to the results of the International Summit, organised by the ESR during the European Congress of Radiology last March in Vienna. The International Summit is held each year by the ESR and its partner national and international societies of radiology from outside Europe with the primary goal of gathering information about a particular topic in radiology from a worldwide perspective. In 2014, some aspects of the practice of US imaging within and outside radiology were ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multidetector computed tomography of mesenteric ischaemia
Abstract Mesenteric ischaemia comprises a broad, heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by inadequate blood supply to the small or large bowel. Acute mesenteric ischaemia is a surgical emergency, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Because the clinical presentation of mesenteric ischaemia is variable and often nonspecific, a high index of clinical and radiologic suspicion is required for early diagnosis. The severity of mesenteric ischaemia ranges from transient, localised ischaemia to frank necrosis of the bowel. The most common causes of acute mesenteric ischaemia are embolic and thrombo...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 31, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pituitary apoplexy: an update on clinical and imaging features
Abstract Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a rare and potentially fatal clinical condition presenting acute headache, vomiting, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, altered mental state and possible panhypopituitarism. It mostly occurs in patients with haemorrhagic infarction of the pituitary gland due to a pre-existing macroadenoma. Although there are pathological and physiological conditions that may share similar imaging characteristics, both clinical and imaging features can guide the radiologist towards the correct diagnosis, especially using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we will describe the main...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 15, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vocal cord paralysis: anatomy, imaging and pathology
Abstract Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) can be caused by any process that interferes with the normal function of the vagal nerves or recurrent laryngeal nerves. It may be a first sign of extensive and severe pathology. Radiologists must therefore be able to recognise the imaging findings of VCP and know the course of the vagal and recurrent laryngeal nerves. This review focuses on the anatomy and imaging evaluation of these nerves and thereby the possible sites for pathology causing VCP. The imaging characteristics and imaging mimics of VCP are discussed and cases from daily practice illustrating causes of VCP are pr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 14, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Endovascular intervention in renovascular disease: a pictorial review
Abstract Interventional radiologic procedures offer a significant and expanding role in the management of various renovascular diseases including renal artery stenosis, renal artery aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm, renal vascular malformations, renal tumours, trauma, and resistant hypertension. In this article, we discuss these entities in the context of currently accepted definitions, incidence, modes of diagnosis, and management as they pertain to the practice of interventional radiology. Particular emphasis is placed on current interventional procedures for managing and treating these diseases as well as emerging ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging adults on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
This article will describe the imaging appearance of different ECMO circuits in adults as well as commonly encountered complications. If a CT (computed tomography) angiogram is being performed on these patients to evaluate for pulmonary embolism, the scan may be suboptimal from siphoning off of the contrast by the ECMO. In such cases, an optimal image can be obtained by lowering the flow rate of the ECMO circuit or by disabling the circuit for the duration of image acquisition. Key Points • Femoroatrial VV ECMO: femoral vein drainage cannula and right atrial return cannula. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 9, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Post-treatment MRI aspects of photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer
Conclusions We illustrate specific post-treatment MRI aspects at early and late follow-up with pathological correlations. Teaching points • Dynamic phototherapy is a new and promising focal therapy for prostate cancer. • One-week MRI shows increased volume of the treated lobe and large, homogeneous necrosis area. • Six-month MRI shows significant changes of the prostate shape and signal. • Six-month MRI becomes “base line” appearance for further follow-up or monitoring. (Source: I...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mammography equipment design: impact on radiographers’ practice
Conclusions Working in a mammography room leads to awkward postures that can have an impact on radiographers’ health, namely WRMSDs. The results in this study showed that there are non-acceptable postures associated with frequent working procedures in mammography. MLO is the most demanding procedure for radiographer postures and may be related to WRMSDs. Mammography devices should be redesigned considering adjustability for radiographers. Main Messages • Mammography constraints for radiographers in mammography procedures have not been well ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Coronary Sinus: Anatomic Variants and Congenital Anomalies
Abstract The coronary sinus (CS) is an important vascular structure that allows for access into the coronary veins in multiple interventional cardiology procedures, including catheter ablation of arrhythmias, pacemaker implantation and retrograde cardioplegia. The success of these procedures is facilitated by the knowledge of the CS anatomy, in particular the recognition of its variants and anomalies. This pictorial essay reviews the spectrum of CS anomalies, with particular attention to the distinction between clinically benign variants and life-threatening defects. Emphasis will be placed on the important role ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional imaging of iatrogenic complications after extracorporeal and endourological treatment of urolithiasis
Abstract Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy (URS) currently represent the mainstay treatment options for the vast majority of patients with urolithiasis, with limited contraindications and high success rates. However, minimally invasive extracorporeal and endourological treatments are associated with a non-negligible morbidity including occasional life-threatening occurrences. These complications represent a source of concern for urologists since they may result in prolonged hospitalisation, need for surgical, endoscopic or interventional treatment, l...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pitfalls in the diagnosis of common benign bone tumours in children
Abstract Benign bone tumours in children are frequent lesions, often with a typical and very identifiable radiological presentation. However, their natural evolution and complications may be the source of variations and errors in interpretation. It is therefore important to understand the possible sources of change in the radiological aspect and to be familiar with common pseudotumoral lesions. The main aim of this review is to review typical aspects of the most common benign bone tumours in children, as well as less frequent variants of these tumours. Teaching points • ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Stone disease in pregnancy: imaging-guided therapy
Abstract Renal colic is the most frequent nonobstetric cause for abdominal pain and subsequent hospitalization during pregnancy. The physio-anatomical changes in the urinary tract and the presence of the fetus may complicate the clinical presentation and management of nephrolithiasis. Ultrasound (US) is the primary radiological investigation of choice. Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and low-dose computed tomography (CT) have to be considered as a second- and third-line test, respectively. If a study that uses ionizing radiation has to be performed, the radiation dose to the fetus should be as low as possible. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 24, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Renewal of radiological equipment
Abstract In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 18, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac multidetector computed tomography in infective endocarditis: a pictorial essay
Conclusions MSCT can be considered as a useful complement in visualising the cardiac lesions of IE if echocardiography is inconclusive. MSCT is the only imaging modality that provides assessment of valvular and peri-valvular involvement, extra-cardiac lesions, and non-invasive evaluation of the coronary artery anatomy, simultaneously. Main Messages • MSCT provides assessment of coronary anatomy, cardiac and extra-cardiac lesions. • MSCT represents an alternative to echocardiography during IE. • ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 16, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents: assessment with a biplanar X-ray device
Abstract Idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most common conditions encountered in paediatric practice. It is a three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformity. Conventional radiography is still the modality of choice for evaluation of children and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but it requires repeat radiographs until skeletal maturity is reached and does not provide information about spinal deformity in all three planes. A biplanar X-ray device is a new technique that enables standing frontal and lateral radiographs of the spine to be obtained at lowered radiation doses. With its specific software, this novel ve...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 13, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The azygos vein pathway: an overview from anatomical variations to pathological changes
Abstract The azygos venous system represents an accessory venous pathway supplying an important collateral circulation between the superior and inferior vena cava. The aim of this article is to revise the wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal to pathological conditions involving the azygos system. Teaching points • The azygos vein is a collateral venous pathway, becoming a vital shunt if major pathways of venous return are obstructed. • In azygos continuation, the azygos vein becomes significantly enlarged due to inferior vena cava interrup...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 30, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiation knowledge and perception of referral practice among radiologists and radiographers compared with referring clinicians
Conclusions The perception of radiologists and radiographers differs from that of clinicians, concerning the use of imaging most unlikely to affect treatment, and the reasons for such referrals. Radiologists and radiographers possess better radiation knowledge than referring clinicians, but all groups have a potential in improving their radiation protection knowledge. Main Messages • Radiographers estimated the highest proportion of referrals most unlikely to affect treatment. • Radiologists rated “getting the patient dischar...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 28, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

FDG-PET/CT pitfalls in oncological head and neck imaging
Conclusions The interpreting physician must be aware of these unusual patterns of FDG uptake, as well as limitations of PET/CT as a modality, in order to avoid overdiagnosis of benign conditions as malignancy, as well as missing out on actual pathology. Teaching points • Knowledge of key imaging features of physiological and non-physiological FDG uptake is essential for the interpretation of head and neck PET/CT studies. • Precise anatomical evaluation and correlation with contrast-enhanced CT, US or MRI avoid PET/CT mis...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Medical student knowledge regarding radiology before and after a radiological anatomy module: implications for vertical integration and self-directed learning
Conclusions SDL is not favoured as an anatomy teaching method. Exposure of students to a radiological anatomy module delivered by senior clinical radiologists improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use, but there was no improvement in knowledge regarding radiation exposure relative per modality. A possible explanation is that students recall knowledge imparted in didactic lectures but do little reading around the subject when the content is not examined. Teaching Points • Self-directed learning is not favoured as a gross anatomy teaching format amongst m...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 10, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast imaging findings in haematological malignancies
Conclusions Breast manifestations of haematological malignancies are rare. They can have a variable appearance at imaging and can mimic primary breast carcinoma. In the setting of suspicious breast imaging findings, pathological diagnosis of haematological malignancy is concordant. Correlation with a clinical history of prior haematological malignancy can be helpful in suggesting the diagnosis and help prevent unnecessary surgical treatment. Teaching Points • Breast haematological malignancies are rare but the imaging appearances can mimic breast...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 7, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiological diagnosis of dialysis-associated complications
Abstract In daily clinical practice, the radiologist in the context of diagnosis often faces dialysis-associated complications. The complications are numerous and range from infections, catheter dysfunctions, haematomas, cardiovascular diseases, digital ischaemia, and pseudoaneurysms to shunt stenosis. In this pictorial essay, we take a close look at the imaging diagnostics of the most common complications in dialysis patients. Teaching Points • The occurrence of venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients is up to 41 %. • Catheters usually hav...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound in chronic liver disease
Conclusion A summary of methods including B-mode, Doppler, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and various elastography techniques, and their current performance in assessing the liver, is provided. Teaching Points • Diffuse liver disease is becoming more prevalent and there is a strong clinical need for noninvasive detection. • Portal hypertension can be best diagnosed by demonstrating portosystemic collateral venous flow. • B-mode US is the principal ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Looking beyond the thrombus: essentials of pulmonary artery imaging on CT
Conclusions Congenital and acquired pulmonary artery anomalies have a characteristic appearance on a variety of imaging modalities. An acquaintance with the imaging features of these anomalies is needed to avoid misinterpretation and reach the correct diagnosis. Teaching Points • Discuss a variety of congenital and acquired anomalies of the pulmonary arteries. • Discuss the imaging appearance of the presented congenital or acquired pulmonary artery anomalies. • Describe CT and MR acquisition protocols for imaging the pulmonary ar...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

What is hiding in the hindgut sac? Looking beyond rectal carcinoma
The objective of this pictorial review is to discuss the cross-sectional imaging features of less common anorectal and perirectal diseases. Results Although a specific histological diagnosis cannot usually be made due to considerable overlap in the imaging appearances of anorectal diseases, this review illustrates the cross-sectional imaging findings with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can help in narrowing down the differentials to a reasonable extent. Teaching points • Variety of pathology exists in the anorect...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Scapholunate advanced collapse: a pictorial review
Abstract Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) is the most common cause of osteoarthritis involving the wrist. Along with clinical investigation, radiological studies play a vital role in the diagnosis of SLAC wrist. Given that the osteoarthritic changes that are seen with SLAC occur in a predictable progressive pattern, it is important to understand the pathological evolution of SLAC to be able to recognise the associated progressive imaging findings seen with this disease process. Focusing on radiological findings, this article provides a pictorial review of the anatomy of the scapholunate interosseous ligamen...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thoracic, abdominal and musculoskeletal involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease: CT, MR and PET imaging findings
Conclusion The aims of this work are to perform a systematic review of Erdheim-Chester disease as seen on imaging of the chest, abdomen and musculoskeletal system and to discuss the diagnostic workup and differential diagnoses according to the imaging presentation. Teaching points • Bone involvement is usually present in patients, and the imaging findings are pathognomonic of ECD. • The circumferential periaortic infiltration may extend to its branches, sometimes becoming symptomatic. ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of hydrocephalus and other cerebrospinal fluid disorders with MRI: An update
Abstract MRI is not only beneficial in the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-related diseases, but also aids in planning the management and post-surgery follow-up of the patients. With recent advances in MRI systems, there are many newly developed sequences and techniques that rapidly enable evaluation of CSF-related disorders with greater accuracy. For a better assessment of this group of disorders, radiologists should follow the developments closely and should be able to apply them when necessary. In this pictorial review, the role of MRI in the evaluation of hydrocephalus, CSF diversion techniques, and ot...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis: the many faces of presentation at initial CT scan
Conclusions The radiologist should be familiar with PLCH imaging features to correctly diagnose the disease or need for further investigation. Teaching Points • PLCH is a rare interstitial smoking-related disease that usually affects young adults. • The typical first CT shows a mix of nodules, cavitary nodules and cysts in the upper-middle lungs. • Atypical appearance, either cysts or nodules alone, mandates that other diagnoses be considered. • Lung cystic involvement correlates w...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Management of renal arteriovenous malformations: A pictorial review
Conclusion The imaging spectrum of diagnosis and percutaneous treatment of RAVMs is presented in order to aid interpretation and endovascular management. Teaching points • Renal arteriovenous malformations are very rare lesions. • Clinical expression is usually haematuria. • Diagnosis is made with CT or MRI but the gold standard is digital subtraction angiography. • Catheter-directed treatment with the use of coils or liquid embolics is minimally invasive, ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 1, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research