Role of imaging in visceral vascular emergencies
AbstractDifferential diagnosis in non-traumatic acute abdomen is broad and unrelated diseases may simulate each other from a clinical perspective. Despite the fact that they are not as common, acute abdominal pain due to diseases related to visceral vessels may be life-threating if not detected and treated promptly. Thrombosis, dissection, and aneurysm in the abdominal visceral arteries or thrombosis in visceral veins may cause acute abdominal pain. Imaging with appropriate protocoling plays a fundamental role in both early diagnosis and determination of the treatment approach in these cases where early treatment can be li...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Persistent left superior vena cava: clinical importance and differential diagnoses
AbstractPersistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly and may be a component of the complex cardiac pathologies. While it is often asymptomatic, it can lead to significant problems such as arrhythmias and cyanosis. Besides, it can cause serious complications during vascular interventional procedures or the surgical treatment of cardiac anomalies (CA). The clinical significance of PLSVC depends on the drainage site and the accompanying CA. In this article, we will describe the epidemiology, embryology, and anatomic variations of PLSVC. Possible accompanying CA and heterotaxy spectrum ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging features and differential diagnoses of non-neoplastic diffuse mediastinal diseases
AbstractAcute or chronic non-neoplastic diffuse mediastinal diseases have multiple causes, degrees of severity, and a wide range of management. Some situations require emergency care while others do not need specific treatment. Although the diagnosis may be suspected on chest X-ray, it is mainly based on CT. A delayed recognition is not uncommonly observed. Some findings may prompt the radiologist to look for specific associated injuries or lesions.This pictorial review will successively describe the various non-neoplastic causes of diffuse mediastinal diseases with their typical findings and major differentials.First, pne...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Esophageal emergencies: another important cause of acute chest pain
AbstractA variety of esophageal pathologies can present emergently with a chief complaint of acute chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) is often the first line of imaging in esophageal emergencies and provides useful information —even without an initial suspicion—when used in conjunction with other imaging modalities such as esophagography and direct visualization. We review various urgent and emergent esophageal disease entities which may manifest as acute chest pain, with an emphasis on CT and ancillary imaging appear ances, while discussing management according to their emergency. Radiologists should be fami...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sports-related lower limb muscle injuries: pattern recognition approach and MRI review
AbstractMuscle injuries of the lower limbs are currently the most common sport-related injuries, the impact of which is particularly significant in elite athletes. MRI is the imaging modality of choice in assessing acute muscle injuries and radiologists play a key role in the current scenario of multidisciplinary health care teams involved in the care of elite athletes with muscle injuries. Despite the frequency and clinical relevance of muscle injuries, there is still a lack of uniformity in the description, diagnosis, and classification of lesions. The characteristics of the connective tissues (distribution and thickness...
Source: Insights into Imaging - October 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in the assessment of anterior knee pain
ConclusionUltrasonography can be used to make a swift screening and assessment of painful anterior knee and as an alternative to MRI when it is unavailable or contraindicated. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improving radiologic communication in oncology: a single-centre experience with structured reporting for cancer patients
AbstractObjectivesOur aim was to develop a structured reporting concept (structured oncology report, SOR) for general follow-up assessment of cancer patients in clinical routine. Furthermore, we analysed the report quality of SOR compared to conventional reports (CR) as assessed by referring oncologists.MethodsSOR was designed to provide standardised layout, tabulated tumour burden documentation and standardised conclusion using uniform terminology. A software application for reporting was programmed to ensure consistency of layout and vocabulary and to facilitate utilisation of SOR. Report quality was analysed for 25 SOR ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early experiences of radiographers in Ireland during the COVID-19 crisis
ConclusionClear communication regarding changing protocols and importantly patients ’ infectious status are essential to safeguard healthcare workers and to minimise unnecessary anxiety and distress. Attention is required to staff mental health including the identification of burnout symptoms to prevent long-term negative consequences of the pandemic on radiography services. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodality imaging features of desmoid tumors: a head-to-toe spectrum
AbstractDesmoid tumors (DTs) are a rare and biologically heterogeneous group of locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasm: their biological behavior spectrum ranges from indolent to aggressive tumors. DTs are classified as intra-abdominal, extra-abdominal, and within the abdominal wall lesions.It is well known that abdominal and extra-abdominal DTs are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Gardner syndrome. Possible risk factors are prior trauma/surgery, pregnancy, and oral contraceptives.There was a real revolution in the management of DT: from aggressive first-line approach (surgery and radiation therap...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Do we still need breast cancer screening in the era of targeted therapies and precision medicine?
AbstractBreast cancer (BC) is the most common female cancer and the second cause of death among women worldwide. The 5-year relative survival rate recently improved up to 90% due to increased population coverage and women ’s attendance to organised mammography screening as well as to advances in therapies, especially systemic treatments. Screening attendance is associated with a mortality reduction of at least 30% and a 40% lower risk of advanced disease. The stage at diagnosis remains the strongest predictor of re currences. Systemic treatments evolved dramatically over the last 20 years: aromatase inhibitors...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predictive value of a false-negative focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) result in patients with confirmed traumatic abdominal injury
ConclusionTrauma patients with confirmed abdominal injury and a false-negative FAST have a better outcome than those with a positive FAST. FAST may be valuable for risk stratification and prognostication in patients with a high suspicion of abdominal injury when CT has not been performed yet or when CT is not available. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI characterization of focal liver lesions in non-cirrhotic patients: assessment of added value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase imaging
ConclusionsThe added information obtained from the HPB phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI does not change the diagnosis or increase confidence in diagnosis when evaluating new indeterminate focal liver lesions in non-cirrhotic patients. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI of rectal cancer —relevant anatomy and staging key points
AbstractRectal cancer has the eighth highest cancer incidence worldwide, and it is increasing in young individuals. However, in countries with a high human development index, mortality is decreasing, which may reflect better patient management, imaging being key. We rely on imaging to establish the great majority of clinical tumour features for therapeutic decision-making, namely tumour location, depth of invasion, lymph node involvement, circumferential resection margin status and extramural venous invasion. Despite major improvements in technique resulting in better image quality, and notwithstanding the dissemination of...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The needle and the damage done: musculoskeletal and vascular complications associated with injected drug use
AbstractInjected drug use is associated with a wide range of medical complications which are predominantly musculoskeletal and vascular in nature. Illicit drug use is increasing worldwide. Patients with complications of injected drug use often present in a non-specific manner without a reliable clinical history. Musculoskeletal complications are typically infective in aetiology and may vary widely in severity from mild to life-threatening. A multimodal imaging approach is often required for both diagnostic imaging and image-guided sampling. Plain radiographs are often an important initial test, for example in identifying r...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Colorectal liver metastases: radiopathological correlation
AbstractWith the development of chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and hepatic surgery, the survival of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) has dramatically improved. Imaging plays a central role for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment allocation in these patients. To interpret CRLM on imaging, radiologists must be familiar with the main imaging features of untreated tumors as well as the modifications induced by systemic therapies, and their meaning in relation to pathological tumor response and tumor biology. CRLM have the same histological features as the primary tumor. Most are “non-otherwi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The value of 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography in evaluating the relationship between carotid elasticity and left ventricular systolic function in patients with diabetic nephropathy
AbstractObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between the elasticity of the carotid artery and the LV (left ventricle) systolic function in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) by using two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain echocardiography (2D-STE).MethodsDN patients (n = 108) and control subjects (n = 112), all of whom underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound. Analysis of LV GLS (global longitudinal strain) from the apical two-chamber (2C), three-chamber (3C), and four-chamber (4C) views. Meanwhile, the circumferential strain (CS) of the carotid artery was obtained from the view of the short-axis right c...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Reference Levels based on clinical indications in computed tomography: a literature review
ConclusionsIn all the six anatomical areas for which Diagnostic Reference Levels based on clinical indications were found, a huge variation of computed tomography dose descriptor values was identified, providing evidence for a need to develop strategies to standardise and optimise computed tomography protocols. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Traumatic and non-traumatic bone marrow edema in ankle MRI: a pictorial essay
This article will provide a systematic overview of the most common disorders in the ankle and foot associated with BME.The presence of BME is an unspecific but sensitive sign of primary pathology and may act as a guide to correct and systematic interpretation of the MR examination. The distribution of BME allows for a determination of the trauma mechanism and a correct assessment of soft tissue injury. The BME pattern following an inversion injury involves the lateral malleolus, the medial part of the talar body, and the medial part of the distal tibia. In other cases, a consideration of the distribution of BME may indicat...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Integrative radiogenomics for virtual biopsy and treatment monitoring in ovarian cancer
ConclusionLinking radiomics and biological correlates in a targeted manner could potentially improve the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Radiogenomic signatures could be used to monitor tumours during the course of therapy, offering additional information for clinical decision making. In summary, radiogenomics may pave the way to virtual biopsies and treatment monitoring tools for integrative tumour analysis. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pre- and post-operative imaging of cochlear implants: a pictorial review
AbstractCochlear implants are increasingly used to treat sensorineural hearing disorders in both children and adults. Pre-operative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a pivotal role in patient selection, to rule out findings that preclude surgery or identify conditions which may have an impact on the surgical procedure. The post-operative position of the electrode array within the cochlea can be reliably identified using cone-beam computed tomography. Recognition of scalar dislocation, cochlear dislocation, electrode fold, and malposition of the electrode array may have important consequences for the p...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Structured reporting of chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia: a consensus proposal
ConclusionsThe proposed structured report could be of help both for expert radiologists and for the less experienced who are faced with the management of these patients. The structured report is conceived as a guideline, to recommend the key items/findings of chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics in medical imaging —“how-to” guide and critical reflection
AbstractRadiomics is a quantitative approach to medical imaging, which aims at enhancing the existing data available to clinicians by means of advanced mathematical analysis. Through mathematical extraction of the spatial distribution of signal intensities and pixel interrelationships, radiomics quantifies textural information by using analysis methods from the field of artificial intelligence. Various studies from different fields in imaging have been published so far, highlighting the potential of radiomics to enhance clinical decision-making. However, the field faces several important challenges, which are mainly caused...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodality approach to the nipple-areolar complex: a pictorial review and diagnostic algorithm
AbstractThe anatomic and histologic characteristics of the nipple-areolar complex make this breast region special. The nipple-areolar complex can be affected by abnormal development and a wide spectrum of pathological conditions, many of which have unspecific clinical and radiological presentations that can present a challenge for radiologists. The nipple-areolar complex requires a specific imaging workup in which a multimodal approach is essential. Radiologists need to know the different imaging modalities used to study the nipple-areolar complex, as well as their advantages and limitations. It is essential to get acquain...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Congenital and hereditary cystic diseases of the abdomen
AbstractCongenital and hereditary cystic lesions of the abdomen are relatively rare. Correct diagnosis is critical as they may simulate several other benign and malignant acquired diseases of the abdomen. With the correct and appropriate use of imaging, diagnosis may be relatively straightforward and clinical management may be implemented appropriately. The purpose of this article is to describe imaging findings of common and uncommon congenital and hereditary cystic disease of the abdominal organs. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computed tomography radiation doses for common computed tomography examinations: a nationwide dose survey in United Arab Emirates
ConclusionsThe results show low dose variations between the MOHAP scanners. The data also revealed CTDIvol and DLP values comparable to those in the initial NDRL report and international standards. The establishment of diagnostic reference levels will require a continuous dose monitoring system. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases in children: single center experience with clinical, genetic, and imaging review
ConclusionAutoinflammatory diseases are relatively rare entities that can affect any system of the body. Given the many nonspecific imaging features, awareness of these diseases and good communication with clinicians aid in reaching an accurate diagnosis. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Parasitic diseases as a cause of acute abdominal pain: imaging findings
AbstractAcute abdominal pain can be seen in cases with parasitic diseases delivered to emergency departments. The diagnosis of the parasitic disease can be delayed because of the similar clinical signs encountered in other frequently seen causes of acute abdomen. Nevertheless, the features detected in imaging scans can be helpful in the diagnosis. The present study aims to raise awareness about abdominal parasitosis in emergency conditions and also to underline the association between imaging findings and the life cycle of parasites with illustrative cases. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Maintenance of certification for radiologists: an overview of European countries
ConclusionsThere is considerable heterogeneity across European countries regarding the maintenance of certification requirements for radiologists. More homogeneity is desired for uniform quality assurance and professional mobility of radiologists across Europe. The data from our overview may be used to establish a benchmark for national societies who issue maintenance of licensure requirements for radiologists. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multiparametric MRI: practical approach and pictorial review of a useful tool in the evaluation of brain tumours and tumour-like lesions
AbstractMRI has a vital role in the assessment of intracranial lesions. Conventional MRI has limited specificity and multiparametric MRI using diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows more accurate assessment of the tissue microenvironment. The purpose of this educational pictorial review is to demonstrate the role of multiparametric MRI for diagnosis, treatment planning and for assessing treatment response, as well as providing a practical approach for performing and interpreting multiparametric MRI in the clinical setting. A variety of cases are presented to demons...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Follow-up after radiological intervention in oncology: ECIO-ESOI evidence and consensus-based recommendations for clinical practice
AbstractInterventional radiology plays an important and increasing role in cancer treatment. Follow-up is important to be able to assess treatment success and detect locoregional and distant recurrence and recommendations for follow-up are needed. At ECIO 2018, a joint ECIO-ESOI session was organized to establish follow-up recommendations for oncologic intervention in liver, renal, and lung cancer. Treatments included thermal ablation, TACE, and TARE. In total five topics were evaluated: ablation in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), TARE in CRLM, TACE and TARE in HCC, ablation in renal cancer, and ablation in lung cancer...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neoplastic pathology at the crossroads between neck imaging and cardiothoracic imaging
This article will present an image rich, system-based discussion of the neoplastic pathology that can occur in this region. The anatomy of the thoracic inlet and the non-neoplastic pathology of the thoracic inlet have been covered in our companion article. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Utilization of breast MRI and breast MRI-guided biopsy in clinical practice: results of a survey in Qu ébec and France
ConclusionMost of radiologists performing breast MRIs work in non-academic institutions in both countries. Waiting time is higher in Quebec, but most of preoperative breast MRIs are performed within 3  weeks in both countries. The surgeon plays an important role in recommending preoperative MRI in Quebec. MRI-guided breast biopsies are not widely available in both countries. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bone up on spinal osseous lesions: a case review series
This article focuses on the spectrum of extradural spinal tumors, accounting for the majority of primary spinal tumors, by comparing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and characteristic imaging appearance of these lesions. The discussion includes the commonly encountered benign lesions, such as vertebral venous vascular malformation and enostosis, as well as malignant lesions including metastases and lymphoma. The article also includes other less-encountered primary spinal tumors such as plasmacytoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumor, eosinophilic granuloma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma,...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer
AbstractNumerous imaging modalities may be used for the staging of women with advanced breast cancer. Although bone scintigraphy and multiplanar-CT are the most frequently used tests, others including PET, MRI and hybrid scans are also utilised, with no specific recommendations of which test should be preferentially used. We review the evidence behind the imaging modalities that characterise metastases in breast cancer and to update the evidence on comparative imaging accuracy. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fast acquisition abdominal MRI study for the investigation of suspected acute appendicitis in paediatric patients
AbstractObjectivesTo assess the diagnostic accuracy of fast acquisition MRI in suspected cases of paediatric appendicitis presenting to a tertiary referral hospital.Materials and methodsA prospective study was undertaken between May and October 2017 of 52 children who presented with suspected appendicitis and were referred for an abdominal ultrasound. All patients included in this study received both an abdominal ultrasound and five-sequence MRI consisting of axial and coronal gradient echo T2 scans, fat-saturated SSFSE and a diffusion-weighted scan. Participants were randomised into groups of MRI with breath-holds or MRI ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Convolutional neural networks for brain tumour segmentation
AbstractThe introduction of quantitative image analysis has given rise to fields such as radiomics which have been used to predict clinical sequelae. One growing area of interest for analysis is brain tumours, in particular glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Tumour segmentation is an important step in the pipeline in the analysis of this pathology. Manual segmentation is often inconsistent as it varies between observers. Automated segmentation has been proposed to combat this issue. Methodologies such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which are machine learning pipelines modelled on the biological process of neurons (cal...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR Statement on the Validation of Imaging Biomarkers
AbstractMedical imaging capable of generating imaging biomarkers, specifically radiology and nuclear medicine image acquisition and analysis processes, differs from frequently used comparators like blood or urine biomarkers. This difference arises from the  sample acquisition methodology. While different analysis methodologies and equipment provide slightly different results in any analytical domain, unlike blood or urine analysis where the samples are obtained by simple extraction or excretion, in radiology the acquisition of the sample is heterogen eous by design, since complex equipment from different vendors is us...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Testicular tumours in children: an approach to diagnosis and management with pathologic correlation
AbstractTesticular tumours are rare in children. Painless scrotal mass is the most frequent clinical presentation. Tumoural markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human gonadotropin chorionic) and hormone levels (testosterone) contribute to the diagnosis and management of a testicular mass in boys. Ultrasonography is the best imaging modality to study testicular tumours. A benign tumour is suggested when ultrasonography shows a mainly cystic component, well-defined borders, echogenic rim or normal to increased echogenicity lesion when compared to the healthy testicular parenchyma. Malignant tumour is suspected when ultrasonograp...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis after Cesarean section: a pictorial review
This article will discuss the spectrum of C-section complications in the MR image-rich form and will provide a systematic discussion of the possible pathology that can occur, showing comprehensive anatomical insight into the pelvis after C-section thanks to MRI that facilitates clinical decisions. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Broken-crescent sign at CT indicates impending aortic rupture in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma
ConclusionsIn patients with acute aortic IMH, identification of a broken-crescent sign in CT is highly suggestive of impending aortic rupture, and early aggressive treatment is mandatory. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroradiology training in EU: international survey of 31 countries within UEMS frame
ConclusionsThe European framework of neuroradiology ’s training and practice that emerged through this survey is fragmented, but there is an increasing attention by European scientific societies and institutions to create a common path of training and practice that can guarantee high educational and patient care standards. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of MRI as first-line modality in the detection of previously undiagnosed otosclerosis: a single tertiary institute experience
ConclusionThe end point of this study was to validate the subtle findings of otosclerosis on MRI, by comparison to the gold-standard modality HRCT. Our hypothesis is that in the appropriate clinical setting, familiarity with MRI features of otosclerosis would increase the diagnostic ‘catch’ in the first ‘net’ itself i.e. first-line MRI. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Adenocarcinoma of the lung: from BAC to the future
AbstractAdenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma are relatively new classification entities which replace the now retired term, bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC). The radiographic appearance of these lesions ranges from pure, ground glass nodules to large, solid masses. A thorough understanding of the new classification is essential to radiologists who work with MDT colleagues to provide accurate staging and treatment. A 2-year review was performed of all surgically resected cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarci...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic MRI for articulating joint evaluation on 1.5  T and 3.0 T scanners: setup, protocols, and real-time sequences
This article summarizes the technical parameters of these sequences from various manufacturers on 1.5  T and 3.0 T MRI scanners. We have reviewed pertinent details of the patient and coil positioning for dynamic MRI of various joints. The indications and limitations of dynamic MRI of joints are discussed. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the bronchial arteries: normal findings, hypertrophy and embolization in patients with hemoptysis
AbstractThe enlargement of the bronchial arteries occurs in a multitude of congenital and acquired diseases and is responsible for the majority of cases of hemoptysis. In this review, we provide a simplified imaging approach to the evaluation of the bronchial arteries. We highlight the anatomy and function of the bronchial arteries, typical imaging findings, how to recognize bronchial artery dilatation, and its underlying causes. Contrast-enhanced computer tomography plays a major role in diagnosing bronchial artery enlargement and also improves treatment planning. Bronchial artery embolization has proven to be effective i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of scrotal trauma: a review
AbstractTesticular trauma is common, usually trivial and rarely requires hospital attendance, but if it does, then imaging becomes essential as scrotal assessment may be difficult due to pain and/or scrotal disruption. Ultrasound (US) assumes a crucial role as other cross-sectional modalities have a limited use in the acute presentation. Despite the acceptable accuracy of conventional US techniques, there are limitations which hinder a thorough evaluation, critically the assessment of tissue viability, crucial for clinical management and prognosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been shown to offer improved flow v...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spectrum of imaging findings in AIDS-related diffuse large B cell lymphoma
AbstractLymphoma in HIV-infected patients is AIDS defining. This is the second most common AIDS defining malignancy after Kaposi ’s sarcoma. Development of lymphoma in HIV patients is related to immunosuppression and high viral load. Co-infection with other lymphotrophic viruses especially EBV is also strongly associated with development of lymphoma in HIV patients. Despite advances in HAART therapy, incidence of diffuse la rge B cell lymphoma in HIV-infected patients remains significantly higher than in the general population.Early diagnosis is challenging due to presence of opportunistic infections and atypical pre...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESGAR 2020 Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An analysis of key indicators of reproducibility in radiology
ConclusionOur findings demonstrate key indicators of reproducibility are missing in the field of radiology. Thus, the ability to reproduce studies contained in radiology publications may be problematic and may have potential clinical implications. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2020 Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research