In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from recent issues.
PMID: 29616613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Rise and fall of outbreak-specific clone inside endemic pulsotype of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-; insights from high-resolution molecular surveillance in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, 2012 to 2015.
Conclusions: The study provided evidence for the remarkable prevention potential of whole genome sequencing used as a routine tool in systems that integrate human, food and animal surveillance. PMID: 29616614 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Morganti M, Bolzoni L, Scaltriti E, Casadei G, Carra E, Rossi L, Gherardi P, Faccini F, Arrigoni N, Sacchi AR, Delledonne M, Pongolini S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Note from the editors: World Tuberculosis Day 2018 and Special issue-Screening and prevention of infectious diseases in newly arrived migrants in Europe.
PMID: 29589576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Scotland: evidence of recent increase in viral circulation in humans.
Abstract BackgroundPrevious studies showed low levels of circulating hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Scotland. We aimed to reassess current Scottish HEV epidemiology. Methods: Blood donor samples from five Scottish blood centres, the minipools for routine HEV screening and liver transplant recipients were tested for HEV antibodies and RNA to determine seroprevalence and viraemia. Blood donor data were compared with results from previous studies covering 2004-08. Notified laboratory-confirmed hepatitis E cases (2009-16) were extracted from national surveillance data. Viraemic samples from blood donors (2016) and chronic...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thom K, Gilhooly P, McGowan K, Malloy K, Jarvis LM, Crossan C, Scobie L, Blatchford O, Smith-Palmer A, Donnelly MC, Davidson JS, Johannessen I, Simpson KJ, Dalton HR, Petrik J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Universal screening for latent and active tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seeking children, Bochum and Hamburg, Germany, September 2015 to November 2016.
Conclusions: Asylum seeking children from high and low incidence countries are both at risk of developing LTBI or active TB. Universal TB screening for all asylum seeking children should be considered. PMID: 29589578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mueller-Hermelink M, Kobbe R, Methling B, Rau C, Schulze-Sturm U, Auer I, Ahrens F, Brinkmann F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Field investigation with real-time virus genetic characterisation support of a cluster of Ebola virus disease cases in Dubr éka, Guinea, April to June 2015.
We describe the epidemiological and molecular investigations of this event. We used the Dubréka EVD registers and the Ebola treatment centre's (ETC) records to characterise chains of transmission. Real-time field Ebola virus sequencing was employed to support epidemiological results. An epidemiological cluster of 32 cases was found, of which 27 were laboratory confirmed, 24 were isolated and 20 died. Real-time viral sequencing on 12 cases demonstrated SL3 lineage viruses with sequences differing by one to three nt inside a single phylogenetic cluster. For isolated cases, the average time between symptom onset and ET...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pini A, Zomahoun D, Duraffour S, Derrough T, Charles M, Quick J, Loman N, Cowley L, Leno M, Ouedraogo N, Thiam O, Hernández-Romieu A, Iko A, Keita H, Konate D, Soumah AA, Bouchouar E, Ileka-Priouzeau S, Keita S, Diallo B, Cisse F, Jansa J, Carroll M, Gü Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increased risk of yellow fever infections among unvaccinated European travellers due to ongoing outbreak in Brazil, July 2017 to March 2018.
Abstract Since December 2016, Brazil has faced a large outbreak of yellow fever with ca 1,500 confirmed human cases. In the first 2 months of 2018, Brazil reported almost as many cases as in 2017 as a whole. In these 2 months, five imported cases were reported among unvaccinated European travellers. Three had travelled to Ilha Grande, a popular destination among European tourists. Physicians and European travellers visiting Brazil should follow yellow fever vaccination recommendations. PMID: 29560853 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gossner CM, Haussig JM, de Bellegarde de Saint Lary C, Kaasik Aaslav K, Schlagenhauf P, Sudre B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Moving epidemic method (MEM) applied to virology data as a novel real time tool to predict peak in seasonal influenza healthcare utilisation. The Scottish experience of the 2017/18 season to date.
We report the application of the moving epidemic method (MEM) to virology data as a tool to predict the influenza peak activity period and peak week of swab positivity in the current season. This novel MEM application has been successful locally and is believed to be of potential use to other countries for healthcare planning and building wider community resilience. PMID: 29560854 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Murray JLK, Marques DFP, Cameron RL, Potts A, Bishop J, von Wissmann B, William N, Reynolds AJ, Robertson C, McMenamin J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Integrating hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV screening into tuberculosis entry screening for migrants in the Netherlands, 2013 to 2015.
Abstract We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0.27-3.52), respectively, all infections were newly diagnosed. Prevalence of chronic...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bil JP, Schrooders PA, Prins M, Kouw PM, Klomp JH, Scholing M, Huijbregts LP, Sonder GJ, Waegemaekers TC, de Vries HJ, Meijer W, Zuure FR, Tostmann A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Find and treat or find and lose? Tuberculosis treatment outcomes among screened newly arrived asylum seekers in Germany 2002 to 2014.
Conclusion: Screened asylum seekers had poorer treatment outcomes and were more often lost to follow-up. Linking patients to treatment facilities and investigating potential barriers to treatment completion are needed to secure screening benefits for asylum seekers and communities. PMID: 29560856 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kuehne A, Hauer B, Brodhun B, Haas W, Fiebig L Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Screening for infectious diseases among newly arrived asylum seekers, Bavaria, Germany, 2015.
Conclusions: These results show that mandatory screening during 2015 in Bavaria yielded overall low positivity rates for all tested infectious diseases in asylum seekers. A focus of mandatory screening on specific diseases in asylum seekers originating from countries with higher prevalence of those diseases could facilitate early diagnosis and provision of treatment to affected individuals while saving resources. PMID: 29536830 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ackermann N, Marosevic D, Hörmansdorfer S, Eberle U, Rieder G, Treis B, Berger A, Bischoff H, Bengs K, Konrad R, Hautmann W, Schönberger K, Belting A, Schlenk G, Margos G, Hoch M, Pürner F, Fingerle V, Liebl B, Sing A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis caused by Listeria monocytogenes 1/2a in sliced cold beef ham, Italy, May 2016.
Abstract In May 2016, two separate clusters of febrile gastroenteritis caused by Listeria monocytogenes were detected by the local health authority in Piedmont, in northern Italy. We carried out epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. The people affected were students and staff members from two different schools in two different villages located in the Province of Turin; five of them were hospitalised. The epidemiological investigation identified a cooked beef ham served at the school canteens as the source of the food-borne outbreak. L. monocytogenes was isolated from...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maurella C, Gallina S, Ru G, Adriano D, Bellio A, Bianchi DM, Chiavacci L, Crescio MI, Croce M, D'Errico V, Dupont MF, Marra A, Natangelo U, Pomilio F, Romano A, Stanzione S, Zaccaria T, Zuccon F, Caramelli M, Decastelli L Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A concern over terminology in vaccine effectiveness studies.
PMID: 29536832 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cowling BJ, Sullivan SG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis A outbreak since November 2016 affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chile connected to the current outbreak in MSM in Europe, situation up to October 2017.
We describe 12 consecutive unrelated confirmed cases who presented at our healthcare institution in Santiago Metropolitan Area. Nine were men, all reporting having had sex with men. Ten viral sequences, genotyped as IA, clustered with the V16-25801 strain causing outbreaks mostly in MSM in Europe since mid-2016. PMID: 29510780 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rivas V, Barrera A, Pino K, Núñez R, Caceres CJ, Lopez-Lastra M, Soza A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies and chronic Q fever among post-mortal and living donors of tissues and cells from 2010 to 2015 in the Netherlands.
Abstract BackgroundAfter a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands in the period from 2007 to 2010, the risk of Q fever transmission through tissue and cell transplantation from undiagnosed chronic Q fever cases became a potential issue. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the risk of Q fever transmission through tissue and cell transplantation. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study among 15,133 Dutch donors of tissues and stem cells from 2010 to 2015 to assess seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies, to identify factors associated with presence of C. burnetii antibodies, and to assess th...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Roeden SE, Holsboer EW, Oosterheert JJ, van Kats JP, van Beckhoven J, Hogema BM, van Wijk MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Interim 2017/18 influenza seasonal vaccine effectiveness: combined results from five European studies.
Abstract Between September 2017 and February 2018, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B viruses (mainly B/Yamagata, not included in 2017/18 trivalent vaccines) co-circulated in Europe. Interim results from five European studies indicate that, in all age groups, 2017/18 influenza vaccine effectiveness was 25 to 52% against any influenza, 55 to 68% against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, -42 to 7% against influenza A(H3N2) and 36 to 54% against influenza B. 2017/18 influenza vaccine should be promoted where influenza still circulates. PMID: 29510782 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rondy M, Kissling E, Emborg HD, Gherasim A, Pebody R, Trebbien R, Pozo F, Larrauri A, McMenamin J, Valenciano M, I-Move/I-Move Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prioritisation of food-borne parasites in Europe, 2016.
Conclusions: FBP of importance in Europe differ from those of importance globally, requiring targeted surveillance systems, intervention measures, and preparedness planning that differ across the world and across Europe. PMID: 29510783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bouwknegt M, Devleesschauwer B, Graham H, Robertson LJ, van der Giessen JW, The Euro-Fbp Workshop Participants Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalisation of individuals 60 years of age and over with laboratory-confirmed influenza, Valencia Region, Spain, influenza season 2016/17.
Conclusions: Our data show a low vaccine effectiveness for the 2016/17 influenza season. PMID: 29486829 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mira-Iglesias A, López-Labrador FX, Guglieri-López B, Tortajada-Girbés M, Baselga-Moreno V, Cano L, Mollar-Maseres J, Carballido-Fernández M, Schwarz-Chavarri G, Díez-Domingo J, Puig-Barberà J, Valencia Hospital Network For The Study Of Influenza An Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Interim estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalised children, Hong Kong, 2017/18.
Abstract We conducted a hospital-based test-negative study in Hong Kong to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the winter of 2017/18. The interim analysis included data on 1,078 children admitted between 4 December 2017 and 31 January 2018 with febrile acute respiratory illness and tested for influenza. We estimated influenza VE at 66% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43-79) overall, and 65% (95% CI: 40-80) against influenza B, the dominant virus type (predominantly B/Yamagata). PMID: 29486830 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chiu SS, Kwan MYW, Feng S, Wong JSC, Leung CW, Chan ELY, Peiris JSM, Cowling BJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Efficiency of different control measures for preventing carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium outbreaks: a 6-year prospective study in a French multihospital institution, January 2010 to December 2015.
Abstract An infection control programme was implemented in a 21,000-bed multihospital institution for controlling the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE), classified as 'emergent extensively drug-resistant bacteria' (eXDR) in France. We evaluated factors associated with outbreaks occurrence (n = 103), which followed 901 eXDR introductions (index case followed or not by secondary cases) from 2010 to 2015. In univariate analysis, knowing that patients had been hospitalised abroad, bacterial species (GRE vs CPE, as well as the CPE ...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fournier S, Desenfant L, Monteil C, Nion-Huang M, Richard C, Jarlier V, The Ap-Hp Outbreaks Control Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in preventing medically-attended influenza virus infection in primary care, Israel, influenza seasons 2014/15 and 2015/16.
Conclusions: Using samples from patients with ILI visiting sentinel clinics in Israel, we demonstrated the feasibility of influenza VE estimation in Israel. PMID: 29471622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yaron-Yakoby H, Sefty H, Pando R, Dichtiar R, Katz MA, Stein Y, Mandelboim M, Mendelson E, Shohat T, Glatman-Freedman A, The Israeli Influenza Surveillance Network Iisn Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Monitoring human enteric viruses in wastewater and relevance to infections encountered in the clinical setting: a one-year experiment in central France, 2014 to 2015.
Conclusion: The environmental surveillance overcomes the sampling bias intrinsic to the study of infections associated with hospitalisation and allows the detection in real time of viral sequences genetically close to those reported in clinical specimens. PMID: 29471623 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bisseux M, Colombet J, Mirand A, Roque-Afonso AM, Abravanel F, Izopet J, Archimbaud C, Peigue-Lafeuille H, Debroas D, Bailly JL, Henquell C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Interim effectiveness of trivalent influenza vaccine in a season dominated by lineage mismatched influenza B, northern Spain, 2017/18.
In Hospitals Of Navarre Abstract The 2017/18 interim estimate of trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 39% (95% confidence interval: 20-54) in Navarre. Compared with individuals unvaccinated in the current and five previous seasons, VE against influenza B was 41% for current and any prior doses, 67% for current vaccination only, and 22% for any prior doses, and 43%, 51% and 54%, respectively against influenza A(H3N2). This suggests moderate VE despite predominance of lineage mismatched influenza B. PMID: 29471624 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Castilla J, Navascués A, Casado I, Pérez-García A, Aguinaga A, Ezpeleta G, Pozo F, Ezpeleta C, Martínez-Baz I, Primary Health Care Sentinel Network, Network For Influenza Surveillance In Hospitals Of Navarre Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(6).
PMID: 29471625 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
PMID: 29471626 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Pathogenicity and genetic characterisation of a novel reassortant, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 virus isolated in Korea, 2017.
Abstract We investigated influenza A(H5N6) viruses from migratory birds in Chungnam and Gyeonggi Provinces, South Korea following a reported die-off of poultry in nearby provinces in November 2017. Genetic analysis and virulence studies in chickens and ducks identified our isolate from December 2017 as a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. It resulted from reassortment between the highly virulent H5N8 strain from Korea with the N6 gene from a low-pathogenic H3N6 virus from the Netherlands. PMID: 29463346 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kim YI, Si YJ, Kwon HI, Kim EH, Park SJ, Robles NJ, Nguyen HD, Yu MA, Yu KM, Lee YJ, Lee MH, Choi YK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Impact of hepatitis B vaccination on acute hepatitis B epidemiology in European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2006 to 2014.
We describe the epidemiology of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) at country and EU/EEA level during 2006-2014. Using a multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression model we assessed differences in the acute HBV infection notification rates between groups of countries that started universal HBV vaccination before/in vs after 1995; implemented or not a catch-up strategy; reached a vaccine coverage ≥ 95% vs 
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miglietta A, Quinten C, Lopalco PL, Duffell E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

High transmissibility of norovirus among infants and school children during the 2016/17 season in Osaka, Japan.
Abstract The number of person-to-person transmitted norovirus cases (n = 4,712) in school children in Osaka, Japan, during 2016/17 was the largest since 2012/13. Norovirus outbreaks were reported by 101 schools including 53 nursery schools (1,927 cases), 18 kindergartens (1,086 cases) and 30 elementary schools (1,699 cases). The dominant genotype among outbreaks was GII.P16-GII.2 (57.4%; 58/101), followed by GII.P2-GII.2 (8.9%; 9/101) and GII.P7-GII.6 (5.9%; 6/101). GII.4 was not detected despite dominance in previous years. PMID: 29439752 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sakon N, Komano J, Tessmer HL, Omori R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young adults - a school-based bio-behavioural study in urban areas, Poland, 2012 to 2015.
Conclusion: Our study suggested prevalence of CT infection among young people in Poland comparable with the European average, supporting implementation of a CT control programme as recommended in international guidelines. PMID: 29439753 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Czerwinski M, Niedzwiedzka-Stadnik M, Zielicka-Hardy A, Tomusiak A, Sadkowska-Todys M, Zielinski A, Strus M, Heczko P, Rosinska M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Multiplex PCR for detection of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5 for surveillance purposes.
Conclusions: This method allows rapid identification of mcr-positive bacteria and overcomes the challenges of phenotypic detection of colistin resistance. The multiplex PCR should be particularly interesting in settings or laboratories with limited resources for performing genetic analysis as it provides information on the mechanism of colistin resistance without requiring genome sequencing. PMID: 29439754 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rebelo AR, Bortolaia V, Kjeldgaard JS, Pedersen SK, Leekitcharoenphon P, Hansen IM, Guerra B, Malorny B, Borowiak M, Hammerl JA, Battisti A, Franco A, Alba P, Perrin-Guyomard A, Granier SA, De Frutos Escobar C, Malhotra-Kumar S, Villa L, Carattoli A, Hend Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Seasonality and geographical spread of respiratory syncytial virus epidemics in 15 European countries, 2010 to 2016.
This study supports the use of RSV diagnostics within influenza or other surveillance systems to monitor RSV seasonality and geographical spread. PMID: 29409569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Broberg EK, Waris M, Johansen K, Snacken R, Penttinen P, European Influenza Surveillance Network Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Early season co-circulation of influenza A(H3N2) and B(Yamagata): interim estimates of 2017/18 vaccine effectiveness, Canada, January 2018.
Abstract Using a test-negative design, we assessed interim vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the 2017/18 epidemic of co-circulating influenza A(H3N2) and B(Yamagata) viruses. Adjusted VE for influenza A(H3N2), driven by a predominant subgroup of clade 3C.2a viruses with T131K + R142K + R261Q substitutions, was low at 17% (95% confidence interval (CI): -14 to 40). Adjusted VE for influenza B was higher at 55% (95% CI: 38 to 68) despite prominent use of trivalent vaccine containing lineage-mismatched influenza B(Victoria) antigen, suggesting cross-lineage protection. PMID:...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Skowronski DM, Chambers C, De Serres G, Dickinson JA, Winter AL, Hickman R, Chan T, Jassem AN, Drews SJ, Charest H, Gubbay JB, Bastien N, Li Y, Krajden M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Incidence and seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisations in young children in Denmark, 2010 to 2015.
er TK Abstract For future decisions on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-vaccination strategies and implementation into national immunisation-programmes, we used national registry data (hospitalisation, microbiology and vital statistics) to determine the age-specific incidence and direct medical costs of annual RSV-associated admissions in children 
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jepsen MT, Trebbien R, Emborg HD, Krause TG, Schønning K, Voldstedlund M, Nielsen J, Fischer TK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Distinction between serological responses following tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection vs vaccination, Sweden 2017.
nnberg B Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination. PMID: 29386094 [PubMed - in proce...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Albinsson B, Vene S, Rombo L, Blomberg J, Lundkvist Å, Rönnberg B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The association between acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) and Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) - what is the evidence for causation?
Conclusion: While more research is needed on dose-response relationship, application of the Bradford Hill criteria supported a causal relationship between EV-D68 and AFM. PMID: 29386095 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dyda A, Stelzer-Braid S, Adam D, Chughtai AA, MacIntyre CR Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Review of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the eastern part of Europe, 2016.
Conclusion: Upgrading and making the diagnosis/detection procedures more uniform is recommended throughout the region. Public health authorities should actively work towards increasing reporting and standardising reporting practices as these prerequisites for the reported data to be valid and therefore necessary for appropriate control plans. PMID: 29382412 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Plutzer J, Lassen B, Jokelainen P, Djurković-Djaković O, Kucsera I, Dorbek-Kolin E, Šoba B, Sréter T, Imre K, Omeragić J, Nikolić A, Bobić B, Živičnjak T, Lučinger S, Stefanović LL, Kučinar J, Sroka J, Deksne G, Keidāne D, Kváč M, Hůzová Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Persistence of schistosomal transmission linked to the Cavu river in southern Corsica since 2013.
, Berry A Abstract Seven cases of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica in 2015 and 2016. The episodes were related to exposure to the same river and involved the same parasite strain as an outbreak with 106 cases in summer 2013. The connection calls for further investigations on the presence of an animal reservoir and the survival of infested snails during winter. However, recontamination of the river from previously infected bathers remains the most likely hypothesis. PMID: 29382413 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramalli L, Mulero S, Noël H, Chiappini JD, Vincent J, Barré-Cardi H, Malfait P, Normand G, Busato F, Gendrin V, Allienne JF, Fillaux J, Boissier J, Berry A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Local amplification of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses in wild birds in the Netherlands, 2016 to 2017.
Discussion: These apparent differences between outbreaks and the continuing detections of HPAI viruses in Europe are a cause of concern. With the current circulation of zoonotic HPAI and LPAI virus strains in Asia, increased understanding of the drivers responsible for the global spread of Asian poultry viruses via wild birds is needed. PMID: 29382414 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poen MJ, Bestebroer TM, Vuong O, Scheuer RD, van der Jeugd HP, Kleyheeg E, Eggink D, Lexmond P, van den Brand JMA, Begeman L, van der Vliet S, Müskens GJDM, Majoor FA, Koopmans MPG, Kuiken T, Fouchier RAM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Comparison of influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing outpatient and inpatient influenza cases in older adults, northern Spain, 2010/11 to 2015/16.
Conclusions: On average, influenza VE was moderate and similar in preventing outpatient and inpatient influenza cases over six influenza seasons in patients above 50 years of age. In some instances of low VE, vaccination may still reduce the risk of hospitalisation in older adults with vaccine failure. PMID: 29338809 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Castilla J, Martínez-Baz I, Navascués A, Casado I, Aguinaga A, Díaz-González J, Delfrade J, Guevara M, Ezpeleta C, Primary Health Care Sentinel Network Of Navarre, Network For Influenza Surveillance In Hospitals Of Navarre Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Detection of mcr-4 positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in clinical isolates of human origin, Italy, October to November 2016.
In this study we report the detection of the recently described mcr-4 gene in two human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The strains were isolated from faecal samples of two Italian patients with gastroenteritis, collected in 2016. The identified mcr-4 genes (variant mcr-4.2) differed from the mcr-4 gene originally described in a Salmonella strain of swine origin from Italy. Salmonella species could represent a hidden reservoir for mcr genes. PMID: 29338810 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carretto E, Brovarone F, Nardini P, Russello G, Barbarini D, Pongolini S, Gagliotti C, Carattoli A, Sarti M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with internationally distributed infant milk products, France, December 2017.
Abstract On 1 December 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections among infants was identified in France. To date, 37 cases (median age: 4 months) and two further international cases have been confirmed. Five different infant milk products manufactured at one facility were implicated. On 2 and 10 December, the company recalled the implicated products; on 22 December, all products processed at the facility since February 2017. Trace-forward investigations indicated product distribution to 66 countries. PMID: 29338811 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jourdan-da Silva N, Fabre L, Robinson E, Fournet N, Nisavanh A, Bruyand M, Mailles A, Serre E, Ravel M, Guibert V, Issenhuth-Jeanjean S, Renaudat C, Tourdjman M, Septfons A, de Valk H, Le Hello S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Note from the editors: As time goes by.
PMID: 29338813 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Eurosurveillance reviewers in 2017.
PMID: 29317014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Important changes in the timing of influenza epidemics in the WHO European Region over the past 20 years: virological surveillance 1996 to 2016.
This study investigated whether the timing of the peak of influenza epidemics has changed in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region between 1996 and 2016. 
Methods: Surveillance data were obtained from the WHO FluNet database. For each country and season (July to June of the next year), the peak was defined as the week with the highest 3-week moving average for reported cases. Linear regression models were used to test for temporal trends in the timing of the epidemic peak in each country and to determine whether this differed geographically. 
Results: More than 600,000 influenza cases were in...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Caini S, Schellevis F, El-Guerche Séblain C, Paget J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
PMID: 29317017 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans associated with the consumption of uncooked ham products, the Netherlands, 2016 to 2017.
Abstract In January 2017, an increase in reported Salmonellaenterica serotype Bovismorbificans cases in the Netherlands was observed since October 2016. We implemented a case-control study to identify the source, including all cases after December 2016. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression analysis. We traced back the distribution chain of suspected food items and sampled them for microbiological analysis. Human and food isolates were sequenced using whole genome sequencing (WGS). From October 2016 to March 2017, 54 S. Bovismorbificans cases were identified. Sequencing indicated that all ...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brandwagt D, van den Wijngaard C, Tulen AD, Mulder AC, Hofhuis A, Jacobs R, Heck M, Verbruggen A, van den Kerkhof H, Slegers-Fitz-James I, Mughini-Gras L, Franz E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A benefit-risk analysis of rotavirus vaccination, France, 2015.
Conclusion: The benefit-risk ratio in France is similar to that of other European countries. PMID: 29258644 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lamrani A, Tubert-Bitter P, Hill C, Escolano S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from recent issues.
PMID: 29258645 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in China, 2008 to 2015 prior to the introduction of EV-A71 vaccine.
This study provides baseline epidemiology for evaluation of vaccine impact and potential serotype replacement. PMID: 29258646 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yang B, Liu F, Liao Q, Wu P, Chang Z, Huang J, Long L, Luo L, Li Y, Leung GM, Cowling BJ, Yu H Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Cross-border outbreak of listeriosis caused by cold-smoked salmon, revealed by integrated surveillance and whole genome sequencing (WGS), Denmark and France, 2015 to 2017.
ielsen EM Abstract In August 2017, an outbreak of six listeriosis cases in Denmark was traced to cold-smoked salmon, using epidemiological investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses. Exchange of genome sequences allowed identification in France of a food isolate from a salmon-derived product and a human isolate from 2016 within the same cgMLST cluster as the Danish isolates (L2-SL8-ST8-CT771). The salmon product came from a third European Union country. WGS can rapidly link human cases and food isolates across Europe. PMID: 29258647 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schjørring S, Gillesberg Lassen S, Jensen T, Moura A, Kjeldgaard JS, Müller L, Thielke S, Leclercq A, Maury MM, Tourdjman M, Donguy MP, Lecuit M, Ethelberg S, Nielsen EM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research