Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.
This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of t...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Determann D, Korfage IJ, Fagerlin A, Steyerberg EW, Bliemer MC, Voeten HA, Richardus JH, Lambooij MS, de Bekker-Grob EW Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

2016 European guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis published.
PMID: 27277944 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moi H, Horner PJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant bacteria in unaccompanied refugee minors arriving in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, October to November 2015.
Abstract Many refugees arriving in Germany originate or have travelled through countries with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Therefore, all unaccompanied refugee minors (
Source: Euro Surveill - May 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heudorf U, Krackhardt B, Karathana M, Kleinkauf N, Zinn C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.
;inen O Abstract In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. PMID: 26840007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sane J, Sorvari T, Widerström M, Kauma H, Kaukoniemi U, Tarkka E, Puumalainen T, Kuusi M, Salminen M, Lyytikäinen O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing influenza primary care visits and hospitalisation in Auckland, New Zealand in 2015: interim estimates.
Abstract Preliminary results for influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against acute respiratory illness with circulating laboratory-confirmed influenza viruses in New Zealand from 27 April to 26 September 2015, using a case test-negative design were 36% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11-54) for general practice encounters and 50% (95% CI: 20-68) for hospitalisations. VE against hospitalised influenza A(H3N2) illnesses was moderate at 53% (95% CI: 6-76) but improved compared with previous seasons. PMID: 26767540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bissielo A, Pierse N, Huang QS, Thompson MG, Kelly H, Mishin VP, Turner N, SHIVERS Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Is the recent emergence of mephedrone injecting in the United Kingdom associated with elevated risk behaviours and blood borne virus infection?
Abstract The recent, and rapid, emergence of injection of the short-acting stimulant mephedrone (4-methylmethcathione) has resulted in concerns about increased infection risks among people who inject drugs (PWID). Data from the bio-behavioural surveillance of PWID in the United Kingdom were analysed to examine the impact of mephedrone injection on infections among PWID. During the year preceding the survey, 8.0% of PWID (163/2,047) had injected mephedrone. In multivariable analyses, those injecting mephedrone were younger, less likely to have injected opiates, and more likely to have injected cocaine or amphetamin...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hope VD, Cullen KJ, Smith J, Jessop L, Parry J, Ncube F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients infected with enterovirus D68, France, July to December 2014.
ina B Abstract In 2014, the United States (US) experienced a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection with 1,152 cases reported mainly in hospitalised children with severe asthma or bronchiolitis. Following the US alert, 11 laboratories of the French enterovirus (EV) surveillance network participated in an EV-D68 survey. A total of 6,229 respiratory samples, collected from 1 July to 31 December 2014, were screened for EV-D68 resulting in 212 EV-D68-positive samples. These 212 samples corresponded to 200 EV-D68 cases. The overall EV-D68 positivity rates among respiratory samples were of 5% (184/3,6...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schuffenecker I, Mirand A, Josset L, Henquell C, Hecquet D, Pilorgé L, Petitjean-Lecherbonnier J, Manoha C, Legoff J, Deback C, Pillet S, Lepiller Q, Mansuy JM, Marque-Juillet S, Antona D, Peigue-Lafeuille H, Lina B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Detection of enterovirus D68 in patients hospitalised in three tertiary university hospitals in Germany, 2013 to 2014.
, Diedrich S Abstract Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognised as a worldwide emerging pathogen associated with severe respiratory symptoms since 2009. We here report EV-D68 detection in hospitalised patients with acute respiratory infection admitted to three tertiary hospitals in Germany between January 2013 and December 2014. From a total of 14,838 respiratory samples obtained during the study period, 246 (1.7%) tested enterovirus-positive and, among these, 39 (15.9%) were identified as EV-D68. Infection was observed in children and teenagers (0-19 years; n=31), the majority (n=22) being under five years-old...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Böttcher S, Prifert C, Weißbrich B, Adams O, Aldabbagh S, Eis-Hübinger AM, Diedrich S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A note from the editors: enterovirus D68 epidemiology in France and Germany-food for thought.
PMID: 27196069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(15).
PMID: 27196307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.
We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel. PMID: 27171034 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Di Luca M, Severini F, Toma L, Boccolini D, Romi R, Remoli ME, Sabbatucci M, Rizzo C, Venturi G, Rezza G, Fortuna C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(17).
PMID: 27172605 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Imported chikungunya cases in an area newly colonised by Aedes albopictus: mathematical assessment of the best public health strategy.
Abstract We aimed to identify the optimal strategy that should be used by public health authorities against transmission of chikungunya virus in mainland France. The theoretical model we developed, which mimics the current surveillance system, predicted that without vector control (VC), the probability of local transmission after introduction of viraemic patients was around 2%, and the number of autochthonous cases between five and 15 persons per hectare, depending on the number of imported cases. Compared with this baseline, we considered different strategies (VC after clinical suspicion of a case or after labora...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sochacki T, Jourdain F, Perrin Y, Noel H, Paty MC, de Valk H, Septfons A, Simard F, Fontenille D, Roche B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Rift Valley fever in kidney transplant recipient returning from Mali with viral RNA detected in semen up to four months from symptom onset, France, autumn 2015.
Abstract A 29-year-old kidney transplant recipient returning from Mali was diagnosed with Rift Valley fever (RVF) in France in autumn 2015. The patient was immunosuppressed due to his renal transplant. IgM and IgG specific to RVF virus (RVFV) were detected in cerebrospinal fluid and blood up to two months after symptom onset, whereas in urine, RVFV genomic RNA was detected by RT-PCR up to three months, and in semen up to four months post symptom onset. PMID: 27172608 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haneche F, Leparc-Goffart I, Simon F, Hentzien M, Martinez-Pourcher V, Caumes E, Maquart M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.
sh;lsen Fischer T Abstract The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of cli...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Condell O, Midgley S, Christiansen CB, Chen M, Chen Nielsen X, Ellermann-Eriksen S, Mølvadgaard M, Schønning K, Vermedal Hoegh S, Andersen PH, Voldstedlund M, Kølsen Fischer T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014.
Abstract In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 1...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pijnacker R, Goris MG, Te Wierik MJ, Broens EM, van der Giessen JW, de Rosa M, Wagenaar JA, Hartskeerl RA, Notermans DW, Maassen K, Schimmer B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Best practices in ranking communicable disease threats: a literature review, 2015.
Abstract The threat of serious, cross-border communicable disease outbreaks in Europe poses a significant challenge to public health and emergency preparedness because the relative likelihood of these threats and the pathogens involved are constantly shifting in response to a range of changing disease drivers. To inform strategic planning by enabling effective resource allocation to manage the consequences of communicable disease outbreaks, it is useful to be able to rank and prioritise pathogens. This paper reports on a literature review which identifies and evaluates the range of methods used for risk ranking. S...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: O'Brien EC, Taft R, Geary K, Ciotti M, Suk JE Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Persisting transmission of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae due to an environmental reservoir in a university hospital, France, 2012 to 2014.
This study is a reminder that environmental reservoirs should be considered as a source of CPE transmission. PMID: 27168586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clarivet B, Grau D, Jumas-Bilak E, Jean-Pierre H, Pantel A, Parer S, Lotthé A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Silent dissemination of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in South America could contribute to the global spread of the mcr-1 gene.
We present evidence that mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli has been emerging in South America since at least 2012, supporting a previous report on the possible acquisition of mcr-1-harbouring E. coli by European travellers visiting Latin American countries. PMID: 27168587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandes MR, Moura Q, Sartori L, Silva KC, Cunha MP, Esposito F, Lopes R, Otutumi LK, Gonçalves DD, Dropa M, Matté MH, Monte DF, Landgraf M, Francisco GR, Bueno MF, de Oliveira Garcia D, Knöbl T, Moreno AM, Lincopan N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Contamination during production of heater-cooler units by Mycobacterium chimaera potential cause for invasive cardiovascular infections: results of an outbreak investigation in Germany, April 2015 to February 2016.
We present results of the surveillance of clinical cases and of contaminated HCUs as well as environmental investigations in Germany up until February 2016. Clinical infections occurred in five male German cases over 50 years of age (range 53-80). Cases had been exposed to HCUs from one single manufacturer during open chest surgery up to five years prior to onset of symptoms. During environmental investigations, M. chimaera was detected in samples from used HCUs from three different countries and samples from new HCUs as well as in the environment at the manufacturing site of one manufacturer in Germany. Our investigation ...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haller S, Höller C, Jacobshagen A, Hamouda O, Abu Sin M, Monnet DL, Plachouras D, Eckmanns T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis due to serotype 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes, Ancona province, Italy, January 2015 to February 2016.
Abstract In the first seven weeks of 2016, five serotype 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes isolates were collected from patients with invasive listeriosis in Ancona province in Italy. These strains and six 1/2a isolates identified in 2015 in the same area were typed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE. A clonal relationship, documented between the two sets of isolates, suggested a listeriosis outbreak in Ancona that started most probably in 2015. Investigation into the source of infection is still ongoing. PMID: 27168589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marini E, Magi G, Vincenzi C, Manso E, Facinelli B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

High specificity of a novel Zika virus ELISA in European patients after exposure to different flaviviruses.
Abstract The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas caused an increase in diagnostic requests in European countries. Here we demonstrate high specificity of the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG and IgM ELISA tests using putative cross-reacting sera of European patients with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus and hepatitis C virus. This test may aid in counselling European travellers returning from regions where ZIKV is endemic. PMID: 27126052 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huzly D, Hanselmann I, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Panning M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus detection in cerebrospinal fluid from two patients with encephalopathy, Martinique, February 2016.
We report two cases of encephalopathy (one with seizures, one with electroencephalogram changes) in patients with Zika virus infection. The cases occurred on Martinique in February 2016, during the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of the various neurological complications of Zika virus infection is needed for patients living in areas affected by Zika virus infections or for travellers to these areas. PMID: 27123558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rozé B, Najioullah F, Signate A, Apetse K, Brouste Y, Gourgoudou S, Fagour L, Abel S, Hochedez P, Cesaire R, Cabié A, Neuro-Zika Working Group of Martinique Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.
roup, Krause TG Abstract During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model t...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cuesta JG, Aavitsland P, Englund H, Gudlaugsson Ó, Hauge SH, Lyytikäinen O, Sigmundsdóttir G, Tegnell A, Virtanen M, Nordic influenza comparison group, Krause TG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Importance of timely monitoring of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness.
bak K PMID: 27123870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody RG, Mølbak K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.
Abstract Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Derrough T, Salekeen A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

I-MOVE multicentre case-control study 2010/11 to 2014/15: Is there within-season waning of influenza type/subtype vaccine effectiveness with increasing time since vaccination?
a M, Moren A, I-MOVE case–control study team Abstract Since the 2008/9 influenza season, the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study measures influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like-illness (ILI) laboratory confirmed as influenza. In 2011/12, European studies reported a decline in VE against influenza A(H3N2) within the season. Using combined I-MOVE data from 2010/11 to 2014/15 we studied the effects of time since vaccination on influenza type/subtype-specific VE. We modelled influenza type/subtype-specific VE by time since vaccination using a restricted cubic spline, con...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kissling E, Nunes B, Robertson C, Valenciano M, Reuss A, Larrauri A, Cohen JM, Oroszi B, Rizzo C, Machado A, Pitigoi D, Domegan L, Paradowska-Stankiewicz I, Buchholz U, Gherasim A, Daviaud I, Horváth JK, Bella A, Lupulescu E, O Donnell J, Korczyńska M, Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Concordance of interim and final estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review.
We examined features of the study design that may be correlated with interim estimates being substantially different from their final estimates and identified differences related to change in study period and concomitant changes in sample size, proportion vaccinated and proportion of cases. An absolute difference of no more than 10% between interim and final estimates was found for 18 of 33 reported pairs of estimates, including six of 12 pairs reporting VE against any influenza, six of 10 for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, four of seven for influenza A(H3N2) and two of four for influenza B. While we identified inconsisten...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leung VK, Cowling BJ, Feng S, Sullivan SG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Vibrio cholerae non-O1 bacteraemia: description of three cases in the Netherlands and a literature review.
We report three cases diagnosed in the Netherlands, identified during a national microbiological congress, and provide a literature review on VCNO bacteraemia. A search strategy including synonyms for 'VCNO' and 'bacteraemia' was applied to PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases. The three cases were reported in elderly male patients after fish consumption and/or surface water contact. The literature search yielded 82 case reports on 90 cases and six case series. Thirty case reports were from Asia (30/90; 33%), concerned males (67/90; 74%), and around one third (38/90; 42%) involved a history of alcohol abuse...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Engel MF, Muijsken MA, Mooi-Kokenberg E, Kuijper EJ, van Westerloo DJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Assessing the potential risk of Zika virus epidemics in temperate areas with established Aedes albopictus populations.
ler S Abstract Based on 2015 abundance of Aedes albopictus in nine northern Italian municipalities with temperate continental/oceanic climate, we estimated the basic reproductive number R0 for Zika virus (ZIKV) to be systematically below the epidemic threshold in most scenarios. Results were sensitive to the value of the probability of mosquito infection after biting a viraemic host. Therefore, further studies are required to improve models and predictions, namely evaluating vector competence and potential non-vector transmissions. PMID: 27104366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guzzetta G, Poletti P, Montarsi F, Baldacchino F, Capelli G, Rizzoli A, Rosà R, Merler S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A note from the editors: impact of anthropogenic changes to water on human pathogens.
PMID: 27104628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' response: Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases.
- as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' response: Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases. Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Environmental surveillance of viruses by tangential flow filtration and metagenomic reconstruction.
Abstract An approach is proposed for environmental surveillance of poliovirus by concentrating sewage samples with tangential flow filtration (TFF) followed by deep sequencing of viral RNA. Subsequent to testing the method with samples from Finland, samples from Pakistan, a country endemic for poliovirus, were investigated. Genomic sequencing was either performed directly, for unbiased identification of viruses regardless of their ability to grow in cell cultures, or after virus enrichment by cell culture or immunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics enabled separation and determination of individual consensus sequences....
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Furtak V, Roivainen M, Mirochnichenko O, Zagorodnyaya T, Laassri M, Zaidic SZ, Rehman L, Alam MM, Chizhikov V, Chumakov K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of unusual Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant 1,4 [5],12:i:-, Italy, June 2013 to September 2014.
tek S, Luzzi I, outbreak investigation group Abstract Monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (monophasic S. Typhimurium), with antigenic structure 1,4,[5],12:i:-, appears to be of increasing importance in Europe. In Italy, monophasic S. Typhimurium represented the third most frequent Salmonella serovar isolated from human cases between 2004 and 2008. From June 2013 to October 2014, a total of 206 human cases of salmonellosis were identified in Abruzzo region (Central Italy). Obtained clinical isolates characterised showed S. Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:- with sole resistance...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cito F, Baldinelli F, Calistri P, Di Giannatale E, Scavia G, Orsini M, Iannetti S, Sacchini L, Mangone I, Candeloro L, Conte A, Ippoliti C, Morelli D, Migliorati G, Barile NB, Marfoglia C, Salucci S, Cammà C, Marcacci M, Ancora M, Dionisi AM, Owczartek S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, Croatia, 2014.
This study investigates the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of viable A. baumannii in municipal wastewater and its persistence through the wastewater treatment process. A total of 21 A. baumannii isolates were recovered at a secondary type of municipal wastewater treatment plant in Zagreb, Croatia: 15 from raw influent wastewater and six from final effluent. All isolates were carbapenem- and multidrug-resistant. Among 14 isolates tested for blaOXA genes, all harboured the constitutive blaOXA-51-like gene, while the acquired blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-40-like genes were found in 10 and three isolates respectively...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hrenovic J, Goic-Barisic I, Kazazic S, Kovacic A, Ganjto M, Tonkic M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Testing for viral material in water of public bathing areas of the Danube during summer, Vojvodina, Serbia, 2014.
In this study, we performed analyses that surpassed national requirements, and investigated if adenovirus, enterovirus or rotavirus genetic material was present in samples of recreational water collected for quality monitoring. Of 90 water samples obtained during the study, enterovirus material was not found in any sample, but adenovirus and rotavirus genetic materials were respectively detected in 60 and 31 samples. Statistical analyses showed a significant correlation between adenovirus DNA and total coliforms in the water. Even when water samples were adequate for recreational use, adenoviruses were detected in 75% (57/...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jovanović Galović A, Bijelović S, Milošević V, Hrnjaković Cvjetkovic I, Popović M, Kovačević G, Radovanov J, Dragić N, Petrović V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment.
ien R Abstract In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1-52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: -22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1. PMID: 27101732 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emborg HD, Krause TG, Nielsen L, Thomsen MK, Christiansen CB, Skov MN, Nielsen XC, Weinreich LS, Fischer TK, Rønn J, Trebbien R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Direct, indirect and total effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease in children in Navarra, Spain, 2001 to 2014: cohort and case-control study.
Abstract We estimated the direct, indirect and total effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. A population-based cohort study followed children aged between 2.5 and 59 months between 2001 and 2014 in Navarra, Spain. IPD incidence was compared by PCV status and period. All cases diagnosed from July 2010 to December 2014 and eight matched controls per case were analysed to estimate the adjusted direct effect of PCV13. A total of 120,980 children were followed and 206 IPD cases were detected. Compared with unvaccinated children in the baseline...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guevara M, Barricarte A, Torroba L, Herranz M, Gil-Setas A, Gil F, Bernaola E, Ezpeleta C, Castilla J, Working Group for Surveillance of the Pneumococcal Invasive Disease in Navarra Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Adverse events following school-based vaccination of girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Slovenia, 2009 to 2013.
avs I Abstract Adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) with qHPV reported to the Slovenian AEFI Registry for the first four school years of the vaccination programme were analysed. We calculated annual reporting rates for 11-14 year-old vaccinees with AEFIs, using the number of qHPV doses distributed within the school-based vaccination programme as the denominator. Between September 2009 and August 2013, 211 AEFIs that occurred in 89 vaccinees were reported, a rate of 149.5 vaccinees with AEFI per 100,000 qHPV doses distributed. For five vaccinees, serious AEFIs (8.4 per 100,000 doses distributed) were repor...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Šubelj M, Učakar V, Kraigher A, Klavs I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.
This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation. PMID: 27103616 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dickmann P, Abraham T, Sarkar S, Wysocki P, Cecconi S, Apfel F, Nurm ÜK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014.
This report describes a joint measles outbreak investigation between public health officials in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands following detection of a measles cluster with a unique measles virus strain. From 1 February to 30 April 2014, 33 measles cases with a unique measles virus strain of genotype B3 were detected in the UK and the Netherlands, of which nine secondary cases were epidemiologically linked to an infectious measles case travelling from the Philippines. Through a combination of epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis, we found that measles transmission occurred in flight, airport and...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nic Lochlainn L, Mandal S, de Sousa R, Paranthaman K, van Binnendijk R, Ramsay M, Hahné S, Brown KE Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 mid-season results.
Abstract In 2015/16, the influenza season in the United Kingdom was dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation. Virus characterisation indicated the emergence of genetic clusters, with the majority antigenically similar to the current influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine strain. Mid-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates show an adjusted VE of 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-64.7) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultations and of 49.1% (95% CI: 9.3-71.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates show levels of protection similar to the 2010/11 season, when this strain was first used ...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody R, Warburton F, Ellis J, Andrews N, Potts A, Cottrell S, Johnston J, Reynolds A, Gunson R, Thompson C, Galiano M, Robertson C, Mullett D, Gallagher N, Sinnathamby M, Yonova I, Moore C, McMenamin J, de Lusignan S, Zambon M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Predominance of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genetic subclade 6B.1 and influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses at the start of the 2015/16 influenza season in Europe.
Abstract Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in the European influenza 2015/16 season. Most analysed viruses clustered in a new genetic subclade 6B.1, antigenically similar to the northern hemisphere vaccine component A/California/7/2009. The predominant influenza B lineage was Victoria compared with Yamagata in the previous season. It remains to be evaluated at the end of the season if these changes affected the effectiveness of the vaccine for the 2015/16 season. PMID: 27074657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Broberg E, Melidou A, Prosenc K, Bragstad K, Hungnes O, WHO European Region and the European Influenza Surveillance Network members of the reporting countries Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: an epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt - but not completely yet.
PMID: 27063453 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poddighe D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A system for automated outbreak detection of communicable diseases in Germany.
We describe the design and implementation of a novel automated outbreak detection system in Germany that monitors the routinely collected surveillance data for communicable diseases. Detecting unusually high case counts as early as possible is crucial as an accumulation may indicate an ongoing outbreak. The detection in our system is based on state-of-the-art statistical procedures conducting the necessary data mining task. In addition, we have developed effective methods to improve the presentation of the results of such algorithms to epidemiologists and other system users. The objective was to effectively integrate autom...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salmon M, Schumacher D, Burmann H, Frank C, Claus H, Höhle M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Congenital cerebral malformations and dysfunction in fetuses and newborns following the 2013 to 2014 Zika virus epidemic in French Polynesia.
et HP Abstract We detected an unusual increase in congenital cerebral malformations and dysfunction in fetuses and newborns in French Polynesia, following an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), from October 2013 to March 2014. A retrospective review identified 19 cases, including eight with major brain lesions and severe microcephaly, six with severe cerebral lesions without microcephaly and five with brainstem dysfunction without visible malformations. Imaging revealed profound neurological lesions (septal and callosal disruption, ventriculomegaly, abnormal neuronal migration, cerebellar hypoplasia, occipital pseudocy...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Besnard M, Eyrolle-Guignot D, Guillemette-Artur P, Lastère S, Bost-Bezeaud F, Marcelis L, Abadie V, Garel C, Moutard ML, Jouannic JM, Rozenberg F, Leparc-Goffart I, Mallet HP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus and congenital malformations in perspective.
PMID: 27055385 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Drosten C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Detection of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in polyclonal Escherichia coli isolates in Barcelona, Spain, 2012 to 2015.
, Mirelis B Abstract Colistin resistance was detected in 53 of 10,011 Escherichia coli (0.5%) by prospective phenotypic testing of consecutive clinical isolates in a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2012-15). The mcr-1 gene was retrospectively identified by PCR and sequencing in 15 of 50 available isolates. Each isolate had a unique PFGE pattern except for two. This clonal diversity supports the hypothesis of horizontal dissemination of the mcr-1 gene in the local study population. PMID: 27055477 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Prim N, Rivera A, Rodríguez-Navarro J, Español M, Turbau M, Coll P, Mirelis B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013.
Werf MJ Abstract Migrants arriving from high tuberculosis (TB)-incidence countries may pose a significant challenge to TB control programmes in the host country. TB surveillance data for 2007-2013 submitted to the European Surveillance System were analysed. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin and reporting country. The contribution of migrant TB cases to the TB epidemiology in EU/EEA countries was analysed. Migrant TB cases accounted for 17.4% (n = 92,039) of all TB cases reported in the EU/EEA in 2007-2013, continuously increasing from 13.6% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2013. Of 91,925 migrant cases ...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ködmön C, Zucs P, van der Werf MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Presentation with gastrointestinal symptoms and high case fatality associated with group W meningococcal disease (MenW) in teenagers, England, July 2015 to January 2016.
Abstract Atypical clinical presentations associated with group W meningococcal disease (MenW) are well-described and include pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis and epiglottitis/supraglottitis. Following anecdotal reports of teenagers presenting with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, we undertook a case review of MenW cases in 15 to 19 year-olds diagnosed in England between July 2015 and January 2016. Of the 15 cases, seven presented with a short history of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; five of these seven cases died within 24 hours of presentation to hospital. PMID: 27035055 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Campbell H, Parikh SR, Borrow R, Kaczmarski E, Ramsay ME, Ladhani SN Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research