Reconstruction techniques for cardiac cine MRI
AbstractThe present survey describes the state-of-the-art techniques for dynamic cardiac magnetic resonance image reconstruction. Additionally, clinical relevance, main challenges, and future trends of this image modality are outlined. Thus, this paper aims to provide a general vision about cine MRI as the standard procedure in functional evaluation of the heart, focusing on technical methodologies. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identifying communication-related predictors of patient satisfaction in a briefing prior to contrast-enhanced computed tomography
ConclusionsPatients appeared to be satisfied with the briefing prior to CT examination. The mean briefing time (2  min 35 s) seemed feasible. Patients’ demographics influenced satisfaction. To improve patients’ satisfaction with briefings before contrast-enhanced CT, radiologists should aim to clarify their communication. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Techniques and future perspectives for the prevention and treatment of endoleaks after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms
AbstractThe presence of endoleaks remains one of the main drawbacks of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms leading to the increase of the size of the aneurysmal sac and in most of the cases to repeated interventions. A variety of devices and percutaneous techniques have been developed so far to prevent and treat this phenomenon, including sealing of the aneurysmal sac, endovascular embolisation, and direct sac puncture. The aim of this review is to analyse the indications, the effectiveness, and the future perspectives for the prevention and treatment of endoleaks after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain MR findings in patients treated with particle therapy for skull base tumors
AbstractNowadays, hadrontherapy is increasingly used for the treatment of various tumors, in particular of those resistant to conventional radiotherapy. Proton and carbon ions are characterized by physical and biological features that allow a high radiation dose to tumors, minimizing irradiation to adjacent normal tissues. For this reason, radioresistant tumors and tumors located near highly radiosensitive critical organs, such as skull base tumors, represent the best target for this kind of therapy. However, also hadrontherapy can be associated with radiation adverse effects, generally referred as acute, early-delayed and...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Structured report data can be used to develop deep learning algorithms: a proof of concept in ankle radiographs
ConclusionWe demonstrate that data obtained from structured reports written in clinical routine can be used to successfully train deep learning algorithms. This highlights the potential role of structured reporting for the future of radiology, especially in the context of deep learning. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Development and validation of image quality scoring criteria (IQSC) for pediatric CT: a preliminary study
ConclusionsThe image quality scoring criteria covering routine and some clinical indication-based imaging scenarios for pediatric CT examinations has potential to offer a simple and practical tool for assessing image quality with a reasonable degree of interobserver agreement. A more extensive and multi-centric study is recommended to establish wider usefulness of these criteria. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validation of an informatics tool to assess resident ’s progress in developing reporting skills
ConclusionsThis tool is useful for objective assessment of reporting skill of radiology residents. It can provide an opportunity for continuing medical education with case-based learning from those cases with clinically significant discrepancies between the preliminary and the final report. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESR statement on portable ultrasound devices
AbstractThe use of portable ultrasound (US) devices has increased in recent years and the market has been flourishing. Portable US devices can be subdivided into three groups: laptop-associated devices, hand-carried US, and handheld US devices. Almost all companies we investigated offer at least one portable US device. Portable US can also be associated with the use of different US techniques such as colour Doppler US and pulse wave (PW)-Doppler. Laptop systems will also be available with contrast-enhanced US and high-end cardiac functionality.Portable US devices are effective in the hands of experienced examiners. Imaging...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Visible T1-hyperintensity of the dentate nucleus after multiple administrations of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents: yes or no?
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the appearance of visible dentate nucleus (DN) T1-hyperintensity and quantify changes in DN/pons (DN/P) signal intensity (SI) ratio in MS patients after the exclusive administration of macrocyclic GBCAs.Materials and methodsOne hundred forty-nine patients with confirmed MS were evaluated. Patients received at least two administrations of gadobutrol (n = 63), gadoterate (n = 57), or both (n = 29). Two experienced neuroradiologists in consensus evaluated unenhanced T1-weighted MR images from all examinations in each patient for evidence of visible DN ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - September 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validated imaging biomarkers as decision-making tools in clinical trials and routine practice: current status and recommendations from the EIBALL* subcommittee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR)
This article reviews the current evidence for the use of semi-quantitative and quantitative biomarkers in clinical settings at various stages of the disease pathway including diagnosis, staging and prognosis, as well as predicting and detecting treatment response. It critically appraises current practice and sets out recommendations for using imaging objectively to drive patient management decisions. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Complications of central venous port systems: a pictorial review
AbstractCentral venous port devices are indicated for patients, who need long-term intravenous therapy. Oncologic patients may require intermittent administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, infusions, or blood transfusions. A venous port system is composed of a port chamber attached to a central catheter, which is implanted into the central venous system. The subcutaneous location of the catheter chamber improves the patients ’ quality of life and the infection rate is lower than in non-totally implantable central venous devices. However, proper implantation, use, and care of a port system are important t...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Trends in scientific research in Insights into Imaging : a bibliometric review
ConclusionsThere is a progression ofInsights into Imaging in the ranking of journals in the area that, if maintained, will allow it to remain in the first quartile in the Scopus database. The main topics of interest were technologies such as ‘Magnetic resonance imaging’, ‘Computed tomography’, ‘Radiology’, and ‘Ultrasonography’ and diseases such as ‘Breast cancer’ and those related to ‘Paediatrics’. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Endoscopic stenting of malignant, benign and iatrogenic colorectal disorders: a primer for radiologists
AbstractIn recent years, endoscopic placement of intraluminal stents is increasingly used to manage a widening range of colorectal disorders. Self-expanding metal stents represent an established alternative to surgery for the palliation of unresectable carcinomas and currently allow a “bridge-to-surgery” strategy to relieve large bowel obstruction and optimise the patients’ clinical conditions before elective oncologic resection. Additionally, intraluminal stents represent an appealing option to manage obstructing extracolonic tumours and selected patients with benign condi tions such as refractory anasto...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How scientific mobility can help current and future radiology research: a radiology trainee ’s perspective
This article seeks to provide an overview and a prospective of radiology fellows in their last year of training about the current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility among young radiologists, especially inside the European Union. Nowadays, the need to promote international cooperation is even greater to ensure that the best evidence-based medical practices become a common background of a next cross-border generation of radiologists. Organisations such as the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) are called upon to play as guarantors of the training of young radi...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 27, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of  alternative techniques to gadolinium-based contrast agents in MR neuroimaging—a comprehensive overview
AbstractGadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase lesion detection and improve disease characterization for many cerebral pathologies investigated with MRI. These agents, introduced in the late 1980s, are in wide use today. However, some non-ionic linear GBCAs have been associated with the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with kidney failure. Gadolinium deposition has also been found in deep brain structures, although it is of unclear clinical relevance. Hence, new guidelines from the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine advocate cautious use of GBCA in clinical and resea...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perinatal post-mortem ultrasound (PMUS): radiological-pathological correlation
AbstractThere has been an increasing demand and interest in post-mortem imaging techniques, either as an adjunct or replacement for the conventional invasive autopsy. Post-mortem ultrasound (PMUS) is easily accessible and more affordable than other cross-sectional imaging modalities and allows visualisation of normal anatomical structures of the brain, thorax and abdomen in perinatal cases. The lack of aeration of post-mortem foetal lungs provides a good sonographic window for assessment of the heart and normal pulmonary lobulation, in contrast to live neonates.In a previous article within this journal, we published a prac...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of the papillary muscles of the left ventricle: normal anatomy, variants, and abnormalities
AbstractLeft ventricular papillary muscles are small myocardial structures that play an important role in the functioning of mitral valve and left ventricle. Typically, there are two groups of papillary muscles, namely the anterolateral and the posteromedial groups. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a valuable imaging modality in the evaluation of papillary muscles, providing both morphological and functional information. There is a remarkably wide variation in the morphology of papillary muscles. These  variations can be asymptomatic or associated with symptoms related to LV outflow tract obstruction, often ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of imaging in the evaluation of vascular complications after liver transplantation
AbstractClinical manifestations of liver transplantation complications can be subtle and non-specific. Medical imaging, mainly Doppler ultrasound, plays an important role to detect and grade these. Colour Doppler ultrasound exams are routinely performed at 24 –48 h, on the 7th day, the first and third month after transplantation. MDCT and MR images are acquired based on the Doppler ultrasound (DUS) findings, even in the absence of abnormal liver function. As vascular complications appear early after surgery, DUS should be performed by experience pers onnel. Diagnostic angiography is seldom performed. This pict...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Primary myelofibrosis: spectrum of imaging features and disease-related complications
AbstractPrimary myelofibrosis is a chronic clonal stem cell disorder that results in a build-up of marrow fibrosis and dysfunction, hypermetabolic states, and myeloid metaplasia. The clinical and radiological consequences can be quite diverse and range from the manifestations of osteosclerosis and extramedullary haematopoiesis to thrombohaemorrhagic complications from haemostatic dysfunction. In addition, there is the challenge of identifying less well-recognised sites of extramedullary haematopoiesis and their site-specific complications. The intent of this article is to illustrate the spectrum of primary myelofibrosis as...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Charcot foot: a pictorial review
AbstractCharcot foot refers to an inflammatory pedal disease based on polyneuropathy; the detailed pathomechanism of the disease is still unclear. Since the most common cause of polyneuropathy in industrialized countries is diabetes mellitus, the prevalence in this risk group is very high, up to 35%. Patients with Charcot foot typically present in their fifties or sixties and most of them have had diabetes mellitus for at least 10  years. If left untreated, the disease leads to massive foot deformation. This review discusses the typical course of Charcot foot disease including radiographic and MR imaging findings for ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Technique, protocols and adverse reactions for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM): a systematic review
AbstractWe reviewed technical parameters, acquisition protocols and adverse reactions (ARs) for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). A systematic search in databases, including MEDLINE/EMBASE, was performed to extract publication year, country of origin, study design; patients; mammography unit/vendor, radiation dose, low-/high-energy tube voltage; contrast molecule, concentration and dose; injection modality, ARs  and acquisition delay; order of views; examination time. Of 120 retrieved articles, 84 were included from 22 countries (September 2003–January 2019), totalling 14012 patients. Design was pro...
Source: Insights into Imaging - August 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Anatomical variation in the ankle and foot: from incidental finding to inductor of pathology. Part II: midfooot and forefoot
AbstractAccessory anatomical structures in the ankle and foot usually represent incidental imaging findings; however, they may also eventually represent a source of pathology, such as painful syndromes, degenerative changes, be the subject of overuse and trauma, or appear as masses and cause compression syndromes or impingement. This review aims to describe and illustrate the imaging findings related to the presence of accessory ossicles and muscles in the midfoot and forefoot through different techniques, with special attention on those variants that associate factors of clinical relevance or that would trigger challenges...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Anatomical variation in the ankle and foot: from incidental finding to inductor of pathology. Part I: ankle and hindfoot
AbstractAccessory anatomical structures in the ankle and foot usually represent incidental imaging findings; however, they may also eventually represent a source of pathology, such as painful syndromes, degenerative changes, be the subject of overuse and trauma or appear as masses and cause compression syndromes or impingement.This review aims to describe and illustrate the imaging findings related to the presence of accessory ossicles and muscles in the ankle and hindfoot through different techniques, with special attention to those variants that associate factors of clinical relevance or that trigger challenges in the di...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of brown tumours: a pictorial review
We present cases with full clinical and imaging workup in both the acute and chronic setting and scenarios that require exclusion of primary and secondary bone malignancies. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI of the axial skeleton in spondyloarthritis: the many faces of new bone formation
AbstractSpondyloarthritis has two hallmark features: active inflammation and structural lesions with new bone formation. MRI is well suited to assess active inflammation, but there is increasing interest in the role of structural lesions at MRI. Recent MRI studies have examined the established features of new bone formation and demonstrated some novel features which show diagnostic value and might even have potential as possible markers of disease progression. Although MRI is not the first imaging modality that comes into mind for assessment of bony changes, these features of new bone formation can be detected on MRI &mdas...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Does learning from mistakes have to be painful? Analysis of 5 years ’ experience from the Leeds radiology educational cases meetings identifies common repetitive reporting errors and suggests acknowledging and celebrating excellence (ACE) as a more positive way of teaching the same lessons
ConclusionBy analysing the pattern of discrepancies in a department and delivering the teaching in a less negative way, the ‘lead’ of clinical errors can be turned in to the ‘gold’ of useful educational tools. Interrogating the whole database periodically can enable a more constructive, wider view of the meeting itself, highlight recurrent deficiencies in practice, and point to where the need for continuing medic al training is greatest. Three ways in which our department have utilised this material are outlined: the use of ‘good spots’, arrangement of targeted teaching and production of...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffuse smoking-related lung diseases: insights from a radiologic-pathologic correlation
AbstractCigarettes are well-recognized risk factors responsible for the emergence of a variety of pathologic conditions affecting both the airways and the lungs. Smoking-related lung diseases can be classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and several types of interstitial diseases, such as pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, bronchiolitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. The evidence of combined lower lung fibrosis and predominant upper lung emphysema is renowned as a distinct clinical entity, named combined pulmonary fib...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Updated WHO nomenclature of head and neck lesions and associated imaging findings
This article reviews the imaging features of head and neck lesions with updated 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) nomenclature. The major WHO changes include refined terminology of existing entities, descriptions of new tumor types, elimination of defunct categories, and updated biological characterization of various tumor types. In particular, the updates pertaining to the following conditions will be reviewed: tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx, including HPV-positive or HPV-negative squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma; tumors of the hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, and parapharyngeal space, including nom...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease: recent advances in quantitative imaging and comprehensive assessment of disease involvement
AbstractGaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in deficiency of lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase causing the accumulation of abnormal macrophages (“Gaucher cells”) within multiple organs, most conspicuously affecting the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. As the most common glycolipid metabolism disorder, it is important for radiologists encountering these patients to be familiar with advances in imaging of organ and bone marrow involvement and understand the role of imaging in clinical decision-making. The recent advent of commercially available, reliable, and reproducible quantita...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The tip of the iceberg: lipomatous tumours presenting as abdominal or pelvic wall hernias
AbstractLiposarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcoma. They occur mainly in the thigh or retroperitoneum. Due to their size, lipomatous tumours can herniate either through the abdominal wall or in the groin. The part of the tumour that herniates represents only the ‘tip of the iceberg’, as the main part of the tumour is not detectable clinically and is often underestimated. Due to their deep location, lipomatous tumours are often large at the time of presentation and therefore their surgical management can be challenging. Furthermore, due to their delayed presentation, there is a higher risk of de-differ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - July 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Patellar maltracking: an update on the diagnosis and treatment strategies
AbstractPatellar maltracking occurs as a result of an imbalance in the dynamic relationship between the patella and trochlea. This is often secondary to an underlying structural abnormality. The clinical evaluation can provide useful clues for the presence of such entity; however, the diagnosis can often be challenging especially in the absence of a documented history of patellar dislocation. Imaging, particularly MRI, can detect subtle features that could lead to the diagnosis, probably even more importantly when there is no clear history of patellar dislocation or before its development. This can provide a road map for f...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current concepts in imaging and endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke: implications for the clinician
AbstractDuring the last decade, the management of acute ischemic stroke has changed dramatically, from an expectant bedside “wait and see” attitude towards active treatment, thanks to the continuous improvement of new therapeutic options. In addition to the use of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis in emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO), endovascular therapy (EVT) has proven to be very efficient in selected acute strok e patients. The indications for EVT have progressed from the era of thrombolysis to individual patient profiling. Recently, several indication parameters, e.g., “treatment time window” ...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Blood finds a way: pictorial review of thoracic collateral vessels
AbstractIn the healthy patient, blood returns to the heart via classic venous pathways. Obstruction of any one of these pathways will result in blood flow finding new collateral pathways to return to the heart. Although significant anatomic variation exists and multiple collateral vessels are often present in the same patient, it is a general rule that the collateral pathways formed are a function of the site of venous blockage. Therefore, knowledge of typical collateral vessel systems can provide insight in localizing venous obstruction and characterizing its severity and chronicity. In addition, knowledge of collateral a...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of left ventricular function and morphology using an accelerated k-t sensitivity encoding method in cardiovascular magnetic resonance
ConclusionThe accelerated k-t SENSE CMR sequence is clinically feasible and accurately quantifies LV volumes, function, and mass, with short acquisition time and good image quality. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESGAR 2019 Book of Abstracts
(Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

DW-MRI of the breast: a pictorial review
AbstractIn the current era of breast imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important role. To get its specificity better, some supporting or cooperative tools might be needed. The search for new methods continues and non-contrast MRI trials are seen. With the shorter and easier acquisition, no need for contrast material, diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI could be the best collaborator. This pictorial review aims to give an overview of the DW-MRI of the breast by means of a set of specially selected cases. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI imaging of soft tissue tumours of the foot and ankle
AbstractThe majority of soft tissue lesions in the foot and ankle are benign. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the most common benign and malignant soft tissue neoplasms which occur around the foot and ankle. This should enable the reader to formulate a reasonable differential diagnosis and, most importantly, to recognise those rare aggressive lesions that require further assessment and tissue biopsy. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of magnetic resonance imaging in organ-preserving strategies for the management of patients with rectal cancer
AbstractTotal mesorectal excision has been the most effective treatment strategy adopted to reduce local recurrence rates among patients with rectal cancer. The morbidity associated with this radical surgical procedure led surgeons to challenge the standard therapy particularly when dealing with superficial lesions or good responders after neoadjuvant radiotherapy, to which radical surgery may be considered overtreatment. In this subset of patients, less invasive procedures in an organ-preserving strategy may result in good oncological and functional outcomes. In order to tailor the most appropriate treatment option, accur...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Skull base ligamentous mineralisation: evaluation using computed tomography and a review of the clinical relevance
ConclusionsSkull base ligamentous mineralisation is commonly encountered on CT imaging. Given the potentially significant clinical implications, an understanding of the morphological appearances is of importance to those planning interventions at the skull base. To the authors ’ knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate such a wide range of skull base ligaments using CT. For some ligaments, the incidence on CT has not been previously described. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An update on Burkitt lymphoma: a review of pathogenesis and multimodality imaging assessment of disease presentation, treatment response, and recurrence
AbstractBurkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive, rapidly growing B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which manifests in several subtypes including sporadic, endemic, and immunodeficiency-associated forms. Pathologically, BL is classically characterized by translocations of chromosomes 8 and 14 resulting in upregulation of the c-myc protein transcription factor with upregulation of cell proliferation. BL affects nearly every organ system, most commonly the abdomen and pelvis in the sporadic form. Imaging using a multimodality approach plays a crucial role in the management of BL from diagnosis, staging, and evaluation of trea...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

State of affairs of hybrid imaging in Europe: two multi-national surveys from 2017
ConclusionsThe results of these surveys demonstrate a notable heterogeneity in the current practice of hybrid imaging throughout Europe. This heterogeneity exists despite the general consensus that strong professional cooperation is required in order to ensure high clinical quality and to strengthen the clinical role of hybrid imaging. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging assessment in Down syndrome: a pictorial review
AbstractDown syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is the leading genetic cause of intellectual incapacity worldwide, with a reported incidence of about 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births. Besides the several commonly known physical features characteristic of this syndrome present at birth, DS may additionally affect every organ system. In addition, despite the large number of published papers concerning this syndrome, there is scarce literature focusing specifically in the typical neuroimaging features associated with this condition. The aim of this paper is to review and systematize the distinctive characteristics and abnormal...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cryoablation and immunotherapy: an overview of evidence on its synergy
AbstractCancer cells can escape the immune system by different mechanisms. The evasion of cancer cells from immune surveillance is prevented by immune checkpoint inhibitors, allowing the patient ’s own immune system to attack their cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown improvement in overall survival for melanoma, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma in clinical trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to this therapy.In cancer management, percutaneous ablation techniques are well established for both cure and local control of many tumour types. Cryoablation of the tumour tissue results in cell destr...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

National audit on the appropriateness of CT and MRI examinations in Luxembourg
AbstractObjectivesIn Luxembourg, the frequency of CT and MRI examinations per inhabitant is among the highest in Europe. A national audit was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of CT and MRI examinations according to the national referral guidelines for medical imaging.MethodsThree hundred and eighty-eight CT and 330 MRI requests corresponding to already performed examinations were provided by all radiology departments in Luxembourg. Four external radiologists evaluated the clinical elements for justification present in each request. They consensually assessed the appropriateness of each requested examination with r...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Current Status of Uptake of European BSS Directive (2013/59/Euratom) Requirements – Results of a Pilot Survey in European Radiology Departments with a Focus on Clinical Audit
AbstractThe recently implemented European Council Basic Safety and Standards Directive (BSSD), 2013/59/Euratom lays down core radiation protection standards for European radiology departments, with a mandatory requirement for supporting clinical audit processes.A survey on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) was undertaken in November 2018 involving the ESR EuroSafe Imaging Star department network to assess compliance with selected key BSSD requirements, with emphasis also on clinical audit/re-audit.64% of invited departments participated and the survey results revealed a lack of compliance with BSSD requirem...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The current status of radiological clinical audit - an ESR Survey of European National Radiology Societies
AbstractThe importance of clinical audit in radiological practice is increasingly recognised and undertaking clinical audit “in accordance with national procedures” is mandatory for radiology departments within the European Union following implementation of the Basic Safety Standard Directive (BSSD), 2013/59/Euratom in 2018.This survey, sent to all National Radiological Societies in Europe in 2018, evaluated the current status of clinical audit at national level and supporting infrastructure, and explored the potential for wider co-operation and collaboration in developing and evaluating clinical audit processe...
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A systematic review on the use of the breast lesion excision system in breast disease
ConclusionsThe BLES, an automated, image-guided, single-pass biopsy system for breast lesions using radiofrequency is designed to excise and retrieve an intact tissue specimen. It is an efficient and safe breast biopsy method with acceptable complication rates, which may be used as an alternative to vacuum-assisted biopsies. The variable rate of complete excision raises questions about the possibility to use BLES as a therapeutic device for the excision of small lesions. Further research should focus on this aspect of BLES. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - May 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Management of uterine adenomyosis: current trends and uterine artery embolization as a potential alternative to hysterectomy
AbstractAdenomyosis is a challenging clinical condition that is commonly being diagnosed in women of reproductive age. To date, many aspects of the disease have not been fully understood, making management increasingly difficult. Over time, minimally invasive diagnostic and treatment methods have developed as more women desire uterine preservation for future fertility or to avoid major surgery. Several uterine-sparing treatment options are now available, including medication, hysteroscopic resection or ablation, conservative surgical methods, and high-intensity focused ultrasound each with its own risks and benefits. Uteri...
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 27, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fasciae of the musculoskeletal system: MRI findings in trauma, infection and neoplastic diseases
AbstractThe fascial system is a continuum of connective tissues present everywhere throughout the body that can be locally involved in a large variety of disorders. These disorders include traumatic disorders (Morel-Lavall ée lesion, myo-aponeurotic injuries, and muscle hernia), septic diseases (necrotizing and non-necrotizing cellulitis and fasciitis), and neoplastic diseases (superficial fibromatosis, desmoid tumors, and sarcomas). The current pictorial review aims to focus on these localized disorders involving th e fasciae of the musculoskeletal system and their appearance at MRI. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: the spectrum of imaging appearances and differential
ConclusionKnowing the unique imaging features of CNS-PTLD narrows the differential diagnosis, facilitates the diagnostic work-up, and optimizes making the diagnosis. Advanced MRI data for CNS PTLD is limited but is promising for helping with narrowing the differential diagnosis. (Source: Insights into Imaging)
Source: Insights into Imaging - April 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research