Novel real-time PCR-based patho- and phylotyping of potentially zoonotic avian influenza A subtype H5 viruses at risk of incursion into Europe in 2017.
PMID: 28084214 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 5, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Naguib MM, Graaf A, Fortin A, Luttermann C, Wernery U, Amarin N, Hussein HA, Sultan H, Al Adhadh B, Hassan MK, Beer M, Monne I, Harder TC Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus and congenital malformations in perspective.
PMID: 27055385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Drosten C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Detection of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in polyclonal Escherichia coli isolates in Barcelona, Spain, 2012 to 2015.
, Mirelis B Abstract Colistin resistance was detected in 53 of 10,011 Escherichia coli (0.5%) by prospective phenotypic testing of consecutive clinical isolates in a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2012-15). The mcr-1 gene was retrospectively identified by PCR and sequencing in 15 of 50 available isolates. Each isolate had a unique PFGE pattern except for two. This clonal diversity supports the hypothesis of horizontal dissemination of the mcr-1 gene in the local study population. PMID: 27055477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Prim N, Rivera A, Rodríguez-Navarro J, Español M, Turbau M, Coll P, Mirelis B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A system for automated outbreak detection of communicable diseases in Germany.
We describe the design and implementation of a novel automated outbreak detection system in Germany that monitors the routinely collected surveillance data for communicable diseases. Detecting unusually high case counts as early as possible is crucial as an accumulation may indicate an ongoing outbreak. The detection in our system is based on state-of-the-art statistical procedures conducting the necessary data mining task. In addition, we have developed effective methods to improve the presentation of the results of such algorithms to epidemiologists and other system users. The objective was to effectively integrate autom...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salmon M, Schumacher D, Burmann H, Frank C, Claus H, Höhle M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Congenital cerebral malformations and dysfunction in fetuses and newborns following the 2013 to 2014 Zika virus epidemic in French Polynesia.
et HP Abstract We detected an unusual increase in congenital cerebral malformations and dysfunction in fetuses and newborns in French Polynesia, following an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), from October 2013 to March 2014. A retrospective review identified 19 cases, including eight with major brain lesions and severe microcephaly, six with severe cerebral lesions without microcephaly and five with brainstem dysfunction without visible malformations. Imaging revealed profound neurological lesions (septal and callosal disruption, ventriculomegaly, abnormal neuronal migration, cerebellar hypoplasia, occipital pseudocy...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Besnard M, Eyrolle-Guignot D, Guillemette-Artur P, Lastère S, Bost-Bezeaud F, Marcelis L, Abadie V, Garel C, Moutard ML, Jouannic JM, Rozenberg F, Leparc-Goffart I, Mallet HP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014.
This report describes a joint measles outbreak investigation between public health officials in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands following detection of a measles cluster with a unique measles virus strain. From 1 February to 30 April 2014, 33 measles cases with a unique measles virus strain of genotype B3 were detected in the UK and the Netherlands, of which nine secondary cases were epidemiologically linked to an infectious measles case travelling from the Philippines. Through a combination of epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis, we found that measles transmission occurred in flight, airport and...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nic Lochlainn L, Mandal S, de Sousa R, Paranthaman K, van Binnendijk R, Ramsay M, Hahné S, Brown KE Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 mid-season results.
Abstract In 2015/16, the influenza season in the United Kingdom was dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation. Virus characterisation indicated the emergence of genetic clusters, with the majority antigenically similar to the current influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine strain. Mid-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates show an adjusted VE of 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-64.7) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultations and of 49.1% (95% CI: 9.3-71.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates show levels of protection similar to the 2010/11 season, when this strain was first used ...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody R, Warburton F, Ellis J, Andrews N, Potts A, Cottrell S, Johnston J, Reynolds A, Gunson R, Thompson C, Galiano M, Robertson C, Mullett D, Gallagher N, Sinnathamby M, Yonova I, Moore C, McMenamin J, de Lusignan S, Zambon M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Predominance of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genetic subclade 6B.1 and influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses at the start of the 2015/16 influenza season in Europe.
Abstract Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in the European influenza 2015/16 season. Most analysed viruses clustered in a new genetic subclade 6B.1, antigenically similar to the northern hemisphere vaccine component A/California/7/2009. The predominant influenza B lineage was Victoria compared with Yamagata in the previous season. It remains to be evaluated at the end of the season if these changes affected the effectiveness of the vaccine for the 2015/16 season. PMID: 27074657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Broberg E, Melidou A, Prosenc K, Bragstad K, Hungnes O, WHO European Region and the European Influenza Surveillance Network members of the reporting countries Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

20 years of communicating facts and figures.
PMID: 27934580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Steffens I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Severe acute respiratory infection caused by swine influenza virus in a child necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the Netherlands, October 2016.
Abstract In October 2016, a severe infection with swine influenza A(H1N1) virus of the Eurasian avian lineage occurred in a child with a previous history of eczema in the Netherlands, following contact to pigs. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and required life support through extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After start of oseltamivir treatment and removal of mucus plugs, the patient fully recovered. Monitoring of more than 80 close unprotected contacts revealed no secondary cases. PMID: 27934581 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fraaij PL, Wildschut ED, Houmes RJ, Swaan CM, Hoebe CJ, de Jonge HC, Tolsma P, de Kleer I, Pas SD, Oude Munnink BB, Phan MV, Bestebroer TM, Roosenhoff RS, van Kampen JJ, Cotten M, Beerens N, Fouchier RA, van den Kerkhof JH, Timen A, Koopmans MP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.
We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kantsone I, Lucenko I, Perevoscikovs J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Bacillus cereus-induced food-borne outbreaks in France, 2007 to 2014: epidemiology and genetic characterisation.
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and characterise Bacillus cereus from a unique national collection of 564 strains associated with 140 strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks (FBOs) occurring in France during 2007 to 2014. Starchy food and vegetables were the most frequent food vehicles identified; 747 of 911 human cases occurred in institutional catering contexts. Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encodi...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Glasset B, Herbin S, Guillier L, Cadel-Six S, Vignaud ML, Grout J, Pairaud S, Michel V, Hennekinne JA, Ramarao N, Brisabois A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Monitoring of HIV testing services in the EU/EEA.
PMID: 27934584 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tavoschi L, Hales D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Estimating HIV incidence and number of undiagnosed individuals living with HIV in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2015.
Abstract Since 2011, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence appears unchanged in the European Union/European Economic Area with between 29,000 and 33,000 new cases reported annually up to 2015. Despite evidence that HIV diagnosis is occurring earlier post-infection, the estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who were unaware of being infected in 2015 was 122,000, or 15% of all PLHIV (n=810,000). This is concerning as such individuals cannot benefit from highly effective treatment and may unknowingly sustain transmission. PMID: 27934585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pharris A, Quinten C, Noori T, Amato-Gauci AJ, van Sighem A, ECDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Dublin Declaration Monitoring Networks Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(46).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(46). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(46).
PMID: 27922450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prolonged excretion of type-2 poliovirus from a primary immune deficient patient during the transition to a type-2 poliovirus-free world, Israel, 2016.
Abstract Wild poliovirus type-2 has been eradicated, use of live type-2 vaccine has been terminated globally, and all type-2 polioviruses are under strict laboratory containment protocols. Re-emergence may arise from prolonged asymptomatic excretion of poliovirus by hospitalised primary immune deficient (PID) patients, as described here, through repeated exposure of close contacts to high titres of infected material. At this transition time, PID patients should be screened and hospital containment protocols updated in parallel with laboratory containment. PMID: 27918258 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weil M, Shulman LM, Heiman S, Stauber T, Alfandari J, Weiss L, Silberstein I, Indenbaum V, Mendelson E, Sofer D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Indoor development of Aedes aegypti in Germany, 2016.
Abstract In spring 2016, a German traveller returning from Martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred Aedes aegypti. Thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for Zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. The detection of Ae. aegypti by the 'Mueckenatlas' project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in Germany. PMID: 27918261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kampen H, Jansen S, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Walther D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prevalence and correlates of vaccine hesitancy among general practitioners: a cross-sectional telephone survey in France, April to July 2014.
This study confirms the presence of VH among French GPs but also suggests that its prevalence is moderate. Given GPs' central role in vaccination, these results nevertheless call for a mobilisation of stakeholders to address VH among GPs. PMID: 27918262 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Verger P, Collange F, Fressard L, Bocquier A, Gautier A, Pulcini C, Raude J, Peretti-Watel P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A major impact of the influenza seasonal epidemic on intensive care units, R éunion, April to August 2016.
A major impact of the influenza seasonal epidemic on intensive care units, Réunion, April to August 2016. Euro Surveill. 2016 Nov 24;21(47): Authors: Filleul L, Ranoaritiana DB, Balleydier E, Vandroux D, Ferlay C, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Jaubert J, Roquebert B, Lina B, Valette M, Hubert B, Larrieu S, Brottet E Abstract The 2016 seasonal influenza in Réunion in the southern hemisphere, was dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (possibly genogroup 6B.1). An estimated 100,500 patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) consulted a physician (cumulative attack rate 11.9%). Sixty-six laboratory-...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Filleul L, Ranoaritiana DB, Balleydier E, Vandroux D, Ferlay C, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Jaubert J, Roquebert B, Lina B, Valette M, Hubert B, Larrieu S, Brottet E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Clinical implications of Mycobacterium chimaera detection in thermoregulatory devices used for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), Germany, 2015 to 2016.
SL Abstract Mycobacterium chimaera, a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, was recently identified as causative agent of deep-seated infections in patients who had previously undergone open-chest cardiac surgery. Outbreak investigations suggested an aerosol-borne pathogen transmission originating from water contained in heater-cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiac surgery. Similar thermoregulatory devices are used for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and M. chimaera might also be detectable in ECMO treatment settings. We performed a prospective microbiological study investigating the occurrence of M. c...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trudzinski FC, Schlotthauer U, Kamp A, Hennemann K, Muellenbach RM, Reischl U, Gärtner B, Wilkens H, Bals R, Herrmann M, Lepper PM, Becker SL Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of enterovirus D68 of the new B3 lineage in Stockholm, Sweden, August to September 2016.
We report an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak in Stockholm Sweden in 2016. Between 22 August and 25 September EV-D68 was detected in 74/495 respiratory samples analysed at the Karolinska University Hospital. During the peak week, 30/91 (33%) samples were EV-D68 positive. Viral protein (VP)P4/VP2 sequencing revealed that cases were caused by B3 lineage strains. Forty-four (59%) EV-D68-positive patients were children aged ≤ 5 years. Ten patients had severe respiratory or neurological symptoms and one died. PMID: 27918255 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dyrdak R, Grabbe M, Hammas B, Ekwall J, Hansson KE, Luthander J, Naucler P, Reinius H, Rotzén-Östlund M, Albert J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with heater-cooler units (HCU): closing another loophole in patient safety.
PMID: 27918256 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Struelens MJ, Plachouras D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Mycobacterium chimaera colonisation of heater-cooler units (HCU) in Western Australia, 2015: investigation of possible iatrogenic infection using whole genome sequencing.
Abstract Following the reported link between heater-cooler unit (HCU) colonisation with Mycobacterium chimaera and endocarditis, mycobacterial sampling of all HCUs in use in Western Australia was initiated from August 2015, revealing M. chimaera colonisation in 10 of 15 HCUs. After M. chimaera was isolated from a pleural biopsy from a cardiothoracic patient who may have been exposed to a colonised HCU, a whole genome sequencing investigation was performed involving 65 specimens from 15 HCUs across five hospitals to assess if this infection was related to the HCU. Genetic relatedness was found between the 10 HCU M....
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Robinson JO, Coombs GW, Speers DJ, Keehner T, Keil AD, D'Abrera V, Boan P, Pang S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ECDC publishes 2015 surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Europe.
LD PMID: 27918266 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weist K, Högberg LD Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Severe paediatric conditions linked with EV-A71 and EV-D68, France, May to October 2016.
We report 59 cases of severe paediatric conditions linked with enterovirus (EV)-A71 and EV-D68 in France between May and October 2016. Fifty-two children had severe neurological symptoms. EV sequence-based typing for 42 cases revealed EV-A71 in 21 (18 subgenotype C1, detected for the first time in France) and EV-D68 in eight. Clinicians should be encouraged to obtain stool and respiratory specimens from patients presenting with severe neurological disorders for EV detection and characterisation. PMID: 27918268 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antona D, Kossorotoff M, Schuffenecker I, Mirand A, Leruez-Ville M, Bassi C, Aubart M, Moulin F, Lévy-Bruhl D, Henquell C, Lina B, Desguerre I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prevention of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections through chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated washcloth bathing in intensive care units: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised crossover trials.
Abstract We assessed the impact of 2% daily patient bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) washcloths on the incidence of hospital-acquired (HA) and central line-associated (CLA) bloodstream infections (BSI) in intensive care units (ICUs). We searched randomised studies in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) and Web of Science databases up to April 2015. Primary outcomes were total HABSI, central line, and non-central line-associated BSI rates per patient-days. Secondary outcomes included Gram-negative and Gram-positive BSI rates and adverse events. Four randomised crossover trials involved 25 ICUs and...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Afonso E, Blot K, Blot S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016.
We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond. PMID: 27918257 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rijks JM, Kik ML, Slaterus R, Foppen R, Stroo A, IJzer J, Stahl J, Gröne A, Koopmans M, van der Jeugd HP, Reusken C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Potential causes of the decreased effectiveness of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in live attenuated influenza vaccines.
PMID: 27918259 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ambrose CS, Bright H, Mallory R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Factors influencing the spread of pertussis in households: a prospective study, Catalonia and Navarre, Spain, 2012 to 2013.
ission of Pertussis in Households Working Group Abstract We aimed to investigate transmission rates of pertussis in household contacts of cases and factors associated with transmission. A prospective epidemiological study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to determine the incidence of pertussis among household contacts of reported cases in Catalonia and Navarre, Spain. An epidemiological survey was completed for each case and contact, who were followed for 28 days to determine the source of infection (primary case) and detect the occurrence of secondary cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate the effectiveness...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Godoy P, García-Cenoz M, Toledo D, Carmona G, Caylà JA, Alsedà M, Àlvarez J, Barrabeig I, Camps N, Plans P, Company M, Castilla J, Sala-Farré MR, Muñoz-Almagro C, Rius C, Domínguez À, Transmission of Pertussis in Households Working Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

An international invasive meningococcal disease outbreak due to a novel and rapidly expanding serogroup W strain, Scotland and Sweden, July to August 2015.
w R Abstract The 23rd World Scout Jamboree in 2015 took place in Japan and included over 33,000 scouts from 162 countries. Within nine days of the meeting ending, six cases of laboratory-confirmed invasive serogroup W meningococcal disease occurred among scouts and their close contacts in Scotland and Sweden. The isolates responsible were identical to one-another by routine typing and, where known (4 isolates), belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) which is associated with large outbreaks and high case fatality rates. Recent studies have demonstrated the need for high-resolution genomic typing schemes to ass...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lucidarme J, Scott KJ, Ure R, Smith A, Lindsay D, Stenmark B, Jacobsson S, Fredlund H, Cameron JC, Smith-Palmer A, McMenamin J, Gray SJ, Campbell H, Ladhani S, Findlow J, Mölling P, Borrow R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis capsular group W among scouts returning from the World Scout Jamboree, Japan, 2015.
den Abstract The 23rd World Scout Jamboree was held in Japan from 28 July to 8 August 2015 and was attended by over 33,000 scouts from 162 countries. An outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease capsular group W was investigated among participants, with four confirmed cases identified in Scotland, who were all associated with one particular scout unit, and two confirmed cases in Sweden; molecular testing showed the same strain to be responsible for illness in both countries. The report describes the public health action taken to prevent further cases and the different decisions reached with respect to how wide to...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smith-Palmer A, Oates K, Webster D, Taylor S, Scott KJ, Smith G, Parcell B, Lindstrand A, Wallensten A, Fredlund H, Widerström M, McMenamin J, IMT and investigation team in Sweden Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Summer music and arts festivals as hot spots for measles transmission: experience from England and Wales, June to October 2016.
We report 52 cases of measles linked to music and arts festivals in England and Wales, between mid-June and mid-October 2016. Nearly half were aged 15 to 19 years. Several individuals who acquired measles at one festival subsequently attended another festival while infectious, resulting in multiple interlinked outbreaks. Transmission within festivals resulted in a geographical spread of cases nationally as well as internationally, which presents particular challenges for measles control. PMID: 27881230 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: le Polain de Waroux O, Saliba V, Cottrell S, Young N, Perry M, Bukasa A, Ramsay M, Brown K, Amirthalingam G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.
Abstract Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sikkema RS, Freidl GS, de Bruin E, Koopmans M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.
a A Abstract Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppre...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 27, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Laisaar KT, Raag M, Lutsar I, Uusküla A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increased incidence of syphilis in men who have sex with men and risk management strategies, Germany, 2015.
Abstract In Germany, the number of reported syphilis cases increased between 11% and 22% per year between 2010 and 2014. We analysed syphilis surveillance data and data of four behavioural surveys on men who have sex with men (MSM) in Germany (2003, 2007, 2010, 2013) to assess if this rise is ongoing and to find possible explanations for it. Syphilis notifications increased in 2015 by 19% to a total of 6,834. This was mainly due to increasing notifications in MSM of all age groups in larger German cities. Data from the behavioural surveys on MSM in Germany showed a simultaneous increase of selective condom use as ...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 27, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jansen K, Schmidt AJ, Drewes J, Bremer V, Marcus U Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Real-time real-world analysis of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness: method development and assessment of a population-based cohort in Stockholm County, Sweden, seasons 2011/12 to 2014/15.
In conclusion, seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with substantial reductions in influenza-specific hospitalisation, particularly in adults ≥ 65 years with underlying chronic conditions. With the use of population-based patient register data on influenza-specific outcomes it will be possible to obtain real-time estimates of seasonal influenza VE. PMID: 27813473 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 27, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leval A, Hergens MP, Persson K, Örtqvist Å Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prolonged colonisation with Escherichia coli O25:ST131 versus other extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in a long-term care facility with high endemic level of rectal colonisation, the Netherlands, 2013 to 2014.
Abstract The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli clone ST131 (ESBL-ST131) has spread in healthcare settings worldwide. The reasons for its successful spread are unknown, but might include more effective transmission and/or longer persistence. We evaluated the colonisation dynamics of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC), including ESBL-ST131, in a long-term care facility (LTCF) with an unusually high prevalence of rectal ESBL-EC colonisation. During a 14-month period, rectal or faecal samples were obtained from 296 residents during six repetitive prevalence surveys, using ESBL-selective ...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 20, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Overdevest I, Haverkate M, Veenemans J, Hendriks Y, Verhulst C, Mulders A, Couprie W, Bootsma M, Johnson J, Kluytmans J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Herd effect from influenza vaccination in non-healthcare settings: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies.
Abstract Influenza vaccination programmes are assumed to have a herd effect and protect contacts of vaccinated persons from influenza virus infection. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Global Health and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to March 2014 for studies assessing the protective effect of influenza vaccination vs no vaccination on influenza virus infections in contacts. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. Of 43,082 screened articles, nine r...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 20, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mertz D, Fadel SA, Lam PP, Tran D, Srigley JA, Asner SA, Science M, Kuster SP, Nemeth J, Johnstone J, Ortiz JR, Loeb M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(41).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 20, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(41). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The potential impact of media reporting in syndromic surveillance: an example using a possible Cryptosporidium exposure in North West England, August to September 2015.
This study has further highlighted the potential for media-driven bias in syndromic surveillance, and the challenges in disentangling true increases in community infection from those driven by media reporting. PMID: 27762208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elliot AJ, Hughes HE, Astbury J, Nixon G, Brierley K, Vivancos R, Inns T, Decraene V, Platt K, Lake I, O'Brien SJ, Smith GE Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: A norovirus intervariant GII.4 recombinant in Victoria, Australia, June 2016: the next epidemic variant? Reflections and a note of caution.
PMID: 27762209 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fonager J, Rasmussen LD, Fischer TK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' reply: A norovirus intervariant GII.4 recombinant in Victoria, Australia, June 2016: the next epidemic variant? Reflections and a note of caution.
Source: Euro Surveill - October 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' reply: A norovirus intervariant GII.4 recombinant in Victoria, Australia, June 2016: the next epidemic variant? Reflections and a note of caution. Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Improving influenza virological surveillance in Europe: strain-based reporting of antigenic and genetic characterisation data, 11 European countries, influenza season 2013/14.
er A Abstract Influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data are crucial for influenza vaccine composition decision making. Previously, aggregate data were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control by European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. A system for collecting case-specific influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data was established for the 2013/14 influenza season. In a pilot study, 11 EU/EEA countries reported through the new mechanism. We demonstrated feasibility of reporting strain-based antigenic and genetic data and ca 10% of influenza virus-pos...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Broberg E, Hungnes O, Schweiger B, Prosenc K, Daniels R, Guiomar R, Ikonen N, Kossyvakis A, Pozo F, Puzelli S, Thomas I, Waters A, Wiman Å, Meijer A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment.
ien R Abstract In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1-52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: -22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1. PMID: 27101732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emborg HD, Krause TG, Nielsen L, Thomsen MK, Christiansen CB, Skov MN, Nielsen XC, Weinreich LS, Fischer TK, Rønn J, Trebbien R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Direct, indirect and total effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in children in Navarra, Spain, 2001 to 2014: cohort and case-control study.
Abstract We estimated the direct, indirect and total effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. A population-based cohort study followed children aged between 2.5 and 59 months between 2001 and 2014 in Navarra, Spain. IPD incidence was compared by PCV status and period. All cases diagnosed from July 2010 to December 2014 and eight matched controls per case were analysed to estimate the adjusted direct effect of PCV13. A total of 120,980 children were followed and 206 IPD cases were detected. Compared with unvaccinated children in the baseline...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guevara M, Barricarte A, Torroba L, Herranz M, Gil-Setas A, Gil F, Bernaola E, Ezpeleta C, Castilla J, Working Group for Surveillance of the Pneumococcal Invasive Disease in Navarra Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Adverse events following school-based vaccination of girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Slovenia, 2009 to 2013.
avs I Abstract Adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) with qHPV reported to the Slovenian AEFI Registry for the first four school years of the vaccination programme were analysed. We calculated annual reporting rates for 11-14 year-old vaccinees with AEFIs, using the number of qHPV doses distributed within the school-based vaccination programme as the denominator. Between September 2009 and August 2013, 211 AEFIs that occurred in 89 vaccinees were reported, a rate of 149.5 vaccinees with AEFI per 100,000 qHPV doses distributed. For five vaccinees, serious AEFIs (8.4 per 100,000 doses distributed) were repor...
Source: Euro Surveill - October 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Šubelj M, Učakar V, Kraigher A, Klavs I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.
This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation. PMID: 27103616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dickmann P, Abraham T, Sarkar S, Wysocki P, Cecconi S, Apfel F, Nurm ÜK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A norovirus intervariant GII.4 recombinant in Victoria, Australia, June 2016: the next epidemic variant?
Abstract A norovirus recombinant GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012 was first detected in Victoria, Australia, in August 2015 at low frequency, and then re-emerged in June 2016, having undergone genetic changes. Analysis of 14 years' surveillance data from Victoria suggests a typical delay of two to seven months between first detection of a new variant and occurrence of a subsequent epidemic linked to that variant. We consider that the current recombinant strain has the potential to become a pandemic variant. PMID: 27719750 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bruggink L, Catton M, Marshall J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increase in ECHOvirus 6 infections associated with neurological symptoms in the Netherlands, June to August 2016.
This report is to alert medical and public health professionals of the circulation of E-6 associated with neurological symptoms. PMID: 27719751 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benschop KS, Geeraedts F, Beuvink B, Spit SA, Fanoy EB, Claas EC, Pas SD, Schuurman R, Verweij JJ, Bruisten SM, Wolthers KC, Niesters HG, Koopmans M, Duizer E, VIRO-TypeNed Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research