ECDC Round Table Report and ProMed-mail most useful international information sources for the Netherlands Early Warning Committee.
Abstract The Netherlands Early Warning Committee (NEWC) aims to identify infectious diseases causing a potential threat to Dutch public health. Threats are assessed and published as (information) alerts for public health experts. To identify threats from abroad, the NEWC screens 10 sources reporting disease outbreaks each week. To identify the sources essential for complete and timely reporting, we retrospectively analysed 178 international alerts published between 31 January 2013 and 30 January 2014. In addition, we asked the four NEWC coordinators about the required time to scan the information sources. We docum...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bijkerk P, Monnier AA, Fanoy EB, Kardamanidis K, Friesema IH, Knol MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

High risk of dengue type 2 outbreak in French Polynesia, 2017.
Abstract In French Polynesia, the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) have caused 14 epidemics since the mid-1940s. From the end of 2016, an increasing number of Pacific Island Countries and Territories have reported DENV-2 outbreaks and in February 2017, DENV-2 infection was detected in French Polynesia in three travellers from Vanuatu. As DENV-2 has not been circulating in French Polynesia since December 2000, there is high risk for an outbreak to occur. PMID: 28422007 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aubry M, Teissier Y, Mapotoeke M, Teissier A, Giard M, Musso D, Cao-Lormeau VM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.
Abstract Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was hi...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miguel E, Chevalier V, Ayelet G, Ben Bencheikh MN, Boussini H, Chu DK, El Berbri I, Fassi-Fihri O, Faye B, Fekadu G, Grosbois V, Ng BC, Perera RA, So TY, Traore A, Roger F, Peiris M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Significantly elevated number of human infections with H7N9 virus in Jiangsu in eastern China, October 2016 to January 2017.
Abstract Since first identified in 2013, the H7N9 virus has caused several waves of human infections in China, with a current wave including a number of patients with very severe disease. Jiangsu is one of the most impacted provinces, whereby as of 31 January 2017, the number of human infections (n = 109) in the ongoing fifth H7N9 wave has exceeded the sum of those in the four preceding ones. Ten of 13 cities in Jiangsu have been affected, and clustered infections as well as one co-infection with seasonal influenza have been observed. With a median age of 58 years and 74.3% (81/109) of patients being male, the cha...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huo X, Chen L, Qi X, Huang H, Dai Q, Yu H, Xia Y, Liu W, Xu K, Ma W, Zhang J, Bao C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

GISAID: Global initiative on sharing all influenza data - from vision to reality.
PMID: 28382917 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shu Y, McCauley J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Yield of active screening for tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Germany: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract All asylum seekers in Germany undergo upon-entry screening for tuberculosis TB, but comprehensive evidence on the yield is lacking. We compared the national estimates with the international literature in a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the yield of TB, defined as the fraction of active TB cases detected among asylum seekers screened in Germany upon entry. We searched 11 national and international databases for empirical studies and the internet for grey literature published in English or German without restrictions on publication time. Among 1,253 screened articles, we identifie...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bozorgmehr K, Razum O, Saure D, Joggerst B, Szecsenyi J, Stock C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Contact investigation after a fatal case of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in an aircraft, Germany, July 2013.
We describe an unusual situation in which we applied contact tracing beyond existing European guidelines; we found one latent tuberculosis infection in a passenger, which we consider probably newly acquired. PMID: 28367796 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: An der Heiden M, Hauer B, Fiebig L, Glaser-Paschke G, Stemmler M, Simon C, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Gilsdorf A, Haas W Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ending tuberculosis in risk groups in Europe: challenges from travel and population movement.
PMID: 28367797 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jackson C, Abubakar I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Tuberculosis notification rate decreases faster in residents of native origin than in residents of foreign origin in the EU/EEA, 2010 to 2015.
n der Werf MJ Abstract To estimate trends in tuberculosis (TB) notification rates by geographical origin, we retrieved surveillance data from 2010 to 2015 for 29 European Union and European Economic Area countries. The TB notification rate decreased at an annual rate of 5.3%. The decrease in notification rate was higher in native residents (7.0%) than in those of foreign origin (3.7%). Targeted screening and facilitated access to care and treatment could help prevent and control TB in migrants. PMID: 28367798 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hollo V, Beauté J, Ködmön C, van der Werf MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Risk of tuberculosis among air passengers estimated by interferon gamma release assay: survey of contact investigations, Japan, 2012 to 2015.
Abstract Although the World Health Organization recommends contact investigations around air travel-associated sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients, evidence suggests that the information thus obtained may have overestimated the risk of TB infection because it involved some contacts born in countries with high TB burden who were likely to have been infected with TB in the past, or because tuberculin skin tests were used, which are less specific than the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) particularly in areas where Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination coverage is high. We conducted a qu...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ota M, Kato S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV in Europe: The need for resistance surveillance.
r C PMID: 28333614 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Tienen C, van de Vijver D, Noori T, Sönnerborg A, Boucher C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Use of WHONET-SaTScan system for simulated real-time detection of antimicrobial resistance clusters in a hospital in Italy, 2012 to 2014.
In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software. Results were compared with the hospital infection prevention and control system. The WHONET-SaTScan identified 71 statistically significant clusters, some involving pathogens carrying multiple resistance phenotypes. Of these 71,...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Natale A, Stelling J, Meledandri M, Messenger LA, D'Ancona F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Cross-sectional surveillance of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels and other mammals in Egypt, August 2015 to January 2016.
Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84.5%) had MERS-CoV neutralising antibodies. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in imp...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali M, El-Shesheny R, Kandeil A, Shehata M, Elsokary B, Gomaa M, Hassan N, El Sayed A, El-Taweel A, Sobhy H, Fasina FO, Dauphin G, El Masry I, Wolde AW, Daszak P, Miller M, VonDobschuetz S, Gardner E, Morzaria S, Lubroth J, Makonnen YJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017.
Abstract A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country. PMID: 28333617 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wouthuyzen-Bakker M, Knoester M, van den Berg AP, GeurtsvanKessel CH, Koopmans MP, Van Leer-Buter C, Oude Velthuis B, Pas SD, Ruijs WL, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Vreden SG, van der Werf TS, Reusken CB, Bierman WF Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increasing evidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus transmission, the Netherlands, June 2016.
We present a case of endemic tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) occurring in June 2016 in the eastern part of the Netherlands in an area where a strain of TBE virus, genetically different from the common TBE virus strains in Europe, was reported in ticks in 2016. With the start of the tick season in spring, this second autochthonous Dutch TBE case should remind physicians to consider the possibility of endemic TBE in patients with respective symptoms. PMID: 28333618 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weststrate AC, Knapen D, Laverman GD, Schot B, Prick JJ, Spit SA, Reimerink J, Rockx B, Geeraedts F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Sex differences in invasive pneumococcal disease and the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands, 2004 to 2015.
Abstract Implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the Netherlands (PCV7 in 2006 and PCV10 in 2011) for infants caused a shift in serotypes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We explored sex differences in serotype-specific IPD incidence before and after vaccine introduction. Incidences in the pre-PCV7 (June 2004-May 2006), post-PCV7 (June 2008-May 2011) and post-PCV10 period (June 2013-May 2015), stratified by age, were compared. Incidence was higher in men for all age groups (overall in men: 16.7, 15.5 and 14.4/100,000 and women: 15.4, 13.6 and 13.9/100,000 pre-PCV7, post-PCV7 and post-PCV10, res...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wagenvoort GH, Sanders EA, Vlaminckx BJ, de Melker HE, van der Ende A, Knol MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' reply: Two severe human cases due to swine influenza A (H1N1)v in October 2016 in Europe were chronologic coincident yet distinct events.
gna M, Iotti GA, Baldanti F PMID: 28300530 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' reply: Two severe human cases due to swine influenza A (H1N1)v in October 2016 in Europe were chronologic coincident yet distinct events. Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Just a coincidence? Two severe human cases due to swine influenza (SIV) A(H1N1)v in Europe, October 2016.
PMID: 28300531 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adlhoch C, Penttinen P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Towards elimination of hepatitis B and C in European Union and European Economic Area countries: monitoring the World Health Organization's global health sector strategy core indicators and scaling up key interventions.
Abstract The World Health Organization 'Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021' aimed at the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat provides a significant opportunity to increase efforts for tackling the epidemics of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections across Europe. To support the implementation and monitoring of this strategy, core epidemiological and programmatic indicators have been proposed necessitating specific surveys, the systematic collection of programmatic data and the establishment of monitoring across the care pathway. European Union and European Economi...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Duffell EF, Hedrich D, Mardh O, Mozalevskis A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(8).
[PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(8). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015.
e Pinna E Abstract Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of frag...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peters T, Bertrand S, Björkman JT, Brandal LT, Brown DJ, Erdõsi T, Heck M, Ibrahem S, Johansson K, Kornschober C, Kotila SM, Le Hello S, Lienemann T, Mattheus W, Nielsen EM, Ragimbeau C, Rumore J, Sabol A, Torpdahl M, Trees E, Tuohy A, de Pinna E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Increasing proportion of new HIV diagnoses in Ireland previously diagnosed elsewhere - potential impact on estimating incidence.
PMID: 28277221 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: O'Donnell K, Igoe D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014.
Abstract An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the o...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kauppinen A, Al-Hello H, Zacheus O, Kilponen J, Maunula L, Huusko S, Lappalainen M, Miettinen I, Blomqvist S, Rimhanen-Finne R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Emergence of a novel subclade of influenza A(H3N2) virus in London, December 2016 to January 2017.
We report the molecular investigations of a large influenza A(H3N2) outbreak, in a season characterised by sharp increase in influenza admissions since December 2016. Analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences demonstrated co-circulation of multiple clades (3C.3a, 3C.2a and 3C.2a1). Most variants fell into a novel subclade (proposed as 3C.2a2); they possessed four unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein and loss of a potential glycosylation site. These changes potentially modify the H3N2 strain antigenicity. PMID: 28251889 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harvala H, Frampton D, Grant P, Raffle J, Ferns RB, Kozlakidis Z, Kellam P, Pillay D, Hayward A, Nastouli E, ICONIC Consortium Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Twenty years and counting: epidemiology of an outbreak of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in England and Wales, 1995 to 2014.
Abstract An outbreak of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis first identified in London has now been ongoing for 20 years, making it the largest drug-resistant outbreak of tuberculosis documented to date worldwide. We identified culture-confirmed cases with indistinguishable molecular strain types and extracted demographic, clinical, microbiological and social risk factor data from surveillance systems. We summarised changes over time and used kernel-density estimation and k-function analysis to assess geographic clustering. From 1995 to 2014, 508 cases were reported, with a declining trend in recent years. Overall, 7...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smith CM, Trienekens SC, Anderson C, Lalor MK, Brown T, Story A, Fry H, Hayward AC, Maguire H Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Mid-season real-time estimates of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in persons 65 years and older in register-based surveillance, Stockholm County, Sweden, and Finland, January 2017.
qvist Å Abstract Systems for register-based monitoring of vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI) in real time were set up in Stockholm County, Sweden, and Finland, before start of the 2016/17 influenza season, using population-based cohort studies. Both in Stockholm and Finland, an early epidemic of influenza A(H3N2) peaked in week 52, 2016. Already during weeks 48 to 50, analyses of influenza VE in persons 65 years and above showed moderately good estimates of around 50%, then rapidly declined by week 2, 2017 to 28% and 32% in Stockholm and Finland, respectively. The sensiti...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hergens MP, Baum U, Brytting M, Ikonen N, Haveri A, Wiman Å, Nohynek H, Örtqvist Å Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis A outbreak among men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly linked with the EuroPride, the Netherlands, July 2016 to February 2017.
ema H Abstract Between July 2016 and February 2017, 48 male cases of hepatitis A were notified in the Netherlands. Of these, 17 identified as men who have sex with men (MSM). Ten of the 13 cases for whom sequencing information was available, were infected with a strain linked with the EuroPride that took place in Amsterdam in 2016. This strain is identical to a strain that has been causing a large outbreak among MSM in Taiwan. PMID: 28251892 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Freidl GS, Sonder GJ, Bovée LP, Friesema IH, van Rijckevorsel GG, Ruijs WL, van Schie F, Siedenburg EC, Yang JY, Vennema H Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Combined effectiveness of prior and current season influenza vaccination in northern Spain: 2016/17 mid-season analysis.
urveillance in Hospitals of Navarre Abstract The 2016/17 mid-season vaccine effectiveness estimate against influenza A(H3N2) was 15% (95% confidence interval: -11 to 35) in Navarre. Comparing to individuals unvaccinated in the current and four prior seasons, effectiveness was 24% for current and 3-4 prior doses, 61% for current and 1-2 prior doses, 42% for only current vaccination, and 58% for 3-4 prior doses. This suggests moderate effectiveness for different combinations of vaccination in the current and prior seasons. PMID: 28230523 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Castilla J, Navascués A, Casado I, Díaz-González J, Pérez-García A, Fernandino L, Martínez-Baz I, Aguinaga A, Pozo F, Ezpeleta C, Primary Health Care Sentinel Network, Network for Influenza Surveillance in Hospitals of Navarre Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Early 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2): I-MOVE multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels in Europe.
Abstract We measured early 2016/17 season influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against influenza A(H3N2) in Europe using multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels. IVE at primary care level was 44.1%, 46.9% and 23.4% among 0-14, 15-64 and ≥ 65 year-olds, and 25.7% in the influenza vaccination target group. At hospital level, IVE was 2.5%, 7.9% and 2.4% among ≥ 65, 65-79 and ≥ 80 year-olds. As in previous seasons, we observed suboptimal IVE against influenza A(H3N2). PMID: 28230524 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kissling E, Rondy M, I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Inference and forecast of H7N9 influenza in China, 2013 to 2015.
Abstract The recent emergence of A(H7N9) avian influenza poses a significant challenge to public health in China and around the world; however, understanding of the transmission dynamics and progression of influenza A(H7N9) infection in domestic poultry, as well as spillover transmission to humans, remains limited. Here, we develop a mathematical model-Bayesian inference system which combines a simple epidemic model and data assimilation method, and use it in conjunction with data on observed human influenza A(H7N9) cases from 19 February 2013 to 19 September 2015 to estimate key epidemiological parameters and to ...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li R, Bai Y, Heaney A, Kandula S, Cai J, Zhao X, Xu B, Shaman J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Trends in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, France, 2012 to 2014.
Abstract In 2014, a total of 2,976 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems were received at the French Associated National Reference Center for Antibiotic Resistance (NRC) and were characterised for their molecular resistance mechanism to carbapenems and compared with results obtained during 2012 and 2013.The overall number of enterobacterial isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems received at the NRC rapidly increased (more than twofold in two years) with a growing proportion of carbapenemase producers (23.1% in 2012 vs 28.6% in 2013 vs 36.2% in 2014). Between 2012 a...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dortet L, Cuzon G, Ponties V, Nordmann P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Interim estimates of 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2), Canada, January 2017.
Abstract Using a test-negative design, the Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) assessed interim 2016/17 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against dominant influenza A(H3N2) viruses considered antigenically matched to the clade 3C.2a vaccine strain. Sequence analysis revealed substantial heterogeneity in emerging 3C.2a1 variants by province and over time. Adjusted VE was 42% (95% confidence interval: 18-59%) overall, with variation by province. Interim virological and VE findings reported here warrant further investigation to inform potential vaccine reformulation. PMID: 282055...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Skowronski DM, Chambers C, Sabaiduc S, Dickinson JA, Winter AL, De Serres G, Drews SJ, Jassem A, Gubbay JB, Charest H, Balshaw R, Bastien N, Li Y, Krajden M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Approaches for quantifying antimicrobial consumption per animal species based on national sales data: a Swiss example, 2006 to 2013.
In this study, alternative methods were investigated for stratifying antimicrobial sales per species using Swiss data (2006-2013). Three approaches were considered: (i) Equal Distribution (ED) allocated antimicrobial sales evenly across all species each product was licensed for; (ii) Biomass Distribution (BMD) stratified antimicrobial consumption, weighting the representativeness of each species' total biomass; and (iii) Longitudinal Study Extrapolation (LSE) assigned antimicrobial sales per species based on a field study describing prescription patterns in Switzerland. LSE is expected to provide the best estimates because...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carmo LP, Schüpbach-Regula G, Müntener C, Chevance A, Moulin G, Magouras I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Establishment of a voluntary electronic Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory surveillance system in Germany, 2008 to 2014.
We describe the establishment of a nationwide, laboratory-based, voluntary sentinel that electronically collects information on all performed CT tests with test results, test reason and patient information. The sentinel represents one third of all performed CT tests in Germany. In the period from 2008 to 2014, 3,877,588 CT tests were reported, 93% in women. Women aged 20-24 years and men aged 25-29 years were the most frequently tested age groups. The overall proportion of positive tests (PPT) among women was 3.9% and among men 11.0%. The highest PPT among women was in the age groups 15-19 (6.8%) and 20-24 years (5.9%), an...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dudareva-Vizule S, Haar K, Sailer A, Jansen K, Hamouda O, Wisplinghoff H, Tiemann C, Pape E, Bremer V, Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory sentinel team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing outbreaks of hepatitis A among men who have sex with men (MSM), Berlin, November 2016 to January 2017 - linked to other German cities and European countries.
Abstract Since 14 November 2016, 38 cases of hepatitis A have been notified in Berlin; of these, 37 were male and 30 reported to have sex with men (MSM). Median age of MSM cases is 31 years (range: 24-52 years). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct sequences, linking cases in Berlin to those in other German cities and to clusters recognised in other European countries in 2016. PMID: 28183391 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Werber D, Michaelis K, Hausner M, Sissolak D, Wenzel J, Bitzegeio J, Belting A, Sagebiel D, Faber M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of hepatitis A associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), England, July 2016 to January 2017.
Abstract Between July 2016 and January 2017, 37 confirmed cases of hepatitis A with two unique IA genotype strains primarily among men who have sex with men, were reported across eight areas in England and Northern Ireland. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations indicate that these strains may have been imported several times from Spain, with secondary sexual transmission in the United Kingdom. Local and national public health services are collaborating to control this ongoing outbreak. PMID: 28183392 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Beebeejaun K, Degala S, Balogun K, Simms I, Woodhall SC, Heinsbroek E, Crook PD, Kar-Purkayastha I, Treacy J, Wedgwood K, Jordan K, Mandal S, Ngui SL, Edelstein M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Filling in the gaps: estimating numbers of chlamydia tests and diagnoses by age group and sex before and during the implementation of the English National Screening Programme, 2000 to 2012.
Abstract To inform mathematical modelling of the impact of chlamydia screening in England since 2000, a complete picture of chlamydia testing is needed. Monitoring and surveillance systems evolved between 2000 and 2012. Since 2012, data on publicly funded chlamydia tests and diagnoses have been collected nationally. However, gaps exist for earlier years. We collated available data on chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates among 15-44-year-olds by sex and age group for 2000-2012. Where data were unavailable, we applied data- and evidence-based assumptions to construct plausible minimum and maximum estimates and set ...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chandra NL, Soldan K, Dangerfield C, Sile B, Duffell S, Talebi A, Choi YH, Hughes G, Woodhall SC Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Emergence of the lymphogranuloma venereum L2c genovariant, Hungary, 2012 to 2016.
Abstract In eastern Europe, few countries have so far reported laboratory-confirmed cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Here we describe 22 LGV cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) detected in Hungary from November 2012 to July 2016. Sequence analyses show that 16 of these 22 cases were affected by the L2c genovariant, with from 2012 to 2014, one LGV L2c case detected per year, followed by seven cases in 2015 and six up to July 2016. Of the 16 total L2c LGV cases, 10 had severe haemorrhagic proctitis. These findings are concerning as cases with this new genovariant among MSM have not been frequently repor...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Petrovay F, Balla E, Erdősi T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Swine influenza A (H1N1) virus (SIV) infection requiring extracorporeal life support in an immunocompetent adult patient with indirect exposure to pigs, Italy, October 2016.
We describe a case of severe swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in an immunocompetent middle-aged man in October 2016 in Italy who had only indirect exposure to pigs. The patient developed a severe acute distress respiratory syndrome which was successfully supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and treated with antiviral therapy. The sole risk factor for influenza was a body mass index > 30 kg/m(2). After a month of hospitalisation, the patient was discharged in good health. PMID: 28183395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rovida F, Piralla A, Marzani FC, Moreno A, Campanini G, Mojoli F, Pozzi M, Girello A, Chiapponi C, Vezzoli F, Prati P, Percivalle E, Pavan A, Gramegna M, Iotti GA, Baldanti F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Steep rise in norovirus cases and emergence of a new recombinant strain GII.P16-GII.2, Germany, winter 2016.
Bock CT Abstract Since early November 2016, the number of laboratory-confirmed norovirus infections reported in Germany has been increasing steeply. Here, we report the detection and genetic characterisation of an emerging norovirus recombinant, GII.P16-GII.2. This strain was frequently identified as the cause of sporadic cases as well as outbreaks in nine federal states of Germany. Our findings suggest that the emergence of GII.P16-GII.2 contributed to rising case numbers of norovirus gastroenteritis in Germany. PMID: 28181902 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Niendorf S, Jacobsen S, Faber M, Eis-Hübinger AM, Hofmann J, Zimmermann O, Höhne M, Bock CT Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Widespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016.
t J Abstract In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values> 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health imp...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cadar D, Lühken R, van der Jeugd H, Garigliany M, Ziegler U, Keller M, Lahoreau J, Lachmann L, Becker N, Kik M, Oude Munnink BB, Bosch S, Tannich E, Linden A, Schmidt V, Koopmans MP, Rijks J, Desmecht D, Groschup MH, Reusken C, Schmidt-Chanasit J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis A among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants living in hosting facilities, Greece, April to December 2016.
Abstract An increased number of hepatitis A cases among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants residing in hosting facilities in Greece were recorded between April and December 2016. In total, 177 laboratory-confirmed symptomatic cases were reported; of these, 149 (84%) occurred in hosting camps mostly among Syrian children under 15 years. All cases reported symptom onset after their entry into the country. Public health interventions focused on hygiene measures and vaccination. PMID: 28181904 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mellou K, Chrisostomou A, Sideroglou T, Georgakopoulou T, Kyritsi M, Hadjichristodoulou C, Tsiodras S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Febrile illness in healthcare workers caring for Ebola virus disease patients in a high-resource setting.
This article discusses different approaches to monitoring of HCW symptom reporting. The potential impact of these approaches on HLIU staff recruitment, including travel restrictions, is also considered. An international surveillance system enhancing collaboration between national public health authorities may assist HLIU HCW monitoring in case they travel. PMID: 28182538 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fink D, Cropley I, Jacobs M, Mepham S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Live attenuated influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza in children two to six years of age in England in the 2015/16 season.
Abstract The United Kingdom is introducing a universal annual influenza vaccination programme for children. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisation in 2 to 6 year-olds in England was measured in 2015/16 using the screening method. VE adjusted for age, geography and month was 54.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 31.5% to 68.4%) for all influenza types combined; 48.3% (95% CI: 16.9% to 67.8%) for A(H1N1)pdm09 and 70.6% (95% CI: 33.2% to 87.1%) for B. The findings support on-going programme roll-out. PMID: 28182539 [PubMed - in process] (...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody R, Sile B, Warburton F, Sinnathamby M, Tsang C, Zhao H, Ellis J, Andrews N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing outbreak of invasive and non-invasive disease due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) type emm66 among homeless and people who inject drugs in England and Wales, January to December 2016.
We report an outbreak of invasive and non-invasive disease due to an unusual type of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, emm66) among a vulnerable, largely homeless population in southern England and Wales, detected in September 2016. Twenty-seven confirmed cases were subsequently identified between 5 January and 29 December 2016; 20 injected drugs and six reported problematic alcohol use. To date, we have ruled out drug-related vehicles of infection and identified few common risk factors. PMID: 28128090 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bundle N, Bubba L, Coelho J, Kwiatkowska R, Cloke R, King S, Rajan-Iyer J, Courtney-Pillinger M, Beck CR, Hope V, Lamagni T, Brown CS, Jermacane D, Glass R, Desai M, Gobin M, Balasegaram S, Anderson C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Development of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, Denmark, 2014.
This study reveals the selection of antiviral resistance mutations in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in an immunocompromised patient during a 6-month period. The patient was treated with two courses of oseltamivir (5 days and 2 months, respectively), with the first course starting at symptom onset, and subsequently zanamivir (2 months and 10 days, respectively). Respiratory samples were investigated by Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS) and, for NGS data, low-frequency-variant-detection analysis was performed. Neuraminidase-inhibition tests were conducted for samples isolated in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In a...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trebbien R, Pedersen SS, Vorborg K, Franck KT, Fischer TK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Large measles epidemic in the Netherlands, May 2013 to March 2014: changing epidemiology.
e; SJ Abstract Since the early 1990s, the Netherlands has experienced several large measles epidemics, in 1992-94, 1999-2000 and in 2013-14. These outbreaks mainly affected orthodox Protestants, a geographically clustered population with overall lower measles-mumps-rubella first dose (MMR-1) vaccination coverage (60%) than the rest of the country (> 95%). In the 2013-14 epidemic described here, which occurred between 27 May 2013 and 12 March 2014, 2,700 cases were reported. Several control measures were implemented including MMR vaccination for 6-14-month-olds and recommendations to reduce the risk in he...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Woudenberg T, van Binnendijk RS, Sanders EA, Wallinga J, de Melker HE, Ruijs WL, Hahné SJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Infectious Zika virus in vaginal secretions from an HIV-infected woman, France, August 2016.
Abstract A woman with controlled HIV infection developed in late August 2016 a pruritic rash with fever and conjunctival hyperaemia after a trip to the French Caribbean islands. On day 3 after symptom onset, Zika virus RNA was detected in plasma, urine and vaginal samples with respective viral loads of 3.8, 6.1 and 5.3 log copies/mL. Notably, we demonstrated the presence of infectious Zika virus particles in the vaginal samples by isolation in cell culture. PMID: 28128730 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Penot P, Brichler S, Guilleminot J, Lascoux-Combe C, Taulera O, Gordien E, Leparc-Goffart I, Molina JM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Note from the editors: The year 2016 gone, 2017 just started.
PMID: 28105987 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

National molecular surveillance of recently acquired HIV infections in Germany, 2013 to 2014.
Abstract To enable an up-to-date molecular analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotypes circulating in Germany we have established a surveillance system based on recently acquired HIV infections. New HIV infections are reported to the Robert Koch Institute as a statutory duty for anonymous notification. In 2013 and 2014, a dried serum spot (DSS) sample was received from 6,371 newly diagnosed HIV-cases; their analysis suggested that 1,797 samples originated from a recent infection. Of these, 809 were successfully genotyped in the pol region to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations and to ...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hauser A, Hofmann A, Hanke K, Bremer V, Bartmeyer B, Kuecherer C, Bannert N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research