Harmonisation of imaging dosimetry in clinical practice: practical approaches and guidance from the ESR EuroSafe Imaging initiative
AbstractThe European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM requires member states of the European Union to ensure justification and optimisation of the radiological procedures and to include information on patient exposure as part of the report of the examinations. The EuroSafe Imaging campaign of the European Society of Radiology created a working group (WG) on “Dosimetry for imaging in clinical practice” with the aim to help with the dosimetry aspects required by European and national regulations. The primary focus topics were selected and a survey among the experts of the WG, allowed suggesting some initial consensus ap...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Women in focus: advice from the front lines on how to enable well-being and build resilience
AbstractThe 2019 European Congress of Radiology program, “Women in Focus: Be Inspired,” offered insights from successful women and men for overcoming a number of everyday work and personal life challenges. With regard to balancing career and personal life and achieving well-being, the advice of female and male radiology leaders on the front lines, thr oughout the world, shares common themes. This paper highlights and expands on points of advice and encouragement from the “Women in Focus” program. The first step is to know yourself, so you can set priorities. Then, take charge, be brave, and follow y...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cortical ischaemic patterns in term partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury —the inter-arterial watershed demonstrated through atrophy, ulegyria and signal change on delayed MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy
AbstractThe inter-arterial watershed zone in neonates is a geographic area without discernible anatomic boundaries and difficult to demarcate and usually not featured in atlases. Schematics currently used to depict the areas are not based on any prior anatomic mapping, compared to adults.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates in the acute to subacute phase with suspected hypoxic-ischaemic injury (HII) can demonstrate signal abnormality and restricted diffusion in the cortical and subcortical parenchyma of the watershed regions.In the chronic stage of partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury, atrophy and ulegyria ca...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tumor in the veins: an abdominal perspective with an emphasis on CT and MR imaging
AbstractEndovenous tumor thrombus in abdomen should be accurately diagnosed as it is a significant finding that may change medical and surgical treatment approaches. As some underlying reasons for endovenous tumor thrombi are relatively rare and imaging findings may be quite subtle, they can be easily overlooked which may have important clinical consequences. In this paper, we described the various imaging aspects of endovenous tumor thrombi originating from various tumor types in different venous structures of the abdomen. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the aortic root on high-pitch non-gated and ECG-gated CT: awareness is the key!
We present a comprehensive review of proximal aortic anatomy, pathologies commonly seen at the aortic root, and their imaging appearances to familiarize radiologists with the diseases of this location. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Facial fractures: classification and highlights for a useful report
AbstractIn patients with facial trauma, multidetector computed tomography is the first-choice imaging test because it can detect and characterize even small fractures and their associated complications quickly and accurately. It has helped clinical management and surgical planning, so radiologists must communicate their findings to surgeons effectively. In Le Fort fractures, there is a breach between the pterygoid plates and the posterior maxilla. These fractures are classified in three basic patterns that can be combined and associated with various complications. Conceptualized when low-speed trauma was predominant, the L...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Feasibility of a paediatric radiology escape room for undergraduate education
ConclusionsA paediatric radiology themed escape room is a feasible teaching method, enjoyed by participants and associated with an increase in radiological knowledge. Further work with larger sample size and direct comparison with other traditional teaching methods is required. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT imaging findings of abdominopelvic vascular compression syndromes: what the radiologist needs to know
AbstractAbdominopelvic vascular compression syndromes include a variety of uncommon conditions characterized by either extrinsic compression of blood vessels by adjacent anatomical structures (i.e., median arcuate ligament syndrome, nutcracker syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome) or compression of hollow viscera by adjacent vessels (i.e., superior mesenteric artery syndrome, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureteral vascular compression syndromes, portal biliopathy). These syndromes can be unexpectedly diagnosed even in asymptomatic patients and the predisposing anatomic conditions can be incidentally discovered on imaging e...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Electronic cleansing of tagged residue in CT colonography: what radiologists need to know
This article summarises the potential effects of EC on CTC imaging, the consequences for reporting and patient management, and strategies to avoid pitfalls. Furthermore, potentially negative effects on clinical reporting and patient management are shown, and problem-solving techniques, as well as recommendations for the appropriate use of EC techniques, are presented. Radiologists using EC should be familiar with EC-related effects on polyp size and also with correct measurement techniques. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thoracic abnormal air collections in patients in the intensive care unit: radiograph findings correlated with CT
AbstractAn abnormal collection of air in the thorax is one of the most common life-threatening events that occurs in the intensive care unit. Patient management differs depending on the location of the air collection; therefore, detecting abnormal air collection and identifying its exact location on supine chest radiographs is essential for early treatment and positive patient outcomes. Thoracic abnormal air collects in multiple thoracic spaces, including the pleural cavity, chest wall, mediastinum, pericardium, and lung. Pneumothorax in the supine position shows different radiographic findings depending on the location. M...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

2D shear wave elastography (SWE) performance versus vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE/fibroscan) in the assessment of liver stiffness in chronic hepatitis
Conclusion2D SWE is a relatively recent non-invasive tool in the assessment of liver fibrosis grading which can be used as an alternative to the fibroscan with almost similar diagnostic performance especially when fibroscan is not capable to obtain adequate results such as in obesity and ascites. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical application of multi-material artifact reduction (MMAR) technique in Revolution CT to reduce metallic dental artifacts
ConclusionsCompared with the MARS reconstruction technique of Discovery CT, the MMAR technique of Revolution CT is better to reduce the artifacts of dental implants in oral and maxillofacial imaging, which improves the image quality and the diagnostic value of surrounding soft tissues. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of early damage of endometrium after artificial abortion by shear wave elastography
This study aimed to investigate the application of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the early damage detection through assessing the endometrial elasticity after artificial abortion.MethodsA total of nulliparous women (20 –30 years) who received ultrasonography in our hospital were recruited between January 2017 and December 2017. These women were divided into normal control group (NC;n = 65), after once artificial abortion group (AOAA;n = 68), after twice artificial abortion group (ATAA;n = 61), and after three times or more (range, 3–6) artificial abortion grou...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Giving radiologists a voice: a review of podcasts in radiology
ConclusionsThis gives a new insight into the world of ‘radiology podcasting’. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first review in the literature and highlights the increasing availability of podcasting in radiology. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Implementation of the Clinically Oriented Reasoning Evaluation: Impact on the European Diploma in Radiology (EDiR) exam
AbstractThe aim of the study is to perform an analysis of the results that have been compiled in the nine years that the examination has existed. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spectacular rediscovery of the original prints of radiographs Roentgen sent to Lorentz in 1896
ConclusionsThe combination of Roentgen ’s first publication on his X-ray discovery and the nine radiographs provides insight as to which aspects of the discovery were considered important by Roentgen and how he carried out the experiments to be able to describe these aspects. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Application of ultrasound multimodal score in the assessment of endometrial receptivity in patients with artificial abortion
This study aimed to evaluate the value and feasibility of ultrasound multimodal score in the evaluation of endometrial receptivity in patients with artificial abortion (AA).MethodsSixty-eight patients with AA (AA group) and 70 women of the childbearing age without any history of abortion (control group) were recruited between January 2018 and December 2018. All subjects received the examination of endometrium in the middle luteum phase (7 –9 days after ovulation) with two-dimensional gray-scale ultrasound, two-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound, and three-dimensional ultrasound, and the quantitative scores w...
Source: Insights into Imaging - March 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

EuSoMII Annual Meeting 2019 Book of abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Giant cell tumor of bone following denosumab treatment: assessment of tumor response using various imaging modalities
ConclusionBased on the ICDS criteria, most patients with giant cell tumor of bone show objective tumor response to denosumab. Modification of ICDS to include marginal sclerosis or clear demarcation of the lesions might be considered as a separate response criterion to accurately assess the treatment response in patients with GCT. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 27, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The cardiac conundrum: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis of authorship in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies
AbstractPurposeWe aimed to assess the role of radiologists, cardiologists, and other medical and non-medical figures in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research in the last 34 years, focusing on first and last authorship, number of published studies, and journal impact factors (IF).MethodsArticles in the field of cardiac MRI were considered in this systematic review and retrospective bibliometric analysis. For included studies, the first and last authors were categorized as cardiologists, radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians, medical doctors (MD) with specialties in both cardiology and radiology/nuclear medici...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 27, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Current Status of Radiological Clinical Audit and Feedback on the ESR Guide to Clinical Audit in Radiology and the ESR Clinical Audit Tool (Esperanto) – an ESR Survey of European Radiology Departments
AbstractClinical audit “according to national procedures” is a legal requirement as defined within the recently implemented European Council Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSSD), 2013/59/Euratom. A survey was undertaken in 2019 to assess the current status of clinical audit in European radiology departments and for feedback on the recently published “ESR Guide to Clinical Audit in Radiology” and the “ESR Clinical Audit Tool (Esperanto)”. The survey was distributed within the European Society of Radiology (ESR) EuroSafe Imaging Star network and also to European national radiological so...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal perforation: clinical and MDCT clues for identification of aetiology
AbstractGastrointestinal tract (GIT) perforation is a common medical emergency associated with considerable mortality, ranging from 30 to 50%. Clinical presentation varies: oesophageal perforations can present with acute chest pain, odynophagia and vomiting, gastroduodenal perforations with acute severe abdominal pain, while colonic perforations tend to follow a slower progression course with secondary bacterial peritonitis or localised abscesses. A subset of patients may present with delayed symptoms, abscess mimicking an abdominal mass, or with sepsis.Direct multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings support the d...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of mandibular fractures: a pictorial review
AbstractMandibular fractures are among the most common maxillofacial fractures observed in emergency rooms and are mainly caused by road accidents. The clinical features of mandibular fractures include malocclusion and loss of mandibular function. Panoramic radiography is usually limited to isolated lesions, whereas computed tomography is the tool of choice for all other facial traumatic events. No reference standard classification system for the different types of mandibular fractures is defined. Therapeutic options include a conservative approach or surgical treatment based on the anatomic area and the severity of fractu...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging findings and classification of the common and uncommon male breast diseases
This article mainly focuses on emphasizing the results of basic histo-anatomical differences of male and female breasts, classifying male breast lesions, covering the spectrum of male breast diseases, and assisting radiologists in recognizing the imaging findings, in interpreting them through a holistic approach, in making a differential diagnosis, and in being a part of proper patient management. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The added value of digital breast tomosynthesis in improving diagnostic performance of BI-RADS categorization of mammographically indeterminate breast lesions
This study aimed to evaluate the added value of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to BI-RADS classification in categorization of indeterminate breast lesions after digital mammography (DM) as an initial approach.Methods and resultsWe prospectively evaluated 296 women with BI-RADS indeterminate breast lesions (BI-RADS 0, 3, and 4) by DM between January 2018 and October 2019. All patients underwent DBT. Two radiologists evaluated lesions and assigned a BI-RADS category to each lesion according to BI-RADS lexicon 2013 classification using DM, DBT, and combined DM and DBT. The results were compared in terms of main radiologic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of skull vault tumors in adults
This article is structured as a practical review offering a systematic diagnostic approach to focal calvarial lesions, broadly organized into four categories: (1) pseudolesions: arachnoid granulations, meningo-/encephaloceles, vascular canals, frontal hyperostosis, parietal thinning, parietal foramina, and  sinus pericrani; (2) lytic: fibrous dysplasia, epidermal inclusion and dermoid cysts, eosinophilic granuloma, hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, metastasis, and myeloma; (3) sclerotic: osteomas, osteosarcoma, and metastasis; (4) transdiploic: meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, lympho ma, and metastasi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging spectrum of abnormal subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution
AbstractAdipose tissue plays multiple and complex roles not only in mechanical cushioning and energy storage but also as an important secretory organ that regulates energy balance and homeostasis multilaterally. Fat tissue is categorized into subcutaneous fat tissue (SCAT) or visceral fat tissue (VSA) depending on its distribution, with the two having different metabolic functions. Near-total lack of fat in congenital/acquired generalized lipodystrophy, cachexia, or any other severe malnutrition condition induces severe multi-organ dysfunction due to lack of production of leptin and other adipokines. Increased visceral fat...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning workflow in radiology: a primer
This article provides step-by-step practical guidance for conducting a project that involves deep learning in radiology, from defining specifications, to deployment and scaling. Specifically, the objectives of this article are to provide an overview of clinical use cases of deep learning, describe the composition of multi-disciplinary team, and summarize current approaches to patient, data, model, and hardware selection. Key ideas will be illustrated by examples from a prototypical project on imaging of colorectal liver metastasis. This article illustrates the workflow for liver lesion detection, segmentation, classificati...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-neoplastic hepatopancreatobiliary lesions simulating malignancy: can we differentiate?
AbstractDespite the success of cross-sectional imaging in evaluating hepatopancreatobiliary system malignancies, several non-malignant disease processes may closely mimic malignancy. Differentiating these benign diseases from malignancy may be difficult, or even impossible, even in the hands of experienced imagers. In this manuscript, we present benign mimics involving the hepatopancreatobiliary system and try to increase awareness of these potential pitfalls. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gyriform restricted diffusion in adults: looking beyond thrombo-occlusions
AbstractGyriform restricted diffusion (GRD) refers to hyperintense signal involving the cerebral cortex on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) with corresponding hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. These changes are commonly seen following a vascular occlusion, reflecting the limitation of water molecule movement across cell membranes (restricted diffusion) due to the failure of Na+/K+-ATPase pumps (cytotoxic oedema). However, GRD can occur in several other neurological conditions as well. A thorough understanding of these conditions and their anatomic predilection plays a critical role in identifying...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular lesions of the head and neck: an update on classification and imaging review
AbstractVascular lesions have a varied appearance and can commonly occur in the head and neck. A majority of these lesions are cutaneous and congenital; however, some may be acquired and malignant. The presentation and clinical history of patients presenting with head and neck lesions can be used to guide further imaging, which can provide important diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. This review discusses the revised International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification system for vascular tumors and malformations, as well as explores the most common vascular anomalies including their cli...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging methods used in the assessment of environmental disease networks: a brief review for clinicians
ConclusionsEnvironmental epidemiology has revealed that several organs and systems in the human body are targets of air pollutants. Current imaging methods that can assess the deleterious effects of pollutants includes a whole spectrum: radiography, US, CT and MRI. Future studies will help to reveal additional links among environmental disease networks. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gonad shielding in pelvic radiography: modern optimised X-ray systems might allow its discontinuation
ConclusionsAssessment of pelvic doses revealed a large reduction in radiation risks facilitated by technological developments. Optimisation likewise contributed, but unfortunately, its potential was never adequately exploited. Today, using a modern and optimised X-ray system, gonad shielding can be safely discontinued for women. For men, there might be a marginal benefit, but potential negative side-effects may well dominate. Discontinuation of gonad shielding seems therefore justifiable. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Artefacts in contrast enhanced digital mammography: how can they affect diagnostic image quality and confuse clinical diagnosis?
AbstractContrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is a diagnostic tool for breast cancer detection. Artefacts are observed in about 10% of CEDM examinations. Understanding CEDM artefacts is important to prevent diagnostic misinterpretation. In this article, we have described the artefacts that we have commonly encountered in clinical practice; we hope to ease the recognition and help troubleshoot solutions to prevent or minimise them. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The effect of the MR pulse sequence on the regional corpus callosum morphometry
ConclusionThe findings of this study demonstrate that combining data from different pulse sequences in a multisite study could make some variations in the results. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Image-guided breast biopsy and localisation: recommendations for information to women and referring physicians by the European Society of Breast Imaging
AbstractWe summarise here the information to be provided to women and referring physicians about percutaneous breast biopsy and lesion localisation under imaging guidance. After explaining why a preoperative diagnosis with a percutaneous biopsy is preferred to surgical biopsy, we illustrate the criteria used by radiologists for choosing the most appropriate combination of device type for sampling and imaging technique for guidance. Then, we describe the commonly used devices, fromfine-needle sampling to tissue biopsy with larger needles, namelycore needle biopsy andvacuum-assisted biopsy, and howmammography,digital breast ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gallstones top to toe: what the radiologist needs to know
AbstractGallstone-related disease can have significant associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. The incidence of gallstone-related disease in the Western world is on the increase. There are multiple different pathological manifestations of gallstone disease: the presentation, diagnosis and associated complications of which vary significantly depending on anatomical location. The role of imaging in gallstone-related disease is broad with radiology playing an essential role in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of gallstone-related pathologies. This paper distills the broad range of gallstone-related pathologies in...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Attitudes and perceptions of UK medical students towards artificial intelligence and radiology: a multicentre survey
ConclusionsUK medical students understand the importance of AI and are keen to engage. Medical school training on AI should be expanded and improved. Realistic use cases and limitations of AI must be presented to students so they will not feel discouraged from pursuing radiology. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Macrocyclic MR contrast agents: evaluation of multiple-organ gadolinium retention in healthy rats
ConclusionsLess Gd is retained in the brain and body tissues of rats 28  days after the last exposure to ProHance® compared to other macrocyclic GBCAs, likely due to unique physico-chemical features that facilitate more rapid and efficient clearance. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Redefining the structure of structured reporting in radiology
AbstractStructured reporting is advocated as a means of improving reporting in radiology to the ultimate benefit of both radiological and clinical practice. Several large initiatives are currently evaluating its potential. However, with numerous characterizations of the term in circulation, “structured reporting” has become ambiguous and is often confused with “standardization,” which may hamper proper evaluation and implementation in clinical practice. This paper provides an overview of interpretations of structured reporting and proposes a clear definition that differentiates structured reporting ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CEUS LI-RADS: a pictorial review
AbstractContrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of US in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs), and it is suggested and often included in many international guidelines as an important diagnostic tool in the imaging work-up of cirrhotic patients at risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, CEUS Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) provides standardized terminology, interpretation, and reporting for the diagnosis of HCC. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate CEUS features of nodules discovered at US in cirrhotic l...
Source: Insights into Imaging - February 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Summary of the proceedings of the International Forum 2019: “What are the strategies to engage the young generation”
AbstractThe ESR International Forum at the ECR 2019 discussed strategies for engaging the young generation. The future of radiology is a crucial topic that goes hand in hand with tomorrow ’s radiologists. The European Society of Radiology (ESR) established the ESR International Forum in order to discuss hot topics in the profession of radiology with non-European radiological partner societies. At the ESR International Forum 2019, different strategies, initiatives and ideas were pre sented by the different societies with regard to engaging young doctors into radiology. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Inclusion of MCQs written by radiology residents in their annual evaluation: innovative method to enhance resident ’s empowerment?
AbstractAimWe hypothesized that multiple-choice questions written by radiology residents(MCQresident) for their weekly case presentations during radiology staff meetings could be used along with multiple-choice questions written by radiology teachers(MCQteacher) for their annual evaluation. The current prospective study aimed at determining the educational characteristics of MCQresident and at comparing them with those of MCQteacher.MethodsFifty-one radiology residents of the first to the fifth year of training took the 2017 exam that contained 58 MCQresident and 63 of MCQteacher. The difficulty index, the discrimination p...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mapping the ischemic penumbra and predicting stroke progression in acute ischemic stroke: the overlooked role of susceptibility weighted imaging
ConclusionA positive DWI-SWI mismatch is an indicator of the ischemic penumbra and a predictor of infarct expansion if left untreated. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging indications and findings in evaluation of lung transplant graft dysfunction and rejection
AbstractLung transplantation is a treatment option in end-stage lung disease. Complications can develop along a continuum in the immediate or longer post-transplant period, including surgical and technical complications, primary graft dysfunction, rejection, infections, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and recurrence of the primary disease. These complications have overlapping clinical and imaging features and often co-exist. Time of onset after transplant is helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In the early post transplantation period, imaging findings are non-specific and need to be interpreted i...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Combining molecular and imaging metrics in cancer: radiogenomics
ConclusionRadiomics and radiogenomics are promising to increase precision in diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and prediction of treatment response, providing valuable information for patient care throughout the course of the disease, given that this information is easily obtainable with imaging. Larger prospective studies and standardization will be needed to define relevant imaging biomarkers before they can be implemented into the clinical workflow. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Study of breast implants mammography examinations for identification of suitable image quality criteria
AbstractPurposeTo characterise the mammography technique used in breast cancer screening programmes for breast implants (BI) and to identify if the image quality (IQ) criteria available in literature are applicable to BI imaging.MethodsThe study was conducted in two phases: literature review to find IQ criteria used in mammography combining keywords in several sources; and assessment of 1207 BI mammograms using the criteria that was identified previously to see if they were achieved or not. An observation grid was used to collect information about positioning, beam energy, compression force, and exposure mode. Descriptive ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effects of Rex-bypass shunt on the cavernous transformation of the portal vein in children: evaluation by the color Doppler ultrasonography
AbstractBackgroundThe study was to investigate the role of color Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of the effect of Rex-bypass shunt on the cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) in children.MethodsFifty children with symptomatic extrahepatic portal hypertension who received Rex-bypass shunt were retrospectively reviewed, and they were diagnosed with CTPV by ultrasonography. The clinical characteristics were analyzed before and after operation.ResultsForty-five patients received color Doppler ultrasonography at 6  months after surgery, and good patency in the bypass vessels was displayed. The pla...
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT and MR imaging of cystic renal lesions
AbstractCystic renal lesions are a common incidental finding on routinely imaging examinations. Although a benign simple cyst is usually easy to recognize, the same is not true for complex and multifocal cystic renal lesions, whose differential diagnosis includes both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In this review, we will show a series of cases in order to provide tips to identify benign cysts and differentiate them from malignant ones. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - January 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gender discrepancy in research activities during radiology residency
AbstractObjectiveTo investigate the presence of gender disparity in academic involvement during radiology residency and to identify and characterize any gender differences in perceived barriers for conducting research.MethodsAn international call for participation in an online survey was promoted via social media and through multiple international and national radiological societies. A 35-question survey invited radiology trainees worldwide to answer questions regarding exposure and barriers to academic radiology during their training. Gender differences in response proportions were analyzed using either Fisher ’s ex...
Source: Insights into Imaging - December 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research