Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.
Abstract Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 ...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vollmer T, Diekmann J, Eberhardt M, Knabbe C, Dreier J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012.
Abstract In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly d...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Berghold C, Herzog SA, Jakse H, Berghold A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016.
Abstract In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID: 27562931 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Graaf JA, Reimerink JH, Voorn GP, Bij de Vaate EA, de Vries A, Rockx B, Schuitemaker A, Hira V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.
, Hos N, Hagel S, Pletz M, Harbarth S, TIMBER Study Group Abstract We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stewardson AJ, Allignol A, Beyersmann J, Graves N, Schumacher M, Meyer R, Tacconelli E, De Angelis G, Farina C, Pezzoli F, Bertrand X, Gbaguidi-Haore H, Edgeworth J, Tosas O, Martinez JA, Ayala-Blanco MP, Pan A, Zoncada A, Marwick CA, Nathwani D, Seifert Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05.
Abstract Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yung CF, Ramsay M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barr é syndrome on Martinique, January 2016.
We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed. PMID: 26967758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - August 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rozé B, Najioullah F, Fergé JL, Apetse K, Brouste Y, Cesaire R, Fagour C, Fagour L, Hochedez P, Jeannin S, Joux J, Mehdaoui H, Valentino R, Signate A, Cabié A, GBS Zika Working Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barr é syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016.
We report a cluster of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome in 10 adults temporally related to a cluster of four children with acute flaccid paralysis, over a 3-month period in South Wales, United Kingdom. All adult cases were male, aged between 24 and 77 years. Seven had prominent facial diplegia at onset. Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three chil...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Williams CJ, Thomas RH, Pickersgill TP, Lyons M, Lowe G, Stiff RE, Moore C, Jones R, Howe R, Brunt H, Ashman A, Mason BW Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Systematic review on tuberculosis transmission on aircraft and update of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control risk assessment guidelines for tuberculosis transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA-TB).
In this study evidence of TB transmission on aircraft was identified to update the Risk Assessment Guidelines for TB Transmitted on Aircraft (RAGIDA-TB) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Electronic searches were undertaken from Medline (Pubmed), Embase and Cochrane Library until 19 July 2013. Eligible records were identified by a two-stage screening process and data on flight and index case characteristics as well as contact tracing strategies extracted. The systematic literature review retrieved 21 records. Ten of these records were available only after the previous version of the RAGIDA gu...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kotila SM, Payne Hallström L, Jansen N, Helbling P, Abubakar I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

WHO publishes an implementation framework on active tuberculosis drug-safety monitoring and management (ADSM).
PMID: 27486630 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - August 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.
Abstract In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tan...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Krutova M, Matejkova J, Kuijper EJ, Drevinek P, Nyc O, Czech Clostridium difficile study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Enhanced surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection occurring outside hospital, England, 2011 to 2013.
Abstract There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)-Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) up to 10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or less than 48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks. Pa...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fawley WN, Davies KA, Morris T, Parnell P, Howe R, Wilcox MH, Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) Working Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Difficile indeed.
PMID: 27469287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tassios PT Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.
Net Abstract To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kola A, Wiuff C, Akerlund T, van Benthem BH, Coignard B, Lyytikäinen O, Weitzel-Kage D, Suetens C, Wilcox MH, Kuijper EJ, Gastmeier P, members of ECDIS-Net Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Survey of diagnostic and typing capacity for Clostridium difficile infection in Europe, 2011 and 2014.
n behalf of all participants Abstract Suboptimal laboratory diagnostics for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) impedes its surveillance and control across Europe. We evaluated changes in local laboratory CDI diagnostics and changes in national diagnostic and typing capacity for CDI during the European C. difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) project, through cross-sectional surveys in 33 European countries in 2011 and 2014. In 2011, 126 (61%) of a convenience sample of 206 laboratories in 31 countries completed a survey on local diagnostics. In 2014, 84 (67%) of these 126 laboratories in 26 count...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Dorp SM, Notermans DW, Alblas J, Gastmeier P, Mentula S, Nagy E, Spigaglia P, Ivanova K, Fitzpatrick F, Barbut F, Morris T, Wilcox MH, Kinross P, Suetens C, Kuijper EJ, European Clostridium difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) project Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013.
This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. PMID: 27470194 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Davies KA, Ashwin H, Longshaw CM, Burns DA, Davis GL, Wilcox MH, EUCLID study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.
This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. PMID: 27472820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Dorp SM, Kinross P, Gastmeier P, Behnke M, Kola A, Delmée M, Pavelkovich A, Mentula S, Barbut F, Hajdu A, Ingebretsen A, Pituch H, Macovei IS, Jovanović M, Wiuff C, Schmid D, Olsen KE, Wilcox MH, Suetens C, Kuijper EJ, European Clostridium difficile Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

WHO publishes viral hepatitis surveillance guide.
PMID: 27413795 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ECDC public consultation on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors.
PMID: 27358927 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

First European Union Laboratory Capability Monitoring System report published.
PMID: 27358928 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus.
PMID: 27326435 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Resources and latest news about Zika virus disease available from ECDC.
Resources and latest news about Zika virus disease available from ECDC. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(5):32 Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team PMID: 27299167 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effects of previous episodes of influenza and vaccination in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, 2013/14 season.
Influenza Surveillance in Hospitals of Navarra Abstract We estimated whether previous episodes of influenza and trivalent influenza vaccination prevented laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, in season 2013/14. Patients with medically-attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) in hospitals (n = 645) and primary healthcare (n = 525) were included. We compared 589 influenza cases and 581 negative controls. MA-ILI related to a specific virus subtype in the previous five seasons was defined as a laboratory-confirmed influenza infection with the same virus subtype or MA-ILI during ...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Castilla J, Navascués A, Fernández-Alonso M, Reina G, Albéniz E, Pozo F, Álvarez N, Martínez-Baz I, Guevara M, García-Cenoz M, Irisarri F, Casado I, Ezpeleta C, Primary Health Care Sentinel Network and Network for Influenza Surveillance in Hospitals Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Clinical and histopathological features of fatal cases with dengue and chikungunya virus co-infection in Colombia, 2014 to 2015.
This study provides evidence of mortality in patients with DENV and CHIKV co-infection. Fatal cases were characterised by variable clinical and laboratory features. Evaluation of histopathology of autopsy tissues provided evidence of the pathological consequences of the disease. PMID: 27277216 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mercado M, Acosta-Reyes J, Parra E, Pardo L, Rico A, Campo A, Navarro E, Viasus D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.
Abstract The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandator...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mozalevskis A, Eramova I, Safreed-Harmon K, Lazarus JV Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.
This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of t...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Determann D, Korfage IJ, Fagerlin A, Steyerberg EW, Bliemer MC, Voeten HA, Richardus JH, Lambooij MS, de Bekker-Grob EW Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

2016 European guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis published.
PMID: 27277944 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moi H, Horner PJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant bacteria in unaccompanied refugee minors arriving in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, October to November 2015.
Abstract Many refugees arriving in Germany originate or have travelled through countries with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Therefore, all unaccompanied refugee minors (
Source: Euro Surveill - May 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heudorf U, Krackhardt B, Karathana M, Kleinkauf N, Zinn C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.
;inen O Abstract In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. PMID: 26840007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sane J, Sorvari T, Widerström M, Kauma H, Kaukoniemi U, Tarkka E, Puumalainen T, Kuusi M, Salminen M, Lyytikäinen O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing influenza primary care visits and hospitalisation in Auckland, New Zealand in 2015: interim estimates.
Abstract Preliminary results for influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against acute respiratory illness with circulating laboratory-confirmed influenza viruses in New Zealand from 27 April to 26 September 2015, using a case test-negative design were 36% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11-54) for general practice encounters and 50% (95% CI: 20-68) for hospitalisations. VE against hospitalised influenza A(H3N2) illnesses was moderate at 53% (95% CI: 6-76) but improved compared with previous seasons. PMID: 26767540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bissielo A, Pierse N, Huang QS, Thompson MG, Kelly H, Mishin VP, Turner N, SHIVERS Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Is the recent emergence of mephedrone injecting in the United Kingdom associated with elevated risk behaviours and blood borne virus infection?
Abstract The recent, and rapid, emergence of injection of the short-acting stimulant mephedrone (4-methylmethcathione) has resulted in concerns about increased infection risks among people who inject drugs (PWID). Data from the bio-behavioural surveillance of PWID in the United Kingdom were analysed to examine the impact of mephedrone injection on infections among PWID. During the year preceding the survey, 8.0% of PWID (163/2,047) had injected mephedrone. In multivariable analyses, those injecting mephedrone were younger, less likely to have injected opiates, and more likely to have injected cocaine or amphetamin...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hope VD, Cullen KJ, Smith J, Jessop L, Parry J, Ncube F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients infected with enterovirus D68, France, July to December 2014.
ina B Abstract In 2014, the United States (US) experienced a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection with 1,152 cases reported mainly in hospitalised children with severe asthma or bronchiolitis. Following the US alert, 11 laboratories of the French enterovirus (EV) surveillance network participated in an EV-D68 survey. A total of 6,229 respiratory samples, collected from 1 July to 31 December 2014, were screened for EV-D68 resulting in 212 EV-D68-positive samples. These 212 samples corresponded to 200 EV-D68 cases. The overall EV-D68 positivity rates among respiratory samples were of 5% (184/3,6...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schuffenecker I, Mirand A, Josset L, Henquell C, Hecquet D, Pilorgé L, Petitjean-Lecherbonnier J, Manoha C, Legoff J, Deback C, Pillet S, Lepiller Q, Mansuy JM, Marque-Juillet S, Antona D, Peigue-Lafeuille H, Lina B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Detection of enterovirus D68 in patients hospitalised in three tertiary university hospitals in Germany, 2013 to 2014.
, Diedrich S Abstract Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognised as a worldwide emerging pathogen associated with severe respiratory symptoms since 2009. We here report EV-D68 detection in hospitalised patients with acute respiratory infection admitted to three tertiary hospitals in Germany between January 2013 and December 2014. From a total of 14,838 respiratory samples obtained during the study period, 246 (1.7%) tested enterovirus-positive and, among these, 39 (15.9%) were identified as EV-D68. Infection was observed in children and teenagers (0-19 years; n=31), the majority (n=22) being under five years-old...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Böttcher S, Prifert C, Weißbrich B, Adams O, Aldabbagh S, Eis-Hübinger AM, Diedrich S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A note from the editors: enterovirus D68 epidemiology in France and Germany-food for thought.
PMID: 27196069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(15).
PMID: 27196307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 12, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.
We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel. PMID: 27171034 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Di Luca M, Severini F, Toma L, Boccolini D, Romi R, Remoli ME, Sabbatucci M, Rizzo C, Venturi G, Rezza G, Fortuna C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(17).
PMID: 27172605 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Imported chikungunya cases in an area newly colonised by Aedes albopictus: mathematical assessment of the best public health strategy.
Abstract We aimed to identify the optimal strategy that should be used by public health authorities against transmission of chikungunya virus in mainland France. The theoretical model we developed, which mimics the current surveillance system, predicted that without vector control (VC), the probability of local transmission after introduction of viraemic patients was around 2%, and the number of autochthonous cases between five and 15 persons per hectare, depending on the number of imported cases. Compared with this baseline, we considered different strategies (VC after clinical suspicion of a case or after labora...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sochacki T, Jourdain F, Perrin Y, Noel H, Paty MC, de Valk H, Septfons A, Simard F, Fontenille D, Roche B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Rift Valley fever in kidney transplant recipient returning from Mali with viral RNA detected in semen up to four months from symptom onset, France, autumn 2015.
Abstract A 29-year-old kidney transplant recipient returning from Mali was diagnosed with Rift Valley fever (RVF) in France in autumn 2015. The patient was immunosuppressed due to his renal transplant. IgM and IgG specific to RVF virus (RVFV) were detected in cerebrospinal fluid and blood up to two months after symptom onset, whereas in urine, RVFV genomic RNA was detected by RT-PCR up to three months, and in semen up to four months post symptom onset. PMID: 27172608 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haneche F, Leparc-Goffart I, Simon F, Hentzien M, Martinez-Pourcher V, Caumes E, Maquart M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.
sh;lsen Fischer T Abstract The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of cli...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Condell O, Midgley S, Christiansen CB, Chen M, Chen Nielsen X, Ellermann-Eriksen S, Mølvadgaard M, Schønning K, Vermedal Hoegh S, Andersen PH, Voldstedlund M, Kølsen Fischer T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014.
Abstract In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 1...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pijnacker R, Goris MG, Te Wierik MJ, Broens EM, van der Giessen JW, de Rosa M, Wagenaar JA, Hartskeerl RA, Notermans DW, Maassen K, Schimmer B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Best practices in ranking communicable disease threats: a literature review, 2015.
Abstract The threat of serious, cross-border communicable disease outbreaks in Europe poses a significant challenge to public health and emergency preparedness because the relative likelihood of these threats and the pathogens involved are constantly shifting in response to a range of changing disease drivers. To inform strategic planning by enabling effective resource allocation to manage the consequences of communicable disease outbreaks, it is useful to be able to rank and prioritise pathogens. This paper reports on a literature review which identifies and evaluates the range of methods used for risk ranking. S...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: O'Brien EC, Taft R, Geary K, Ciotti M, Suk JE Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Persisting transmission of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae due to an environmental reservoir in a university hospital, France, 2012 to 2014.
This study is a reminder that environmental reservoirs should be considered as a source of CPE transmission. PMID: 27168586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clarivet B, Grau D, Jumas-Bilak E, Jean-Pierre H, Pantel A, Parer S, Lotthé A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Silent dissemination of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in South America could contribute to the global spread of the mcr-1 gene.
We present evidence that mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli has been emerging in South America since at least 2012, supporting a previous report on the possible acquisition of mcr-1-harbouring E. coli by European travellers visiting Latin American countries. PMID: 27168587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandes MR, Moura Q, Sartori L, Silva KC, Cunha MP, Esposito F, Lopes R, Otutumi LK, Gonçalves DD, Dropa M, Matté MH, Monte DF, Landgraf M, Francisco GR, Bueno MF, de Oliveira Garcia D, Knöbl T, Moreno AM, Lincopan N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Contamination during production of heater-cooler units by Mycobacterium chimaera potential cause for invasive cardiovascular infections: results of an outbreak investigation in Germany, April 2015 to February 2016.
We present results of the surveillance of clinical cases and of contaminated HCUs as well as environmental investigations in Germany up until February 2016. Clinical infections occurred in five male German cases over 50 years of age (range 53-80). Cases had been exposed to HCUs from one single manufacturer during open chest surgery up to five years prior to onset of symptoms. During environmental investigations, M. chimaera was detected in samples from used HCUs from three different countries and samples from new HCUs as well as in the environment at the manufacturing site of one manufacturer in Germany. Our investigation ...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haller S, Höller C, Jacobshagen A, Hamouda O, Abu Sin M, Monnet DL, Plachouras D, Eckmanns T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis due to serotype 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes, Ancona province, Italy, January 2015 to February 2016.
Abstract In the first seven weeks of 2016, five serotype 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes isolates were collected from patients with invasive listeriosis in Ancona province in Italy. These strains and six 1/2a isolates identified in 2015 in the same area were typed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE. A clonal relationship, documented between the two sets of isolates, suggested a listeriosis outbreak in Ancona that started most probably in 2015. Investigation into the source of infection is still ongoing. PMID: 27168589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marini E, Magi G, Vincenzi C, Manso E, Facinelli B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

High specificity of a novel Zika virus ELISA in European patients after exposure to different flaviviruses.
Abstract The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas caused an increase in diagnostic requests in European countries. Here we demonstrate high specificity of the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG and IgM ELISA tests using putative cross-reacting sera of European patients with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus and hepatitis C virus. This test may aid in counselling European travellers returning from regions where ZIKV is endemic. PMID: 27126052 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huzly D, Hanselmann I, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Panning M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus detection in cerebrospinal fluid from two patients with encephalopathy, Martinique, February 2016.
We report two cases of encephalopathy (one with seizures, one with electroencephalogram changes) in patients with Zika virus infection. The cases occurred on Martinique in February 2016, during the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of the various neurological complications of Zika virus infection is needed for patients living in areas affected by Zika virus infections or for travellers to these areas. PMID: 27123558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rozé B, Najioullah F, Signate A, Apetse K, Brouste Y, Gourgoudou S, Fagour L, Abel S, Hochedez P, Cesaire R, Cabié A, Neuro-Zika Working Group of Martinique Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.
roup, Krause TG Abstract During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model t...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cuesta JG, Aavitsland P, Englund H, Gudlaugsson Ó, Hauge SH, Lyytikäinen O, Sigmundsdóttir G, Tegnell A, Virtanen M, Nordic influenza comparison group, Krause TG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Importance of timely monitoring of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness.
bak K PMID: 27123870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody RG, Mølbak K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.
Abstract Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Derrough T, Salekeen A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research