Gastrointestinal perforation: clinical and MDCT clues for identification of aetiology
AbstractGastrointestinal tract (GIT) perforation is a common medical emergency associated with considerable mortality, ranging from 30 to 50%. Clinical presentation varies: oesophageal perforations can present with acute chest pain, odynophagia and vomiting, gastroduodenal perforations with acute severe abdominal pain, while colonic perforations tend to follow a slower progression course with secondary bacterial peritonitis or localised abscesses. A subset of patients may present with delayed symptoms, abscess mimicking an abdominal mass, or with sepsis.Direct multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings support the d...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of mandibular fractures: a pictorial review
AbstractMandibular fractures are among the most common maxillofacial fractures observed in emergency rooms and are mainly caused by road accidents. The clinical features of mandibular fractures include malocclusion and loss of mandibular function. Panoramic radiography is usually limited to isolated lesions, whereas computed tomography is the tool of choice for all other facial traumatic events. No reference standard classification system for the different types of mandibular fractures is defined. Therapeutic options include a conservative approach or surgical treatment based on the anatomic area and the severity of fractu...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging findings and classification of the common and uncommon male breast diseases
This article mainly focuses on emphasizing the results of basic histo-anatomical differences of male and female breasts, classifying male breast lesions, covering the spectrum of male breast diseases, and assisting radiologists in recognizing the imaging findings, in interpreting them through a holistic approach, in making a differential diagnosis, and in being a part of proper patient management. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The added value of digital breast tomosynthesis in improving diagnostic performance of BI-RADS categorization of mammographically indeterminate breast lesions
This study aimed to evaluate the added value of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to BI-RADS classification in categorization of indeterminate breast lesions after digital mammography (DM) as an initial approach.Methods and resultsWe prospectively evaluated 296 women with BI-RADS indeterminate breast lesions (BI-RADS 0, 3, and 4) by DM between January 2018 and October 2019. All patients underwent DBT. Two radiologists evaluated lesions and assigned a BI-RADS category to each lesion according to BI-RADS lexicon 2013 classification using DM, DBT, and combined DM and DBT. The results were compared in terms of main radiologic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of skull vault tumors in adults
This article is structured as a practical review offering a systematic diagnostic approach to focal calvarial lesions, broadly organized into four categories: (1) pseudolesions: arachnoid granulations, meningo-/encephaloceles, vascular canals, frontal hyperostosis, parietal thinning, parietal foramina, and  sinus pericrani; (2) lytic: fibrous dysplasia, epidermal inclusion and dermoid cysts, eosinophilic granuloma, hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, metastasis, and myeloma; (3) sclerotic: osteomas, osteosarcoma, and metastasis; (4) transdiploic: meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, lympho ma, and metastasi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging spectrum of abnormal subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution
AbstractAdipose tissue plays multiple and complex roles not only in mechanical cushioning and energy storage but also as an important secretory organ that regulates energy balance and homeostasis multilaterally. Fat tissue is categorized into subcutaneous fat tissue (SCAT) or visceral fat tissue (VSA) depending on its distribution, with the two having different metabolic functions. Near-total lack of fat in congenital/acquired generalized lipodystrophy, cachexia, or any other severe malnutrition condition induces severe multi-organ dysfunction due to lack of production of leptin and other adipokines. Increased visceral fat...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning workflow in radiology: a primer
This article provides step-by-step practical guidance for conducting a project that involves deep learning in radiology, from defining specifications, to deployment and scaling. Specifically, the objectives of this article are to provide an overview of clinical use cases of deep learning, describe the composition of multi-disciplinary team, and summarize current approaches to patient, data, model, and hardware selection. Key ideas will be illustrated by examples from a prototypical project on imaging of colorectal liver metastasis. This article illustrates the workflow for liver lesion detection, segmentation, classificati...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-neoplastic hepatopancreatobiliary lesions simulating malignancy: can we differentiate?
AbstractDespite the success of cross-sectional imaging in evaluating hepatopancreatobiliary system malignancies, several non-malignant disease processes may closely mimic malignancy. Differentiating these benign diseases from malignancy may be difficult, or even impossible, even in the hands of experienced imagers. In this manuscript, we present benign mimics involving the hepatopancreatobiliary system and try to increase awareness of these potential pitfalls. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gyriform restricted diffusion in adults: looking beyond thrombo-occlusions
AbstractGyriform restricted diffusion (GRD) refers to hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) with corresponding hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. These changes are commonly seen following a vascular occlusion, reflecting the limitation of water molecule movement across cell membranes (restricted diffusion) due to the failure of Na+/K+-ATPase pumps (cytotoxic oedema). However, GRD can occur in several other neurological conditions as well. A thorough understanding of these conditions and their anatomic predilection plays a critical role in identifying...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular lesions of the head and neck: an update on classification and imaging review
AbstractVascular lesions have a varied appearance and can commonly occur in the head and neck. A majority of these lesions are cutaneous and congenital; however, some may be acquired and malignant. The presentation and clinical history of patients presenting with head and neck lesions can be used to guide further imaging, which can provide important diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. This review discusses the revised International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification system for vascular tumors and malformations, as well as explores the most common vascular anomalies including their cli...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging methods used in the assessment of environmental disease networks: a brief review for clinicians
ConclusionsEnvironmental epidemiology has revealed that several organs and systems in the human body are targets of air pollutants. Current imaging methods that can assess the deleterious effects of pollutants includes a whole spectrum: radiography, US, CT and MRI. Future studies will help to reveal additional links among environmental disease networks. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gonad shielding in pelvic radiography: modern optimised X-ray systems might allow its discontinuation
ConclusionsAssessment of pelvic doses revealed a large reduction in radiation risks facilitated by technological developments. Optimisation likewise contributed, but unfortunately, its potential was never adequately exploited. Today, using a modern and optimised X-ray system, gonad shielding can be safely discontinued for women. For men, there might be a marginal benefit, but potential negative side-effects may well dominate. Discontinuation of gonad shielding seems therefore justifiable. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Artefacts in contrast enhanced digital mammography: how can they affect diagnostic image quality and confuse clinical diagnosis?
AbstractContrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is a diagnostic tool for breast cancer detection. Artefacts are observed in about 10% of CEDM examinations. Understanding CEDM artefacts is important to prevent diagnostic misinterpretation. In this article, we have described the artefacts that we have commonly encountered in clinical practice; we hope to ease the recognition and help troubleshoot solutions to prevent or minimise them. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The effect of the MR pulse sequence on the regional corpus callosum morphometry
ConclusionThe findings of this study demonstrate that combining data from different pulse sequences in a multisite study could make some variations in the results. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Image-guided breast biopsy and localisation: recommendations for information to women and referring physicians by the European Society of Breast Imaging
AbstractWe summarise here the information to be provided to women and referring physicians about percutaneous breast biopsy and lesion localisation under imaging guidance. After explaining why a preoperative diagnosis with a percutaneous biopsy is preferred to surgical biopsy, we illustrate the criteria used by radiologists for choosing the most appropriate combination of device type for sampling and imaging technique for guidance. Then, we describe the commonly used devices, fromfine-needle sampling to tissue biopsy with larger needles, namelycore needle biopsy andvacuum-assisted biopsy, and howmammography,digital breast ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gallstones top to toe: what the radiologist needs to know
AbstractGallstone-related disease can have significant associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. The incidence of gallstone-related disease in the Western world is on the increase. There are multiple different pathological manifestations of gallstone disease: the presentation, diagnosis and associated complications of which vary significantly depending on anatomical location. The role of imaging in gallstone-related disease is broad with radiology playing an essential role in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of gallstone-related pathologies. This paper distills the broad range of gallstone-related pathologies in...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Attitudes and perceptions of UK medical students towards artificial intelligence and radiology: a multicentre survey
ConclusionsUK medical students understand the importance of AI and are keen to engage. Medical school training on AI should be expanded and improved. Realistic use cases and limitations of AI must be presented to students so they will not feel discouraged from pursuing radiology. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Macrocyclic MR contrast agents: evaluation of multiple-organ gadolinium retention in healthy rats
ConclusionsLess Gd is retained in the brain and body tissues of rats 28  days after the last exposure to ProHance® compared to other macrocyclic GBCAs, likely due to unique physico-chemical features that facilitate more rapid and efficient clearance. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Redefining the structure of structured reporting in radiology
AbstractStructured reporting is advocated as a means of improving reporting in radiology to the ultimate benefit of both radiological and clinical practice. Several large initiatives are currently evaluating its potential. However, with numerous characterizations of the term in circulation, “structured reporting” has become ambiguous and is often confused with “standardization,” which may hamper proper evaluation and implementation in clinical practice. This paper provides an overview of interpretations of structured reporting and proposes a clear definition that differentiates structured reporting ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CEUS LI-RADS: a pictorial review
AbstractContrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of US in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs), and it is suggested and often included in many international guidelines as an important diagnostic tool in the imaging work-up of cirrhotic patients at risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, CEUS Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) provides standardized terminology, interpretation, and reporting for the diagnosis of HCC. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate CEUS features of nodules discovered at US in cirrhotic l...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Summary of the proceedings of the International Forum 2019: “What are the strategies to engage the young generation”
AbstractThe ESR International Forum at the ECR 2019 discussed strategies for engaging the young generation. The future of radiology is a crucial topic that goes hand in hand with tomorrow ’s radiologists. The European Society of Radiology (ESR) established the ESR International Forum in order to discuss hot topics in the profession of radiology with non-European radiological partner societies. At the ESR International Forum 2019, different strategies, initiatives and ideas were pre sented by the different societies with regard to engaging young doctors into radiology. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Inclusion of MCQs written by radiology residents in their annual evaluation: innovative method to enhance resident ’s empowerment?
AbstractAimWe hypothesized that multiple-choice questions written by radiology residents(MCQresident) for their weekly case presentations during radiology staff meetings could be used along with multiple-choice questions written by radiology teachers(MCQteacher) for their annual evaluation. The current prospective study aimed at determining the educational characteristics of MCQresident and at comparing them with those of MCQteacher.MethodsFifty-one radiology residents of the first to the fifth year of training took the 2017 exam that contained 58 MCQresident and 63 of MCQteacher. The difficulty index, the discrimination p...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mapping the ischemic penumbra and predicting stroke progression in acute ischemic stroke: the overlooked role of susceptibility weighted imaging
ConclusionA positive DWI-SWI mismatch is an indicator of the ischemic penumbra and a predictor of infarct expansion if left untreated. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging indications and findings in evaluation of lung transplant graft dysfunction and rejection
AbstractLung transplantation is a treatment option in end-stage lung disease. Complications can develop along a continuum in the immediate or longer post-transplant period, including surgical and technical complications, primary graft dysfunction, rejection, infections, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and recurrence of the primary disease. These complications have overlapping clinical and imaging features and often co-exist. Time of onset after transplant is helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In the early post transplantation period, imaging findings are non-specific and need to be interpreted i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Combining molecular and imaging metrics in cancer: radiogenomics
ConclusionRadiomics and radiogenomics are promising to increase precision in diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and prediction of treatment response, providing valuable information for patient care throughout the course of the disease, given that this information is easily obtainable with imaging. Larger prospective studies and standardization will be needed to define relevant imaging biomarkers before they can be implemented into the clinical workflow. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Study of breast implants mammography examinations for identification of suitable image quality criteria
AbstractPurposeTo characterise the mammography technique used in breast cancer screening programmes for breast implants (BI) and to identify if the image quality (IQ) criteria available in literature are applicable to BI imaging.MethodsThe study was conducted in two phases: literature review to find IQ criteria used in mammography combining keywords in several sources; and assessment of 1207 BI mammograms using the criteria that was identified previously to see if they were achieved or not. An observation grid was used to collect information about positioning, beam energy, compression force, and exposure mode. Descriptive ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effects of Rex-bypass shunt on the cavernous transformation of the portal vein in children: evaluation by the color Doppler ultrasonography
AbstractBackgroundThe study was to investigate the role of color Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of the effect of Rex-bypass shunt on the cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) in children.MethodsFifty children with symptomatic extrahepatic portal hypertension who received Rex-bypass shunt were retrospectively reviewed, and they were diagnosed with CTPV by ultrasonography. The clinical characteristics were analyzed before and after operation.ResultsForty-five patients received color Doppler ultrasonography at 6  months after surgery, and good patency in the bypass vessels was displayed. The pla...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT and MR imaging of cystic renal lesions
AbstractCystic renal lesions are a common incidental finding on routinely imaging examinations. Although a benign simple cyst is usually easy to recognize, the same is not true for complex and multifocal cystic renal lesions, whose differential diagnosis includes both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In this review, we will show a series of cases in order to provide tips to identify benign cysts and differentiate them from malignant ones. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gender discrepancy in research activities during radiology residency
AbstractObjectiveTo investigate the presence of gender disparity in academic involvement during radiology residency and to identify and characterize any gender differences in perceived barriers for conducting research.MethodsAn international call for participation in an online survey was promoted via social media and through multiple international and national radiological societies. A 35-question survey invited radiology trainees worldwide to answer questions regarding exposure and barriers to academic radiology during their training. Gender differences in response proportions were analyzed using either Fisher ’s ex...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional imaging of acute gynaecologic disorders: CT and MRI findings with differential diagnosis —part II: uterine emergencies and pelvic inflammatory disease
AbstractDue to the growing use of cross-sectional imaging in emergency departments, acute gynaecologic disorders are increasingly diagnosed on urgent multidetector computed tomography (CT) studies, often requested under alternative presumptive diagnoses in reproductive-age women. If clinical conditions and state-of-the-art scanner availability permit, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior to CT due to its more in-depth characterisationof abnormal or inconclusive gynaecological findings, owing to excellent soft-tissue contrast, intrinsic multiplanar capabilities and lack of ionising radiation.This pictorial review ai...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional imaging of acute gynaecologic disorders: CT and MRI findings with differential diagnosis —part I: corpus luteum and haemorrhagic ovarian cysts, genital causes of haemoperitoneum and adnexal torsion
AbstractAcute gynaecologic disorders are commonly encountered in daily clinical practice of emergency departments (ED) and predominantly occur in reproductive-age women. Since clinical presentation may be nonspecific and physical findings are often inconclusive, imaging is required for a timely and accurate diagnosis. Although ultrasound is the ideal non-invasive first-line technique, nowadays multidetector computed tomography (CT) is extensively used in the ED, particularly when a non-gynaecologic disorder is suspected and differential diagnosis from gastrointestinal and urologic diseases is needed. As a result, CT often ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Emergency imaging in paediatric oncology: a pictorial review
AbstractDespite the decline in mortality rates over the last 20  years, cancer remains one of the leading causes of death in children worldwide. Early recognition and treatment for acute oncological emergencies are vital in preventing mortality and poor outcomes, such as irreversible end-organ damage and a compromised quality of life.Imaging plays a pivotal and adjunctive role to clinical examination, and a high level of interpretative acumen by the radiologist can make the difference between life and death. In contrast to adults, the most accessible cross-sectional imaging tool in children typically involves ultras...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced imaging in adult diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas
AbstractThe adult diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are typically IDH mutant and slow-growing gliomas having moderately increased cellularity generally without mitosis, necrosis, and microvascular proliferation. Supra-total resection of LGG significantly increases the overall survival by delaying malignant transformation compared with a simple debulking so accurate MR diagnosis is crucial for treatment planning. Data from meta-analysis support the addition of diffusion and perfusion-weighted MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of suspected LGG. Typically, LGG has lower cellularity (ADCmin), angiog...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Elucidating vaginal fistulas on CT and MRI
AbstractVaginal fistulas (VF) represent abnormal communications between the vagina and either the distal portion of the digestive system or the lower urinary tract, but lack an accepted classification and standardised terminology. Regardless of the underlying cause, these uncommon disorders result in profound physical, psychological, sexual and social distress to the patients.Since diagnosis of VF is challenging at gynaecologic examination, ano-proctoscopy and urethro-cystoscopy, imaging is crucial to confirm the fistula, to visualise its site, course and involved organ, and to characterise the underlying disease. The trad...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment response with LI-RADS: a pictorial review
This article reviews the LR-TR algorithm; discusses locoregional therapies for HCC, treatment concepts, and expected posttreatment findings; and illustrates LI-RADS treatment response assessment with CT and MRI. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intruding implements: a pictorial review of retained surgical foreign objects in neuroradiology
AbstractIntra-cranial and spinal foreign body reactions represent potential complications of medical procedures. Their diagnosis may be challenging as they frequently show an insidious clinical presentation and can mimic other life-threatening conditions. Their pathophysiological mechanism is represented by a local inflammatory response due to retained or migrated surgical elements. Cranial interventions may be responsible for the presence of retained foreign objects represented by surgical materials (such as sponges, bone wax, and Teflon). Spinal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, including myelography, chordotomy, ve...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Chest imaging using signs, symbols, and naturalistic images: a practical guide for radiologists and non-radiologists
AbstractSeveral imaging findings of thoracic diseases have been referred —on chest radiographs or CT scans—to signs, symbols, or naturalistic images. Most of these imaging findings include the air bronchogram sign, the air crescent sign, the arcade-like sign, the atoll sign, the cheerios sign, the crazy paving appearance, the comet-tail sign, the darkus bronchus sign , the doughnut sign, the pattern of eggshell calcifications, the feeding vessel sign, the finger-in-gloove sign, the galaxy sign, the ginkgo leaf sign, the Golden-S sign, the halo sign, the headcheese sign, the honeycombing appearance, the interfac...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The validity and applicability of CAD-RADS in the management of patients with coronary artery disease
ConclusionCAD-RADS is valuable for improving CCTA structural reports and facilitating decision-making with high diagnostic accuracy and high reproducibility. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-neoplastic pathology at the crossroads between neck imaging and cardiothoracic imaging
This article will discuss the normal anatomic boundaries of the thoracic inlet and present an image-rich systematic discussion of the non-neoplastic pathology that can occur in this region. The neoplastic pathology of the thoracic inlet will be covered in a companion article. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Congenital systemic venous return anomalies to the right atrium review
AbstractCongenital anomalies of the systemic venous return to the right atrium are rare and stem from variations in the embryogenesis of the venous system. They are usually asymptomatic, and such the major clinical significance of their recognition is to prevent misdiagnosis, in addition to some having technical implications on invasive procedures.Typically, the venous blood from the upper half of the body is carried by the right-sided, superior vena cava (SVC), and some common congenital abnormalities found are persistent left SVC, SVC duplication, anomalous drainage of the brachiocephalic veins, or interruption of the SV...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Complications of hepatic echinococcosis: multimodality imaging approach
AbstractHydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis endemic in many countries. Liver echinococcosis accounts for 60 –75% of cases and may be responsible for a wide spectrum of complications in about one third of patients. Some of these complications are potentially life-threatening and require prompt diagnosis and urgent intervention. In this article, we present our experience with common and uncommon complicat ions of hepatic hydatid cysts which include rupture, bacterial superinfection, and mass effect-related complications. Specifically, the aim of this review is to provide key imaging features and diagnostic clues to...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An additional challenge for head and neck radiologists: anatomic variants posing a surgical risk – a pictorial review
AbstractAnatomic variants in the head and neck are quite numerous and occur frequently: a minority of them increase the risk of complications during surgical procedures and may be visualized on cross-sectional images. As some of these complications are potentially fatal, awareness (and accurate reporting) of such variants is a basic responsibility of radiologists, particularly when surgery in the pertinent anatomic area is under consideration. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cancer genome landscape: a radiologist ’s guide to cancer genome medicine with imaging correlates
AbstractThe introduction of high throughput sequence analysis in the past decade and the decrease in sequencing costs has made available an enormous amount of genomic data. These data have shaped the landscape of cancer genome, which encompasses mutations determining tumorigenesis, the signaling pathways involved in cancer growth, the tumor heterogeneity, and its role in development of metastases. Tumors develop acquiring a series of driver mutations over time. Of the many mutated genes present in cancer, only few specific mutations are responsible for invasiveness and metastatic potential, which, in many cases, have chara...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Noninvasive imaging diagnosis of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome: a pictorial review
AbstractSinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a rare liver disorder due to hepatic vascular injury. Its rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial for patient survival. SOS is often established clinically, based on Baltimore, modified Seattle, or European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria. Unfortunately, such criteria are not highly specificity and fail to provide a timely, reliable differential diagnosis. The use of noninvasive imaging techniques, such as ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomo...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR statement on new approaches to undergraduate teaching in Radiology
AbstractMedical education is evolving and electronic learning (e-Learning) strategies have now become an essential asset in radiology education. Radiology education is a significant part of the undergraduate medical curriculum and the use of e-Learning in radiology teaching in medical schools is on the rise. If coupled with clinical decision support systems, e-Learning can be a practical way of teaching students clinical decision making, such as selecting the diagnostic imaging tests that are best suited in certain clinical scenarios.The innovative concept of flipped classroom learning encourages students to work independe...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A radiologic review of hoarse voice from anatomic and neurologic perspectives
AbstractThe differential diagnosis for hoarseness is extensive and includes a multitude of etiologies that span a large geographic area from the brainstem to the mediastinum. Therefore, localizing a causative lesion can be extremely difficult for clinicians and radiologists alike. In this review, we will first discuss the normal anatomy of the larynx and its innervation via the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. We will then proceed with a guided tour of the various infectious/inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, and traumatic/iatrogenic causes of hoarseness subdivided by anatomic location (brainstem, skull base, carot...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mentorship in academic radiology: why it matters
This article reviews benefits and challenges of mentorship in academic radiology, discusses how to institute a faculty mentoring program, examines different types of mentoring, and reviews challenges related to diversity and incl usion. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European Training Assessment Programme 2.0
AbstractThe European Training Assessment Programme (ETAP) 2.0 offers a structured assessment of radiology training institutions applying for certification, without geographical constraints. It applies, in fact, to both European and non-European institutions, which fulfill the eligibility criteria and wish to obtain a European certification.ETAP 2.0 aims to provide centres that offer specialty training in radiology with an objective assessment by external assessors of their training programmes. ETAP 2.0 also aims to develop assessment systems and guidelines to be used by postgraduate education authorities at a national leve...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can imaging be the new yardstick for diagnosing peripheral neuropathy? —a comparison between high resolution ultrasound and MR neurography with an approach to diagnosis
ConclusionWith the advent of higher frequency probes and improved MR field strength, imaging of peripheral nerves is possible with better accuracy. Imaging assessment of nerves allows anatomical delineation with identification of exact site of involvement. This comparative study demonstrates the role of imaging in diagnosing peripheral nerve pathologies with the accuracy of MRI as high as 93.89% which may serve as an imaging gold standard. High-resolution ultrasound, being quicker, cost effective and a comparable accuracy of 80% can serve as a reliable screening tool. This study incorporates a larger study group and compar...
Source: Insights into Imaging - November 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of artificial intelligence on radiology: a EuroAIM survey among members of the European Society of Radiology
We report the results of a survey conducted among ESR members in November and December 2018, asking for expectations about artificial intelligence (AI) in 5 –10 years. Of 24,000 ESR members contacted, 675 (2.8%) completed the survey, 454 males (67%), 555 (82%) working at academic/public hospitals. AI impact was mostly expected (≥ 30% of responders) on breast, oncologic, thoracic, and neuro imaging, mainly involving mammography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. Responders foresee AI impact on: job opportunities (375/675, 56%), 218/375 (58%) expecting increase, 157/375 (42%) reduction; reporting workload...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research