Increased incidence of invasive meningococcal disease of serogroup C / clonal complex 11, Tuscany, Italy, 2015 to 2016.
We report an increase of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis invasive meningococcal disease in Tuscany. From January 2015 to end February 2016, 43 cases were reported, among which 10 were fatal, compared to two cases caused by serogroup C recorded in 2014 and three in 2013. No secondary cases occurred. Thirty-five strains belonged to C:P1.5-1,10-8:F3-6:ST-11(cc11). Control measures have been adopted and immunisation campaigns implemented. Studies on risk factors and carriage are ongoing. PMID: 27035155 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stefanelli P, Miglietta A, Pezzotti P, Fazio C, Neri A, Vacca P, Voller F, D'Ancona FP, Guerra R, Iannazzo S, Pompa MG, Rezza G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.
Werf MJ Abstract Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the su...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hollo V, Kotila SM, Ködmön C, Zucs P, van der Werf MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Impact of migration on tuberculosis epidemiology and control in the EU/EEA.
PMID: 27035852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van der Werf MJ, Zellweger JP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Steady increase of lymphogranuloma venereum cases, Czech Republic, 2010 to 2015.
hala L, Veselý D, Jilich D, Hercogová J Abstract Since the notification of the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in the Czech Republic in 2010, the numbers of LGV cases have steadily increased in the country. In 2015, 40 LGV cases were diagnosed, bringing the total for 2010-2015, to 88 cases. The profile of the most affected group, HIV-positive men who have sex with men with a previous sexually transmitted infection, matches that of those described in LGV outbreaks in western Europe. PMID: 27020297 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rob F, Jůzlová K, Krutáková H, Zákoucká H, Vaňousová D, Kružicová Z, Machala L, Veselý D, Jilich D, Hercogová J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ESCAIDE 2015: an operational scientific conference on infectious diseases for professionals from Europe and beyond.
PMID: 27020459 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sabbatucci M, Jasir A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Measles outbreak in a refugee settlement in Calais, France: January to February 2016.
We report a measles outbreak in a refugee settlement in Calais, France, between 5 January and 11 February 2016. In total, 13 confirmed measles cases were identified among migrants, healthcare workers in hospital and volunteers working on site. A large scale vaccination campaign was carried out in the settlement within two weeks of outbreak notification. In total, 60% of the estimated target population of 3,500 refugees was vaccinated during the week-long campaign. PMID: 27020578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jones G, Haeghebaert S, Merlin B, Antona D, Simon N, Elmouden M, Battist F, Janssens M, Wyndels K, Chaud P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Interim estimates of 2015/16 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Canada, February 2016.
Abstract Using a test-negative design, the Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) assessed interim 2015/16 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Adjusted VE showed significant protection of 64% (95% confidence interval (CI): 44-77%) overall and 56% (95%CI: 26-73%) for adults between 20 and 64 years-old against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. Among the 67 A(H1N1)pdm09-positive specimens that were successfully sequenced, 62 (> 90%) belonged to the emerging genetic 6B.1 subclade, defined by S162N (potential gain of...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chambers C, Skowronski DM, Sabaiduc S, Winter AL, Dickinson JA, De Serres G, Gubbay JB, Drews SJ, Martineau C, Eshaghi A, Krajden M, Bastien N, Li Y Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Risk assessment, risk management and risk-based monitoring following a reported accidental release of poliovirus in Belgium, September to November 2014.
Abstract On 6 September 2014, the accidental release of 10(13) infectious wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) particles by a vaccine production plant in Belgium was reported. WPV3 was released into the sewage system and discharged directly to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequently into rivers that flowed to the Western Scheldt and the North Sea. No poliovirus was detected in samples from the WWTP, surface waters, mussels or sewage from the Netherlands. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) showed that the infection risks resulting from swimming in Belgium waters were above 50% for several days and ...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Duizer E, Rutjes S, de Roda Husman AM, Schijven J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Romania, January to February 2016.
ol A Abstract As at 29 February 2016, 15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with onset between 25 January and 22 February were reported among children between five and 38 months in Romania, and three of them died. Cases were mostly from southern Romania. Six cases tested positive for Escherichia coli O26 by serology. Fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products were among the possible common food exposures. Investigations are ongoing in Romania to control the outbreak. PMID: 27020906 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peron E, Zaharia A, Zota LC, Severi E, Mårdh O, Usein C, Bălgrădean M, Espinosa L, Jansa J, Scavia G, Rafila A, Serban A, Pistol A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Waning immunity against mumps in vaccinated young adults, France 2013.
Abstract In 2013, 15 clusters of mumps were notified in France; 72% (82/114) of the cases had been vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. To determine whether the risk of mumps increased with time since the last vaccination, we conducted a case-control study among clusters in universities and military barracks. A confirmed case had an inflammation of a salivary gland plus laboratory confirmation in 2013. A probable case presented with inflammation of a salivary gland in 2013 either lasting for > 2 days or with epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Controls had no mumps symptoms a...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vygen S, Fischer A, Meurice L, Mounchetrou Njoya I, Gregoris M, Ndiaye B, Ghenassia A, Poujol I, Stahl JP, Antona D, Le Strat Y, Levy-Bruhl D, Rolland P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ECDC publishes updated evidence-based guidance for chlamydia prevention and control and makes latest chlamydia figures available online through interactive Surveillance Atlas.
PMID: 26987679 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mardh O, Amato-Gauci AJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America. PMID: 26987769 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barzon L, Pacenti M, Berto A, Sinigaglia A, Franchin E, Lavezzo E, Brugnaro P, Palù G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015.
Abstract Screening of 488 Syrian unaccompanied minor refugees (
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mockenhaupt FP, Barbre KA, Jensenius M, Larsen CS, Barnett ED, Stauffer W, Rothe C, Asgeirsson H, Hamer DH, Esposito DH, Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe.
PMID: 26988027 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vorou R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Children and young people with perinatal HIV in Europe: epidemiological situation in 2014 and implications for the future.
Abstract Accurate ascertainment of the number of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important to plan paediatric and adolescent health services. In Europe, the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected survivors are transferring to adult care and their health needs are unknown. We undertook an online survey of HIV cohort studies participating in the EuroCoord Network of Excellence to ascertain the number of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) patients included, to compare it with those published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health Organizatio...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Writing group for the Kids to Adults Working Group and Data Management and Harmonisation Group in EuroCoord Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe.
ed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe. Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2014;19(17).
PMID: 26990587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009.
Abstract Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised strain collections of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from retail chicken meat and hospitalised patients in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2015, for presence of colistin resistance and the mcr-1 gene. A total of 2,471 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, from surveys in retail chicken meat (196 isolates), prevalence su...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kluytmans-van den Bergh MF, Huizinga P, Bonten MJ, Bos M, De Bruyne K, Friedrich AW, Rossen JW, Savelkoul PH, Kluytmans JA Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.
Abstract Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and ...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muscat M, Marinova L, Mankertz A, Gatcheva N, Mihneva Z, Santibanez S, Kunchev A, Filipova R, Kojouharova M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016.
We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed. PMID: 26967758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rozé B, Najioullah F, Fergé JL, Apetse K, Brouste Y, Cesaire R, Fagour C, Fagour L, Hochedez P, Jeannin S, Joux J, Mehdaoui H, Valentino R, Signate A, Cabié A, GBS Zika Working Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (mcr-1 gene): three months later, the story unfolds.
PMID: 26967914 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Skov RL, Monnet DL Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(7).
PMID: 26939540 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

An autochthonous case of Zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014.
We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible. PMID: 26939607 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Venturi G, Zammarchi L, Fortuna C, Remoli ME, Benedetti E, Fiorentini C, Trotta M, Rizzo C, Mantella A, Rezza G, Bartoloni A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Neurological sequelae of healthcare-associated sepsis in very-low-birthweight infants: Umbrella review and evidence-based outcome tree.
Abstract Sepsis is a frequent cause of death in very-low-birthweight infants and often results in neurological impairment. Its attributable risk of sequelae has not been systematically assessed. To establish an outcome tree for mapping the burden of neonatal sepsis, we performed systematic literature searches to identify systematic reviews addressing sequelae of neonatal sepsis. We included cohort studies and performed meta-analyses of attributable risks. Evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. Two systematic reviews met inclusion criteria. The first included nine cohort studies with 5,620 participants and five...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haller S, Deindl P, Cassini A, Suetens C, Zingg W, Abu Sin M, Velasco E, Weiss B, Ducomble T, Sixtensson M, Eckmanns T, Harder T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Impact of food animal trade on the spread of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance, Tunisia, July 2015.
We report a high prevalence of MCR-1 and CTX-M-1-producing Escherichia coli in three Tunisian chicken farms. Chickens were imported from France or derived from French imported chicks. The same IncHI2-type plasmid reported to carry those genes in cattle in France and in a food sample in Portugal was found in Tunisian chickens of French origin. This suggests a significant impact of food animal trade on the spread of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in Europe. PMID: 26940999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Grami R, Mansour W, Mehri W, Bouallègue O, Boujaâfar N, Madec JY, Haenni M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.
Abstract In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kunoee A, Nielsen J, Cowan S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Is there a need for special treatment of refugees at hospital admission?
PMID: 26923774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Walter J, Haller S, Hermes J, Arvand M, Abu Sin M, Eckmanns T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Author's reply: Is there a need for special treatment of refugees at hospital admission?
PMID: 26923885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kempf VA, Heudorf U, authors of the original articles Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care patients in a season of co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, B and drifted A(H3N2), I-MOVE Multicentre Case-Control Study, Europe 2014/15.
entre case–control team Abstract Influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses co-circulated in Europe in 2014/15. We undertook a multicentre case-control study in eight European countries to measure 2014/15 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. General practitioners swabbed all or a systematic sample of ILI patients. We compared the odds of vaccination of ILI influenza positive patients to negative patients. We calculated adjusted VE by influenza type/subtype, and age group. Among 6,579 ILI patients included, 1,828 wer...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Valenciano M, Kissling E, Reuss A, Rizzo C, Gherasim A, Horváth JK, Domegan L, Pitigoi D, Machado A, Paradowska-Stankiewicz IA, Bella A, Larrauri A, Ferenczi A, Joan O´Donell, Lazar M, Pechirra P, Korczyńska MR, Pozo F, Moren A, I-MOVE multicentre case Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Molecular identification of emergent GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus genotype, Romania, 2015.
Abstract The novel GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus genotype has been reported as cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China and Japan since the winter season 2014/15, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. These emergent strains have also been sporadically reported on other continents than Asia. GII.P17-GII.17 isolates, similar to Kawasaki308 2015, were identified in three patients during a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis affecting 328 people in Romania, in neighbouring localities, in 2015. PMID: 26924169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dinu S, Nagy M, Negru DG, Popovici ED, Zota L, Oprișan G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.
-Feuz M Abstract Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peak...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schmutz C, Mäusezahl D, Jost M, Baumgartner A, Mäusezahl-Feuz M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016.
We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito-borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe. PMID: 26898198 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria AT, Maquart M, Makinson A, Flusin O, Segondy M, Leparc-Goffart I, Le Moing V, Foulongne V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Early influenza vaccine effectiveness results 2015-16: I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.
PMID: 26898240 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kissling E, Valenciano M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prevalence of mcr-1 in commensal Escherichia coli from French livestock, 2007 to 2014.
ers P Abstract Colistin resistance was investigated in 1,696 isolates collected from 2007 to 2014 within the frame of the French livestock antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme. The mcr-1 gene was detected in all commensal Escherichia coli isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration to colistin above the 2 mg/L cut-off value (n=23). In poultry, mcr-1 prevalence was 5.9% in turkeys and 1.8% in broilers in 2014. In pigs, investigated in 2013, this prevalence did not exceed 0.5%. These findings support that mcr-1 has spread in French livestock. PMID: 26898350 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Perrin-Guyomard A, Bruneau M, Houée P, Deleurme K, Legrandois P, Poirier C, Soumet C, Sanders P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Confirmed inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum genovar L2c in a man who had sex with men, Slovenia, 2015.
n;e D Abstract A laboratory-confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) case in Slovenia was reported in 2015, in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative man presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy. He reported unprotected insertive anal intercourse with two male partners in Croatia. Variant L2c of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in clinical samples. Although the patient was eventually cured, the recommended treatment regimen with doxycycline had to be prolonged. PMID: 26889644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matičič M, Klavs I, Videčnik Zorman J, Vidmar Vovko D, Kogoj R, Keše D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

European public health policies for managing contacts of invasive meningococcal disease cases better harmonised in 2013 than in 2007.
Abstract In 2007, a European survey identified variation in country policies on public health management of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In 2009-10, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published evidence-based guidance on IMD. We therefore surveyed again European countries to describe policies for managing IMD cases and contacts in 2013. We asked national IMD public health experts from 32 European countries to complete a questionnaire focusing on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for IMD contacts and meningococcal vaccination. Proportions in 2007 and 2013 were compared using the ch...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vygen S, Hellenbrand W, Stefanoff P, Hanquet G, Heuberger S, Stuart J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Emergence of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 genogroup 6B and drug resistant virus, India, January to May 2015.
Abstract To investigate the aetiology of the 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in India, 1,083 nasopharyngeal swabs from suspect patients were screened for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Of 412 positive specimens, six were further characterised by phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences revealing that they belonged to genogroup 6B. A new mutation (E164G) was observed in HA2 of two sequences. Neuraminidase genes in two of 12 isolates from fatal cases on prior oseltamivir treatment harboured the H275Y mutation. PMID: 26876980 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Parida M, Dash PK, Kumar JS, Joshi G, Tandel K, Sharma S, Srivastava A, Agarwal A, Saha A, Saraswat S, Karothia D, Malviya V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Evaluation of a temporary vaccination recommendation in response to an outbreak of invasive meningococcal serogroup C disease in men who have sex with men in Berlin, 2013-2014.
Abstract Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccination of men who have sex with men (MSM) was temporarily recommended to control an outbreak of invasive MenC disease among MSM in Berlin in 2012-2013. Vaccination was offered to HIV-infected MSM free of charge; others had to request reimbursement or pay out of pocket. We aimed to assess (i) awareness and acceptance of this recommendation through an online survey of MSM, (ii) implementation through a survey of primary care physicians and analysis of vaccine prescriptions, and (iii) impact through analysis of notified cases. Among online survey respondents, 60% were aw...
Source: Euro Surveill - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Koch J, Hellenbrand W, Schink S, Wichmann O, Carganico A, Drewes J, Kruspe M, Suckau M, Claus H, Marcus U Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(2).
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(2). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2015;20(44).
PMID: 26846199 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weidmann M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Insights into epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 and detection of an unusual genotype 2 variant, Bulgaria, 2004 to 2013.
JM Abstract The present study aimed to determine the role of human parvovirus В19 (B19V) as an aetiological agent in measles and rubella negative fever/rash patients from Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. A total of 1,266 sera from all over the country were tested for B19V IgM antibodies and all positives were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 280 sera (22%) were B19V IgM positive and 227 of these (81%) were also PCR positive. The highest number of IgM positives was found among five to nine year-old children (27%). Eight infected women gave birth to healthy children; one fetus was a...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ivanova SK, Mihneva ZG, Toshev AK, Kovaleva VP, Andonova LG, Muller CP, Hübschen JM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A cluster of three cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F, France, August 2015.
lva N Abstract A cluster of three cases of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F occurred in France in August 2015. All cases required respiratory assistance. Consumption of a Bolognese sauce at the same restaurant was the likely source of contamination. Clostridium baratii was isolated both from stool specimens from the three patients and ground meat used to prepare the sauce. This is the second episode reported in France caused by this rare pathogen. PMID: 26848055 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tréhard H, Poujol I, Mazuet C, Blanc Q, Gillet Y, Rossignol F, Popoff MR, Jourdan Da Silva N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Differential age susceptibility to influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses in the 2015 Australian influenza season.
Abstract Influenza B viruses make up an important part of the burden from seasonal influenza globally. The 2015 season in Australia saw an unusual predominance of influenza B with a distinctive switch during the season from B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage viruses to B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses. We also noted significant differences in the age groups infected by the different B lineages, with B/Victoria infecting a younger population than B/Yamagata, that could not be explained by potential prior exposure. PMID: 26848118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barr IG, Vijaykrishna D, Sullivan SG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barré syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016.
We report a cluster of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome in 10 adults temporally related to a cluster of four children with acute flaccid paralysis, over a 3-month period in South Wales, United Kingdom. All adult cases were male, aged between 24 and 77 years. Seven had prominent facial diplegia at onset. Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three chil...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Williams CJ, Thomas RH, Pickersgill TP, Lyons M, Lowe G, Stiff RE, Moore C, Jones R, Howe R, Brunt H, Ashman A, Mason BW Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Evaluation of immunochromatographic tests for the rapid detection of the emerging GII.17 norovirus in stool samples, January 2016.
lay K Abstract A novel GII.17 norovirus emerged in Asia in the winter of 2014/15. A worldwide spread is conceivable and norovirus diagnostic assays need to be evaluated to investigate if they adequately detect this emerging genotype. Seven immunochromatographic kits commercially available in Europe were evaluated on ten stool samples where GII.17 virus had been quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. All the kits detected GII.17 with various sensitivities, partly depending on the virus titre. PMID: 26848594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Théry L, Bidalot M, Pothier P, Ambert-Balay K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Genotyping and strain distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolated from humans and pigs in Belgium, 2011-2013.
s V Abstract Mycobacterium avium represents a health concern for both humans and pigs. The characterisation of its subspecies is an important step improving the understanding of the epidemiology and the control of this pathogen. Ninety-two human M. avium strains were selected for a retrospective study. Subspecies determination by rpoB sequencing and IS1245/IS901 analysis showed that 98.9% of Belgian human M. avium strains belong to the subspecies hominissuis (MAH). Some of these MAH strains present particular IS1245/IS901 profiles (absence of IS1245 and false IS901 detection provoked by the presence of ISMav6). In...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vluggen C, Soetaert K, Duytschaever L, Denoël J, Fauville-Dufaux M, Smeets F, Bruffaerts N, Huygen K, Fretin D, Rigouts L, Saegerman C, Mathys V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Mutations acquired during cell culture isolation may affect antigenic characterisation of influenza A(H3N2) clade 3C.2a viruses.
Abstract As elsewhere, few (
Source: Euro Surveill - January 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Skowronski DM, Sabaiduc S, Chambers C, Eshaghi A, Gubbay JB, Krajden M, Drews SJ, Martineau C, De Serres G, Dickinson JA, Winter AL, Bastien N, Li Y Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

International linkage of two food-borne hepatitis A clusters through traceback of mussels, the Netherlands, 2012.
In conclusion, a small number of patients in a non-endemic area led to geographically dispersed hepatitis A outbreaks with food as vehicle. This link would have gone unnoticed without sequence analyses and international collaboration. PMID: 26836217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Boxman IL, Verhoef L, Vennema H, Ngui SL, Friesema IH, Whiteside C, Lees D, Koopmans M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13.
ara M Abstract The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype-constellation...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hungerford D, Vivancos R, EuroRotaNet network members, Read JM, Pitzer VE, Cunliffe N, French N, Iturriza-Gómara M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015.
We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range. PMID: 26794427 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Korhonen EM, Huhtamo E, Smura T, Kallio-Kokko H, Raassina M, Vapalahti O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research