CT angiography for the assessment of EVAR complications: a pictorial review
AbstractEndovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a minimally invasive treatment proposed as an alternative to open repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. EVAR consists in a stent-graft placement within the aorta in order to exclude the aneurysm from arterial circulation and reduce the risk of rupture. Knowledge of the various types of devices is mandatory because some stents/grafts are more frequently associated with complications. CT angiography is the gold standard diagnostic technique for preprocedural planning and postprocedural surveillance. EVAR needs long-term follow-up due to the high rate of complicatio...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 15, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Postmortem brain 7T MRI with minimally invasive pathological correlation in deceased COVID-19 subjects
ConclusionsDespite limited sampling, MIA was an effective tool to evaluate underlying pathological brain changes in deceased COVID-19 patients. Imaging findings were varied, and pathological features corroborated signs of hypoxia, alterations related to systemic critically ill and SARS-CoV-2 brain invasion. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 15, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interstitial lung abnormalities: new insights between theory and clinical practice
AbstractInterstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) represent radiologic abnormalities incidentally detected on chest computed tomography (CT) examination, potentially related to interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Numerous studies have demonstrated that ILAs are associated with increased risk of progression toward pulmonary fibrosis and mortality. Some radiological patterns have been proven to be at a higher risk of progression. In this setting, the role of radiologists in reporting these interstitial abnormalities is critical. This review aims to discuss the most recent advancements in understanding this radiological entity and...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 15, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computed tomography in traumatic orbital emergencies: a pictorial essay —imaging findings, tips, and report flowchart
AbstractComputed tomography (CT) is considered the gold standard technique for the assessment of trauma patients with suspected involvement of the eye and orbit. These traumas can result in dramatic consequences to visual function, ocular motility, and aesthetics. CT is a quick and widely available imaging modality, which provides a detailed evaluation of the orbital bony and soft tissue structures, an accurate assessment of the globes, and is used to guide the patients ’ treatment planning. For a timely and accurate diagnosis, radiologists should be aware of fracture patterns and possible associated complications, o...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 12, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Active pulmonary tuberculosis: something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue
We present the old, well-established findings ranging from primary TB to the common appearances of post-primary TB, including dissemination with tree-in-bud nodularity, haematogenous dissemination with miliary nodules and lymphatic dissemination. We discuss new concepts in active PTB with special focus on imaging findings in immunocompromised individuals. We illustrate PTB appearances borrowed from other diseases in which the signs were initially described: the reversed halo sign, the galaxy sign and the cluster sign. There are several radiological signs that have been shown to correlate with positive or negative sputum sm...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 9, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI-assessed tumor-free distance to serosa predicts deep myometrial invasion and poor outcome in endometrial cancer
AbstractObjectivesTo explore the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived tumor measurements for the prediction of histopathological deep ( ≥ 50%) myometrial invasion (pDMI) and prognostication in endometrial cancer (EC).MethodsPreoperative pelvic MRI of 357 included patients with histologically confirmed EC were read independently by three radiologists blinded to clinical information. The radiologists recorded imaging findings (T1 post-contrast sequence) suggesting deep ( ≥ 50%) myometrial invasion (iDMI) and measured anteroposterior tumor diameter (APD), depth of my...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 8, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Features of infective native aortic aneurysms on computed tomography
ConclusionThe most common CT features of INAA were saccular aneurysm, multilobulation, and calcified plaques. The most frequent periaortic findings were enhancement, fat stranding, and soft-tissue mass. Surrounding involvement, including psoas muscle, IVC, gastrointestinal tract, and bronchi, was infrequent but may develop as critical INAA complications. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 8, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European consensus on patient contact shielding
AbstractPatient contact shielding has been in use for many years in radiology departments in order to reduce the effects and risks of ionising radiation on certain organs. New technologies in projection imaging and CT scanning such as digital receptors and automatic exposure control systems have reduced doses and improved image consistency. These changes and a greater understanding of both the benefits and the risks from the use of shielding have led to a review of shielding use in radiology. A number of professional bodies have already issued guidance in this regard. This paper represents the current consensus view of the...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Does lateral arm technique decrease the rate of clip migration in stereotactic and tomosynthesis-guided biopsies?
ConclusionsLABA and CBA had no statistical difference in clip migration or hematoma formation rates. Both techniques had similar success rates and may be helpful in different clinical situations. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning approach for automatic segmentation of ulna and radius in dual-energy X-ray imaging
ConclusionThe deep learning-based method developed in this study improved the segmentation performance of the ulna and radius in dual-energy X-ray imaging. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Economic impact of spectral body imaging in diagnosis of patients suspected for occult cancer
ConclusionOur results provide support for spectral body imaging as an advanced imaging modality for suspected occult cancer. A substantial number of follow-up diagnostic procedures could be eliminated based on spectral data reading, which would result in significant cost savings. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic role of computed tomography-based, artificial intelligence-driven waist skeletal muscle volume in uterine endometrial carcinoma
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the impact of computed tomography (CT)-based, artificial intelligence-driven waist skeletal muscle volume on survival outcomes in patients with endometrial cancer.MethodsWe retrospectively identified endometrial cancer patients who received primary surgical treatment between 2014 and 2018 and whose pre-treatment CT scans were available (n = 385). Using an artificial intelligence-based tool, the skeletal muscle area (cm2) at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) and the skeletal muscle volume (cm3) at the waist level were measured. These values were converted to the L3 skeletal muscle...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging features of primary sites and metastatic patterns of angiosarcoma
AbstractAngiosarcomas are rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcomas originating from endothelial cells of lymphatic or vascular origin and associated with a poor prognosis. The clinical and imaging features of angiosarcomas are heterogeneous with a wide spectrum of findings involving any site of the body, but these most commonly present as cutaneous disease in the head and neck of elderly men. MRI and CT are complementary imaging techniques in assessing the extent of disease, focality and involvement of adjacent anatomical structures at the primary site of disease. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of metastatic dis...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lessons learned during implementation of MR-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids
ConclusionsOur findings describe the learning-curve during the implementation of MR-HIFU and include straightforward suggestions to shorten learning-curves for future users. Moreover, the lessons we learned on technique, patient selection, patient counseling, medical specialists and organization, together with the provided supplements, may be of benefit to other institutions aiming to implement MR-HIFU treatment of uterine fibroids.Trial registration ISRCTN14634593. Registered January 12, 2021 —Retrospectively registered,https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN14634593. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Factors affecting the value of diffusion-weighted imaging for identifying breast cancer patients with pathological complete response on neoadjuvant systemic therapy: a systematic review
AbstractThis review aims to identify factors causing heterogeneity in breast DWI –MRI and their impact on its value for identifying breast cancer patients with pathological complete response (pCR) on neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST). A search was performed on PubMed until April 2020 for studies analyzing DWI for identifying breast cancer patients with pCR on NST. Technical a nd clinical study aspects were extracted and assessed for variability. Twenty studies representing 1455 patients/lesions were included. The studies differed with respect to study population, treatment type, DWI acquisition technique, post-proce...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The impact and challenges of implementing CTCA according to the 2019 ESC guidelines on chronic coronary syndromes: a survey and projection of CTCA services in the Netherlands
ConclusionsDespite high national CTCA-services coverage in the Netherlands, a substantial increase in CTCA capacity is expected to be able to implement the 2019 ESC-CCS recommendations on the use of CTCA. Furthermore, the results of this survey highlight the importance to address variations in image acquisition and to standardise the interpretation and reporting of CTCA, as well as to establish interdisciplinary collaboration and organisational alignment. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Using amide proton transfer-weighted MRI to non-invasively differentiate mismatch repair deficient and proficient tumors in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the utility of three-dimensional (3D) amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging to differentiate mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) and mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) tumors in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEA).MethodsForty-nine patients with EEA underwent T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, 3D APTw imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3  T MRI. Image quality and measurement confidence of APTw images were evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale. APTw and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated and compared between the dMMR and pMMR groups an...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CMR Characteristics, gene variants and long-term outcome in patients with left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy
AbstractBackgroundAs the paucity of data focusing on evaluating cardiac structure and function in patients with or without gene mutation, this study was sought to investigate the correlation between genotype and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) phenotype in patients with left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and to explore prognostic relevance in this cohort if possible.MethodsPatients with LVNC who underwent CMR and targeted gene sequencing between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Demographic data, clinical presentation, genetic analysis, CMR data and follow-up data of all participants were co...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Infiltrative pattern of metastatic invasive lobular breast carcinoma in the abdomen: a pictorial review
AbstractInvasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has a greater tendency to metastasize to the peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST). Like primary ILC in the breast, ILC metastases are frequently infiltrative and hypometabolic, rather than mass forming and hypermetabolic in nature. This renders them difficult to detect on conventional and metabolic imaging studies. As a result, intra-abdominal ILC metastases are often detected late, with patients presenting with clinical complications such as liver failure, hydronephrosis, or bowel obstruction. In p...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intensity of arterial structure acquired by Silent MRA estimates cerebral blood flow
ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that Silent MRA provides valuable CBF information despite arterial structure, rendering it a potential tool for screening for cerebrovascular disease. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The value of MRI compared to conventional radiography in analysing morphologic changes in the spine in axial spondyloarthritis
ConclusionsIn imaging morphologic changes in the spine in patients with axial SpA, MRI was shown to be not an equivalent substitute but a complementary imaging modality to conventional radiography. Conventional radiography seems superior to depict morphologic cervical and lumbar vertebral changes compared to MRI, whereas MRI may visualise morphologic lesions in the thoracic spine. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Preprocedural fasting for contrast-enhanced CT: when experience meets evidence
AbstractTraditional preparatory fasting policy prior to iodinated contrast media (ICM) assisted contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) examinations lacks methodologically acceptable evidence. Considering the possible negative effects of preprocedural fasting, the latest European Society of Urogenital Radiology guidelines V10.0 and American Committee of Radiology 2021 guidelines clearly state that preprocedural fasting is not recommended prior to routine intravenous ICM administration. This comprehensive and detailed Review presents the current global dietary preparation policies, potential harm of excessive fasting, and a systematica...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging-based body composition is associated with nutritional and inflammatory status: a longitudinal study in patients with Crohn's disease
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the changes in magnetic resonance imaging-based body composition parameters during follow-ups in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).MethodsBetween November 1, 2017, and June 30, 2021, patients diagnosed with CD, who underwent two or more magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) scans at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline and one subsequent follow-up scan for each patient were paired to form longitudinal comparisons. Skeletal muscle, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) indexes were calculated from tissue areas measured at the third lumbar ve...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The European Society of Head and Neck Radiology Mentoring Programme: development and feedback during the first phase of the initiative
AbstractThere is increasing awareness of the benefits of formal mentorship programmes in radiology. In the context of the COVID 19 pandemic which impacted on education, professional engagement and networking within the wider radiological community, the European Society of Head and Neck Radiology (ESHNR) decided to develop a formal mentoring programme. The ESHNR mentoring initiative is novel in its scope, whereby European and international members of a subspecialty radiology society are matched into mentor –mentee pairings to disseminate good practice, knowledge and ideas. The purpose of this report is to describe the...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetism of materials: theory and practice in magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractAll substances exert magnetic properties in some extent when placed in an external magnetic field. Magnetic susceptibility represents a measure of the magnitude of magnetization of a certain substance when the external magnetic field is applied. Depending on the tendency to be repelled or attracted by the magnetic field and in the latter case on the magnitude of this effect, materials can be classified as diamagnetic or paramagnetic, superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively. Knowledge of type and extent of susceptibility of common endogenous and exogenous substances and how their magnetic properties affect...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spinal disorders mimicking infection
AbstractSpinal infections are very commonly encountered by radiologists in their routine clinical practice. In case of typical MRI features, the diagnosis is relatively easy to interpret, all the more so if the clinical and laboratory findings are in agreement with the radiological findings. In many cases, the radiologist is able to make the right diagnosis, thereby avoiding a disco-vertebral biopsy, which is technically challenging and associated with a risk of negative results. However, several diseases mimic similar patterns, such as degenerative changes (Modic) and crystal-induced discopathy. Differentiation between th...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Measuring the bias of incorrect application of feature selection when using cross-validation in radiomics
ConclusionsIncorrect application of feature selection and cross-validation can lead to highly biased results for radiomic datasets. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Saliency-based 3D convolutional neural network for categorising common focal liver lesions on multisequence MRI
ConclusionThis interpretable deep learning model showed high diagnostic performance in the differentiation of FLLs on multisequence MRI. The analysis principle contributing to the predictions can be explained via saliency maps. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detection of lung lesions in breath-hold VIBE and free-breathing Spiral VIBE MRI compared to CT
AbstractBackgroundDetection of pulmonary nodules in MRI requires fast imaging strategies without respiratory motion impairment, such as single-breath-hold Cartesian VIBE. As patients with pulmonary diseases have limited breath-hold capacities, this study investigates the clinical feasibility of non-Cartesian Spiral VIBE under free-breathing compared to CT as the gold standard.MethodsProspective analysis of 27 oncological patients examined in PET/CT and PET/MR. A novel motion-robust 3D ultrashort-echo-time (UTE) MR sequence was evaluated in comparison with CT and conventional breath-hold MR. CT scans were performed under br...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of metal artifact reduction in total hip arthroplasty using virtual monochromatic imaging and orthopedic metal artifact reduction, a phantom study
AbstractObjectiveTo quantify metal artifact reduction using 130  keV virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) with and without orthopedic metal artifact reduction (O-MAR) in total hip arthroplasty.MethodsConventional polychromatic images and 130  keV VMI of a phantom with pellets representing bone with unilateral or bilateral prostheses were reconstructed with and without O-MAR on a dual-layer CT. Pellets were categorized as unaffected, mildly affected and severely affected.ResultsWhen 130  keV VMI with O-MAR was compared to conventional imaging with O-MAR, a relative metal artifact reduction in CT values, contra...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Communicating imaging findings in peritoneal mesothelioma: the impact of ‘PAUSE’ on surgical decision-making
AbstractThe peritoneal cavity is the second commonest site of mesothelioma after the pleural cavity. There are five histological types of peritoneal mesothelioma with variable symptomatology, clinical presentation and prognosis. Cystic mesothelioma is a borderline malignant neoplasm with a favourable prognosis, well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is generally a low-grade malignancy, and all other varieties such as epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic mesothelioma are highly malignant types of peritoneal mesothelioma with poor prognosis. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma was considered inevitably fatal prior to the ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Machine learning-based CT radiomics approach for predicting WHO/ISUP nuclear grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an exploratory and comparative study
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the predictive performance of machine learning-based CT radiomics for differentiating between low- and high-nuclear grade of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCCs).MethodsThis retrospective study enrolled 406 patients with pathologically confirmed low- and high-nuclear grade of CCRCCs according to the WHO/ISUP grading system, which were divided into the  training and testing cohorts. Radiomics features were extracted from nephrographic-phase CT images using PyRadiomics. A support vector machine (SVM) combined with three feature selection algorithms such as least absolute shrinkage and ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinoma with different ranges exhibiting different clinical, imaging, and pathological characteristics
This study divided PLADC into localized PLADC (L-PLADC) and diffuse PLADC (D-PLADC) based on imaging and aimed to clarify the differences in clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics between the two new subtypes.ResultsThe data of 131 patients with L-PLADC and 117 patients with D-PLADC who were pathologically confirmed and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) at our institute from December 2014 to December 2020 were retrospectively collected. Patients with L-PLADC were predominantly female, non-smokers, and without respiratory symptoms and elevated white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level, whereas th...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Feasibility of utilizing ultra-low-dose contrast medium for pancreatic artery depiction using the combination of advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging and high-concentration contrast medium: an intra-patient study
AbstractObjectivesThe least amount of contrast medium (CM) should be used under the premise of adequate diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing ultra-low-dose (224  mgI/kg) CM for pancreatic artery depiction using the combination of advanced virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) and high-concentration (400 mgI/mL) CM.Materials and methods41 patients who underwent both normal dose CM (ND-CM, 320  mgI/kg) and low dose CM (LD-CM, 224 mgI/kg) thoracoabdominal enhanced CT for tumor follow-up were prospectively included. The VMI+ at the energy level of 40-kev for LD-CM ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rhino-orbito-cerebral Mucormycosis: Pictorial Review
AbstractMucormycosis (MCR) is a fulminant, potentially lethal, opportunistic fungal infection. Diabetes, immunocompromised states and elevated serum iron levels are the most important risk factors for contracting MCR infection. Recently, MCR co-infections have been observed in patients with COVID-19 disease owing to a complex interplay of metabolic factors and corticosteroid therapy. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is the most common clinical form of MCR infection and refers to infection of the nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, neck spaces, orbits and intracranial structures. Sinonasal inoculation is typically t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT imaging of peritoneal carcinomatosis with surgical correlation: a pictorial review
AbstractCytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has revolutionized the survival and the quality of life in selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Preoperative CT is important for the selection of patients that may benefit from cytoreductive surgery and is useful for surgical planning. There are several tasks for the radiologist during CT interpretation: to describe cancerous implants on a “site-by-site” basis in the peritoneum, ligaments, mesenteries and visceral surfaces, to analyze patterns of involvement and to estimate the disease burden. Knowledge of t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 on radiology education in Europe: a survey by the ESR Radiology Trainees Forum (RTF)
ConclusionsThe ongoing SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has significantly affected all aspects of postgraduate radiology training across the ESR member countries. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How does DICOM support big data management? Investigating its use in medical imaging community
AbstractThe diagnostic imaging field is experiencing considerable growth, followed by increasing production of massive amounts of data. The lack of standardization and privacy concerns are considered the main barriers to big data capitalization. This work aims to verify whether the advanced features of the DICOM standard, beyond imaging data storage, are effectively used in research practice. This issue will be analyzed by investigating the publicly shared medical imaging databases and assessing how much the most common medical imaging software tools support DICOM in all its potential. Therefore, 100 public databases and t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning-based fully automated Z-axis coverage range definition from scout scans to eliminate overscanning in chest CT imaging
ConclusionThe proposed DL-based solution outperformed previous automatic methods with acceptable accuracy, even in complicated and challenging cases. The generizability of the model was demonstrated by fine-tuning the model on AP scout views and achieving acceptable results. The method can reduce the unoptimized dose to patients by exclunding unnecessary organs from field of view. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnosing sarcopenia and myosteatosis based on chest computed tomography images in healthy Chinese  adults
AbstractBackgroundMeasuring muscle mass and muscle quality based on chest Computed Tomography (CT) images would facilitate sarcopenia and myosteatosis research. We aimed (1) to measure muscle mass and myosteatosis based on chest CT images at the 12th thoracic vertebra level and compare the relevant indicators with whole-body skeletal muscle mass (BSM) and whole-body fat mass (BFM) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis; and (2) to determine the cut-off points of these indicators for diagnosing sarcopenia or myosteatosis in healthy Chinese adults.MethodsChest CT images were analyzed using a segmentation software. Skel...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Potential role of epicardial adipose tissue as a biomarker of anthracycline cardiotoxicity
ConclusionsEAT density appears to be influenced by anthracycline treatment for BC, well known for its cardiotoxicity, shifting towards lower values indicative of a less active metabolism. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of diagnostic errors on adverse outcomes: learning from emergency department revisits with repeat CT or MRI
AbstractBackgroundTo investigate diagnostic errors and their association with adverse outcomes (AOs) during patient revisits with repeat imaging (RVRIs) in the emergency department (ED).ResultsDiagnostic errors stemming from index imaging studies and AOs within 30  days in 1054 RVRIs (≤ 7 days) from 2005 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed according to revisit timing (early [≤ 72 h] or late [>  72 h to 7 days] RVRIs). Risk factors for AOs were assessed using multivariable logistic analysis. The AO rate in the diagnostic error group was significantly higher than that ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of machine learning-based MRI in the prediction of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients
In this study, we aimed to assess the use of ML to classify ALNM on MRI and to identify potential covariates that might influence the diagnostic performance of ML.MethodsA systematic research of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was conducted until 27 December 2020 to collect the included articles. Subgroup analysis was also performed.FindingsFourteen studies assessing a total of 2247 breast cancer patients were included in the analysis. The overall AUC for ML in the validation set was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 –0.83) with a negative predictive value of 0.83. The pooled sensitivit...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Insights into diastolic function analyses using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles
AbstractBackgroundThis cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) study investigates the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) on diastolic function parameters by differentiation of the time-volume curve. Differentiation causes additional problems, which is overcome by standardization.MethodsCine steady-state free-precession imaging at 1.5  T was performed in 40 healthy volunteers stratified for age (age range 7–78y). LV time-volume curves were assessed by software-assisted delineation of endocardial contours from short axis slices applying two different methods: (1) inclusion of TPM into the myocardium ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Limitations of cardiothoracic ratio derived from chest radiographs to predict real heart size: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractBackgroundCardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in chest radiographs is still widely used to estimate cardiac size despite the advent of newer imaging techniques. We hypothesise that a universal CTR cut-off value of 50% is a poor indicator of cardiac enlargement. Our aim was to compare CTR with volumetric and functional parameters derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods309 patients with a chest radiograph and cardiac MRI acquired within a month were reviewed to assess how CTR correlates with multiple cardiac MRI variables: bi-ventricular EDV (absolute and indexed to body surface area), EF, indexed total ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reply to Letter to the Editor on “Not all biases are bad: equitable and inequitable biases in machine learning and radiology”
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of chest imaging in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a major public health crisis all over the world. The role of chest imaging, especially computed tomography (CT), has evolved during the pandemic paralleling the accumulation of scientific evidence. In the early stage of the pandemic, the performance of chest imaging for COVID-19 has widely been debated especially in the context of comparison to real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Current evidence is against the use of chest imaging for routine screening of COVID-19 contrary to the initial expectations. It still has an integral role to pla...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Decoding intra-tumoral spatial heterogeneity on radiological images using the Hilbert curve
AbstractBackgroundCurrent intra-tumoral heterogeneous feature extraction in radiology is limited to the use of a single slice or the region of interest within a few context-associated slices, and the decoding of intra-tumoral spatial heterogeneity using whole tumor samples is rare. We aim to propose a mathematical model of space-filling curve-based spatial correspondence mapping to interpret intra-tumoral spatial locality and heterogeneity.MethodsA Hilbert curve-based approach was employed to decode and visualize intra-tumoral spatial heterogeneity by expanding the tumor volume to a two-dimensional (2D) matrix in voxels wh...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of congenital lung diseases presenting in the adulthood: a pictorial review
AbstractCongenital lung diseases in adults are rare diseases that can present with symptoms or be detected incidentally. Familiarity with the imaging features of different types of congenital lung diseases helps both in correct diagnosis and management of these diseases. Congenital lung diseases in adults are classified into three main categories as bronchopulmonary anomalies, vascular anomalies, and combined bronchopulmonary and vascular anomalies. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography, especially 3D reconstructions, CT, or MR angiography, can show vascular anomalies in detail. The tracheobronchial tree, parenchymal chang...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical applications of artificial intelligence and radiomics in neuro-oncology imaging
This article is a comprehensive review of the basic background, technique, and clinical applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and radiomics in the field of neuro-oncology. A variety of AI and radiomics utilized conventional and advanced techniques to differentiate brain tumors from non-neoplastic lesions such as inflammatory and demyelinating brain lesions. It is used in the diagnosis of gliomas and discrimination of gliomas from lymphomas and metastasis. Also, semiautomated and automated tumor segmentation has been developed for radiotherapy planning and follow-up. It has a role in the grading, prediction of treatm...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research