The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH) as a tool to detect maritime traffic-related health risks: analysis of MDH forms submitted to Spanish ports, October 2014 to March 2015.
J, Bermejo A, Aramburu C, Dávila M, Carreras F, Neipp R, Mariscal A Abstract The international maritime traffic of people and goods has often contributed to the spread of pathogens affecting public health. The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH), according to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), is a document containing data related to the state of health on board a ship during passage and on arrival at port. It is a useful tool for early detection of public health risks. The main objective of our study was to evaluate compliance with the model provided in the IHR, focusing on the format and ...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 15, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: López-Gigosos RM, Segura M, Díez-Díaz RM, Ureña I, Urzay D, Guillot P, Guerra-Neira A, Rivera A, Pérez-Cobaleda Á, Martín A, Nuñez-Torrón M, Alvarez B, Faraco M, Barrera JM, Calvo MJ, Gallegos J, Bermejo A, Aramburu C, Dávila M, Carreras F, Neip Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) for food-borne pathogen surveillance and control - taking the pulse.
PMID: 28661389 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moran-Gilad J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007-2008 and 2014.
Abstract A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers' knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data fo...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moro ML, Morsillo F, Nascetti S, Parenti M, Allegranzi B, Pompa MG, Pittet D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Measles outbreak after 12 years without endemic transmission, Portugal, February to May 2017.
We report a measles outbreak in two Portuguese health regions (Algarve and Lisbon and the Tagus Valley) since February 2017, and which by 31 May resulted in 28 confirmed cases, of which 16 were unvaccinated. Thirteen cases were healthcare workers. One unvaccinated teenager died. Genotype B3 was identified in 14 cases from both regions. This outbreak occurs after 12 years without endemic measles transmission, and in a context of high measles vaccination coverage and immunity. PMID: 28661392 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: George F, Valente J, Augusto GF, Silva AJ, Pereira N, Fernandes T, Palminha P, Aguiar BA, Martins A, Santos E, Valente P, Calé E, Leça A, Nogueira PJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Necrotising fasciitis as atypical presentation of infection with emerging Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11, the Netherlands, March 2017.
Abstract In March 2017, a patient with necrotising fasciitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11 was diagnosed in the Netherlands. Unusual and severe presentations of MenW infections are common in the current European epidemic. In the Netherlands, the incidence of MenW infections increased 10-fold, from an average of 0.03 per 100,000 population in 2002-2014 to 0.29 in 2016. Awareness of atypical presentations enables timely adequate treatment and public health action. PMID: 28661395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Russcher A, Fanoy E, van Olden GDJ, Graafland AD, van der Ende A, Knol MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.
Abstract PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The PulseNet International vision is the standardised use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify and subtype food-borne bacterial pathogens worldwide, replacing traditional methods to strengthen preparedness and response, reduce global social and economic disease burden, and save lives. To meet the needs of real...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nadon C, Van Walle I, Gerner-Smidt P, Campos J, Chinen I, Concepcion-Acevedo J, Gilpin B, Smith AM, Man Kam K, Perez E, Trees E, Kubota K, Takkinen J, Nielsen EM, Carleton H, FWD-NEXT Expert Panel Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Investigation of a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis in a school canteen revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V not detected by standard PCR, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2016.
n P Abstract A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hergens MP, Nederby Öhd J, Alm E, Askling HH, Helgesson S, Insulander M, Lagerqvist N, Svenungsson B, Tihane M, Tolfvenstam T, Follin P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A case-control study to assess the effectiveness of pertussis vaccination during pregnancy on newborns, Valencian community, Spain, 1 March 2015 to 29 February 2016.
The objective of this study was to estimate in this region the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in protecting newborns against laboratory-confirmed pertussis infection. A matched case-control study was undertaken in the period between 1 March 2015 and 29 February 2016. Twenty-two cases and 66 controls (+/- 15 days of age difference) were included in the study. Cases were non-vaccinated infants 
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bellido-Blasco J, Guiral-Rodrigo S, Míguez-Santiyán A, Salazar-Cifre A, González-Morán F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Response to a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2)-shedding event following accidental exposure to WPV2, the Netherlands, April 2017.
Abstract On 3 April 2017, a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) spill occurred in a Dutch vaccine manufacturing plant. Two fully vaccinated operators with risk of exposure were advised on stringent personal hygiene and were monitored for virus shedding. Poliovirus (WPV2-MEF1) was detected in the stool of one, 4 days after exposure, later also in sewage samples. The operator was isolated at home and followed up until shedding stopped 29 days after exposure. No further transmission was detected. PMID: 28597830 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Duizer E, Ruijs WL, van der Weijden CP, Timen A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) outbreak caused by sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, Germany, December 2016 to May 2017.
We report an ongoing, protracted and geographically dispersed outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and gastroenteritis in Germany, involving 30 cases since December 2016. The outbreak was caused by the sorbitol-fermenting immotile variant of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) Escherichia coli O157. Molecular typing revealed close relatedness between isolates from 14 cases. One HUS patient died. Results of a case-control study suggest packaged minced meat as the most likely food vehicle. Food safety investigations are ongoing. PMID: 28597831 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vygen-Bonnet S, Rosner B, Wilking H, Fruth A, Prager R, Kossow A, Lang C, Simon S, Seidel J, Faber M, Schielke A, Michaelis K, Holzer A, Kamphausen R, Kalhöfer D, Thole S, Mellmann A, Flieger A, Stark K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Development and validation of the HCV-MOSAIC risk score to assist testing for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM).
group Abstract Current guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with ongoing risk behaviour, without specifying the type of risk behaviour. We developed and validated the HCV-MOSAIC risk score to assist HCV testing in HIV-infected MSM. The risk score consisted of six self-reported risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression using data from the Dutch MOSAIC study (n = 213, 2009-2013). Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, post-test-probability-of-disease and diagnostic gain were calculated. The risk sc...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Newsum AM, Stolte IG, van der Meer JT, Schinkel J, van der Valk M, Vanhommerig JW, Buvé A, Danta M, Hogewoning A, Prins M, MOSAIC (MSM Observational Study of Acute Infection with hepatitis C) study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) in England and Wales, 2004 to 2013: testing and diagnoses.
Abstract Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection has been under enhanced surveillance in England and Wales since 2002, however, little is known about testing patterns. Using data from two surveillance systems held at Public Health England, we described HTLV antibody testing patterns between 2008 and 2013 and the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons diagnosed with HTLV in England and Wales between 2004 and 2013. An increase in HTLV testing was observed in England between 2008 and 2013 (3,581 to 7,130). Most tests (82%; 7,597/9,302) occurred within secondary care, 0.5% (48/9,302) of persons were r...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 18, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ireland G, Croxford S, Tosswill J, Raghu R, Davison K, Hewitt P, Simmons R, Taylor G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Allergic adverse events following 2015 seasonal influenza vaccine, Victoria, Australia.
We describe SAEFVIC's initial investigation and upon conclusion of the 2015 influenza vaccination programme, to define the signal event and implications for vaccine programmes. Allergy-related AEFI were defined as anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria or generalised allergic reaction. Investigations compared 2015 TIV AEFI reports to previous years as proportions and reporting risk (RR) per 100,000, stratified by influenza vaccine brand. The initial investigation showed an increased proportion of allergy-related AEFI compared with 2014 (25% vs 12%), predominantly in adults, with insufficient clinical severity to alter the prog...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 18, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clothier HJ, Crawford N, Russell MA, Buttery JP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Travel-associated gonorrhoea in four Nordic countries, 2008  to 2013.
The objective of this study was to estimate the risk for gonorrhoea among travellers from four Nordic European countries using surveillance data and to identify at-risk travellers to help target interventions. We retrieved gonorrhoea surveillance data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and tourism denominator data from the Statistical Office of the European Union. A travel-associated case of gonorrhoea was defined as one for which the reported country of infection differed from the reporting country. During 2008-2013, the four countries reported 3,224 travel-associated gonorrhoea cases, of which 53% were among indivi...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 18, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Beauté J, Cowan S, Hiltunen-Back E, Kløvstad H, Velicko I, Spiteri G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Biological characterisation of the emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9) viruses in humans, in mainland China, 2016 to 2017.
Abstract With no or low virulence in poultry, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused severe infections in humans. In the current fifth epidemic wave, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged. The insertion of four amino acids (KRTA) at the haemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site enabled trypsin-independent infectivity of this virus. Although maintaining dual receptor-binding preference, its HA antigenicity was distinct from low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9). The neuraminidase substitution R292K conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype. PMID: 28537546 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhu W, Zhou J, Li Z, Yang L, Li X, Huang W, Zou S, Chen W, Wei H, Tang J, Liu L, Dong J, Wang D, Shu Y Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increasing proportion of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and emergence of a MCR-1 producer through a multicentric study among hospital-based and private laboratories in Belgium from September to November 2015.
Abstract Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) strains have been increasingly reported in Belgium. We aimed to determine the proportion of CPE among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalised patients and community outpatients in Belgium in 2015. For the hospitalised patients, the results were compared to a previous similar survey performed in the same hospitals in 2012. Twenty-four hospital-based and 10 private laboratories collected prospectively 200 non-duplicated Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens. All isolates were screened locally by carbapenem disk diffusion using European Com...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huang TD, Bogaerts P, Berhin C, Hoebeke M, Bauraing C, Glupczynski Y, a multicentre study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(11).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(11). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Household transmission of invasive group A Streptococcus infections in England: a population-based study, 2009, 2011 to 2013.
Abstract Invasive group A streptococcal infection has a 15% case fatality rate and a risk of secondary transmission. This retrospective study used two national data sources from England; enhanced surveillance (2009) and a case management system (2011-2013) to identify clusters of severe group A streptococcal disease. Twenty-four household pairs were identified. The median onset interval between cases was 2 days (range 0-28) with simultaneous onset in eight pairs. The attack rate during the 30 days after first exposure to a primary case was 4,520 per 100,000 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 2,900...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mearkle R, Saavedra-Campos M, Lamagni T, Usdin M, Coelho J, Chalker V, Sriskandan S, Cordery R, Rawlings C, Balasegaram S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Two consecutive large outbreaks of Salmonella Muenchen linked to pig farming in Germany, 2013 to 2014: Is something missing in our regulatory framework?
Abstract In 2013, raw pork was the suspected vehicle of a large outbreak (n = 203 cases) of Salmonella Muenchen in the German federal state of Saxony. In 2014, we investigated an outbreak (n = 247 cases) caused by the same serovar affecting Saxony and three further federal states in the eastern part of Germany. Evidence from epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations strongly implicated different raw pork products as outbreak vehicles. Trace-back analysis of S. Muenchen-contaminated raw pork sausages narrowed the possible source down to 54 pig farms, and S. Muenchen ...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schielke A, Rabsch W, Prager R, Simon S, Fruth A, Helling R, Schnabel M, Siffczyk C, Wieczorek S, Schroeder S, Ahrens B, Oppermann H, Pfeiffer S, Merbecks SS, Rosner B, Frank C, Weiser AA, Luber P, Gilsdorf A, Stark K, Werber D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Passive enhanced safety surveillance for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg in the United Kingdom and Finland during the northern hemisphere influenza season 2015/16.
Passive enhanced safety surveillance for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg in the United Kingdom and Finland during the northern hemisphere influenza season 2015/16. Euro Surveill. 2017 May 04;22(18): Authors: Bricout H, Chabanon AL, Souverain A, Sadorge C, Vesikari T, Caroe TD Abstract Enhanced safety surveillance (ESS) was conducted in the United Kingdom and Finland for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg to comply with the European Medicines Agency interim guidance aimed to detect any potential increase in reactogenicity in near real time following the annual update of the influenza vaccine strain comp...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bricout H, Chabanon AL, Souverain A, Sadorge C, Vesikari T, Caroe TD Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

West Nile virus surveillance in Europe: moving towards an integrated animal-human-vector approach.
This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance a...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gossner CM, Marrama L, Carson M, Allerberger F, Calistri P, Dilaveris D, Lecollinet S, Morgan D, Nowotny N, Paty MC, Pervanidou D, Rizzo C, Roberts H, Schmoll F, Van Bortel W, Gervelmeyer A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Monitoring influenza virus susceptibility to oseltamivir using a new rapid assay, iART.
Abstract A new rapid assay for detecting oseltamivir resistance in influenza virus, iART, was used to test 149 clinical specimens. Results were obtained for 132, with iART indicating 41 as 'resistant'. For these, sequence analysis found known and suspected markers of oseltamivir resistance, while no such markers were detected for the remaining 91 samples. Viruses isolated from the 41 specimens showed reduced or highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibition assay. iART may facilitate broader antiviral resistance testing. PMID: 28494845 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gubareva LV, Fallows E, Mishin VP, Hodges E, Brooks A, Barnes J, Fry AM, Kramp W, Shively R, Wentworth DE, Weidemaier K, Jacobson R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Establishing and maintaining the National Vaccination Register in Finland.
This report describes the establishment and maintenance of the National Vaccination Register (NVR) in Finland. Currently, the NVR covers nationwide records of vaccinations given within the frame of the National Vaccination Programme since 2009. All vaccinations registered in the NVR contain a record of the personal identity code, the administered vaccine, and the date of vaccination. The vaccine lot number is the key component for recording and identifying vaccinations, because of its broad availability across patient information systems and its importance in vaccine safety monitoring. Vaccination records are accumulated a...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baum U, Sundman J, Jääskeläinen S, Nohynek H, Puumalainen T, Jokinen J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015.
This study indicates a marked effect of personalised written reminders, highest for the vaccines given later in the schedule in the older cohort. In addition, the reminders increased awareness about correct registration of vaccinations in DDV. PMID: 28488995 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suppli CH, Rasmussen M, Valentiner-Branth P, Mølbak K, Krause TG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Assessing varicella vaccine effectiveness and its influencing factors using health insurance claims data, Germany, 2006 to 2015.
Abstract In Germany, routine childhood varicella vaccination was implemented in 2004 with two doses recommended since 2009. We used an immunisation information system based on countrywide health insurance claims data to analyse vaccine effectiveness (VE) and factors influencing VE. We applied proportional hazard models to estimate VE under various conditions and compared the risk of acquiring varicella among unvaccinated children in regions with high vs low vaccination coverage (VC). Among 1.4 million children we identified 29,404 varicella cases over a maximum follow-up of 8 years post-vaccination. One-dose VE wa...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rieck T, Feig M, An der Heiden M, Siedler A, Wichmann O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Registries: An essential tool for maximising the health benefits of immunisation in the 21st century.
PMID: 28488997 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Crowcroft NS, Levy-Bruhl D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, December 2016 to March 2017: characteristics and challenges.
We describe characteristics of an ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, and difficulties in control measures implementation. As at 12 March 2017, 177 measles cases were notified, of which 50% were 15 years and older, 49% female. Atypical clinical presentation and severe complications, mainly among adults, in combination with late notification, low or unknown vaccination coverage of contacts, infected healthcare workers and increased workload due to contact tracing, are the main concerns for outbreak management. PMID: 28488998 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Grammens T, Schirvel C, Leenen S, Shodu N, Hutse V, Mendes da Costa E, Sabbe M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Immunisation Information Systems - useful tools for monitoring vaccination programmes in EU/EEA countries, 2016.
Abstract Immunisation Information Systems (IIS) are computerised confidential population based-systems containing individual-level information on vaccines received in a given area. They benefit individuals directly by ensuring vaccination according to the schedule and they provide information to vaccine providers and public health authorities responsible for the delivery and monitoring of an immunisation programme. In 2016, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted a survey on the level of implementation and functionalities of IIS in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) c...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Derrough T, Olsson K, Gianfredi V, Simondon F, Heijbel H, Danielsson N, Kramarz P, Pastore-Celentano L Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Suboptimal MMR2 vaccine coverage in six counties in Norway detected through the national immunisation registry, April 2014 to April 2017.
ash;R Abstract In 2014, Norway became aware of potential low vaccination coverage for the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR2) in six of 19 counties. This was detected by comparing the national coverage (NC) for 16-year-olds extracted from the national immunisation registry SYSVAK with the annual status update for elimination of measles and rubella (ASU) reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). The existing method for calculating NC in 2014 did not show MMR2 coverage. ASU reporting on MMR2 was significantly lower then the NC and below the WHO-recommended 95% coverage. SYSVAK is based on the ...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hagerup-Jenssen M, Kongsrud S, Riise ØR Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis E and blood donation safety in selected European countries: a shift to screening?
Hewitt P Abstract The public health implications of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Europe have changed due to increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases and recent reports of chronic, persistent HEV infections associated with progression to cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients. The main infectious risk for such immunosuppressed patients is exposure to undercooked infected pork products and blood transfusion. We summarised the epidemiology of HEV infections among blood donors and also outlined any strategies to prevent transfusion-transmitted HEV, in 11 European countries. In response to the threat posed by HEV and rel...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Domanović D, Tedder R, Blümel J, Zaaijer H, Gallian P, Niederhauser C, Sauleda Oliveras S, O'Riordan J, Boland F, Harritshøj L, Nascimento MSJ, Ciccaglione AR, Politis C, Adlhoch C, Flan B, Oualikene-Gonin W, Rautmann G, Strengers P, Hewitt P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Estimating the annual burden of tick-borne encephalitis to inform vaccination policy, Slovenia, 2009 to 2013.
Abstract With an annual incidence between 8 and 15 per 100,000 population in the period from 2009 to 2013, Slovenia has one of the highest notified incidences of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe. TBE vaccination coverage remains at about 7.3%. To inform vaccination policy, we used surveillance data from 2009 to 2013 to calculate the overall and age- and sex-specific mean annual TBE incidence. We estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), using the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe approach from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The mea...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fafangel M, Cassini A, Colzani E, Klavs I, Grgič Vitek M, Učakar V, Muehlen M, Vudrag M, Kraigher A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Three cases of mcr-1-positive colistin-resistant Escherichia coli bloodstream infections in Italy, August 2016 to January 2017.
We describe three cases of bloodstream infection caused by colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in patients in a tertiary hospital in Italy, between August 2016 and January 2017. Whole genome sequencing detected the mcr-1 gene in three isolated strains belonging to different sequence types (STs). This occurrence of three cases with mcr-1-positive E. coli belonging to different STs in six months suggests a widespread problem in settings where high multidrug resistance is endemic such as in Italy. PMID: 28449732 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Corbella M, Mariani B, Ferrari C, Comandatore F, Scaltriti E, Marone P, Cambieri P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Predictors of hepatitis B vaccination status in healthcare workers in Belgrade, Serbia, December 2015.
Abstract Despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine since 1982, overall coverage of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) has not reached a satisfactory level in many countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination, and to assess the predictors of hepatitis B vaccination status among HCWs in Serbia. Of 380 randomly selected HCWs, 352 (92.6%) were included in the study. The prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination acceptance was 66.2%. The exploratory factor analyses using the vaccination-refusal scale showed that items clustered unde...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kisic-Tepavcevic D, Kanazir M, Gazibara T, Maric G, Makismovic N, Loncarevic G, Pekmezovic T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Emergence of new recombinant noroviruses GII.p16-GII.4 and GII.p16-GII.2, France, winter 2016 to 2017.
lay K Abstract An early increase in outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis characterised at the French National Reference Centre occurred this winter season. They were concurrent with an unusual pattern of circulating strains, with three predominant genotypes: the re-emergent variant GII.P4 2009-GII.4 2012 found in 28% of norovirus outbreaks and two new emergent recombinant strains GII.P16-GII.4 2012 and GII.P16-GII.2 never before observed in France, found in 24% and 14% of norovirus outbreaks, respectively. PMID: 28449729 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bidalot M, Théry L, Kaplon J, De Rougemont A, Ambert-Balay K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(14).
PMID: 28449733 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Concern regarding the alleged spread of hypervirulent lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strain in Europe.
omson NR, Egli A, de Vries HJ PMID: 28449734 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seth-Smith HM, Galán JC, Goldenberger D, Lewis DA, Peuchant O, Bébéar C, de Barbeyrac B, Bénard A, Carter I, Kok J, Bruisten SM, Versteeg B, Morré SA, Thomson NR, Egli A, de Vries HJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Maternal pertussis immunisation: clinical gains and epidemiological legacy.
Abstract The increase in whooping cough (pertussis) incidence in many countries with high routine vaccination coverage is alarming, with incidence in the US reaching almost 50,000 reported cases per year, reflecting incidence levels not seen since the 1950s. While the potential explanations for this resurgence remain debated, we face an urgent need to protect newborns, especially during the time window between birth and the first routine vaccination dose. Maternal immunisation has been proposed as an effective strategy for protecting neonates, who are at higher risk of severe pertussis disease and mortality. Howev...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bento AI, King AA, Rohani P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors'reply: Concern regarding the alleged spread of hypervirulent lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strain in Europe.
Source: Euro Surveill - April 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors'reply: Concern regarding the alleged spread of hypervirulent lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strain in Europe. Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Indistinguishable NDM-producing Escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters, sewage, and a clinical specimen in Ireland, 2016 to 2017.
In this study, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified in Irish recreational waters and sewage. Indistinguishable NDM-producing Escherichia coli by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were isolated from sewage, a fresh water stream and a human source. NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from sewage and seawater in the same area were closely related to each other and to a human isolate. This raises concerns regarding the potential for sewage discharges to contribute to the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID: 28449738 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mahon BM, Brehony C, McGrath E, Killeen J, Cormican M, Hickey P, Keane S, Hanahoe B, Dolan A, Morris D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Excess all-cause and influenza-attributable mortality in Europe, December 2016 to February 2017.
Tønnessen R, White RA, P Silva S, Rodrigues AP, Larrauri A, Leon I, Farah A, Junker C, Sinnathamby M, Pebody RG, Reynolds A, Bishop J, Gross D, Adlhoch C, Penttinen P, Mølbak K Abstract Since December 2016, excess all-cause mortality was observed in many European countries, especially among people aged ≥ 65 years. We estimated all-cause and influenza-attributable mortality in 19 European countries/regions. Excess mortality was primarily explained by circulation of influenza virus A(H3N2). Cold weather snaps contributed in some countries. The pattern was similar to the last major influenza A(H3N2) ...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vestergaard LS, Nielsen J, Krause TG, Espenhain L, Tersago K, Bustos Sierra N, Denissov G, Innos K, Virtanen MJ, Fouillet A, Lytras T, Paldy A, Bobvos J, Domegan L, O'Donnell J, Scortichini M, de Martino A, England K, Calleja N, van Asten L, Teirlinck AC, Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Performance of influenza case definitions for influenza community surveillance: based on the French influenza surveillance network GROG, 2009-2014.
Abstract International case definitions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), and the World Health Organization (WHO) are commonly used for influenza surveillance. We evaluated clinical factors associated with the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of influenza and the performance of these influenza case definitions by using a complete dataset of 14,994 patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) from whom a specimen was collected between August 2009 and April 2014 by the Groupes Régionaux d'Observation de la Gripp...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Casalegno JS, Eibach D, Valette M, Enouf V, Daviaud I, Behillil S, Vabret A, Soulary JC, Benchaib M, Cohen JM, van der Werf S, Mosnier A, Lina B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Blood donor screening for West Nile virus (WNV) revealed acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection, Germany, September 2016.
nasit J Abstract Between 1 June and 31 December 2016, 13,023 blood donations from the University Hospital Aachen in Germany were routinely screened for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA using the cobas TaqScreen WNV Test. On 28 September 2016, one blood donor was tested positive. Subsequent analysis revealed an acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection. During the ongoing USUV epizootics in Germany, blood transfusion services, public health authorities and clinicians should be aware of increased human USUV infections. PMID: 28422005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cadar D, Maier P, Müller S, Kress J, Chudy M, Bialonski A, Schlaphof A, Jansen S, Jöst H, Tannich E, Runkel S, Hitzler WE, Hutschenreuter G, Wessiepe M, Schmidt-Chanasit J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ECDC Round Table Report and ProMed-mail most useful international information sources for the Netherlands Early Warning Committee.
Abstract The Netherlands Early Warning Committee (NEWC) aims to identify infectious diseases causing a potential threat to Dutch public health. Threats are assessed and published as (information) alerts for public health experts. To identify threats from abroad, the NEWC screens 10 sources reporting disease outbreaks each week. To identify the sources essential for complete and timely reporting, we retrospectively analysed 178 international alerts published between 31 January 2013 and 30 January 2014. In addition, we asked the four NEWC coordinators about the required time to scan the information sources. We docum...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bijkerk P, Monnier AA, Fanoy EB, Kardamanidis K, Friesema IH, Knol MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

High risk of dengue type 2 outbreak in French Polynesia, 2017.
Abstract In French Polynesia, the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) have caused 14 epidemics since the mid-1940s. From the end of 2016, an increasing number of Pacific Island Countries and Territories have reported DENV-2 outbreaks and in February 2017, DENV-2 infection was detected in French Polynesia in three travellers from Vanuatu. As DENV-2 has not been circulating in French Polynesia since December 2000, there is high risk for an outbreak to occur. PMID: 28422007 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aubry M, Teissier Y, Mapotoeke M, Teissier A, Giard M, Musso D, Cao-Lormeau VM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015.
Abstract Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7-20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9-26.1). The RNA detection rate was hi...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miguel E, Chevalier V, Ayelet G, Ben Bencheikh MN, Boussini H, Chu DK, El Berbri I, Fassi-Fihri O, Faye B, Fekadu G, Grosbois V, Ng BC, Perera RA, So TY, Traore A, Roger F, Peiris M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Significantly elevated number of human infections with H7N9 virus in Jiangsu in eastern China, October 2016 to January 2017.
Abstract Since first identified in 2013, the H7N9 virus has caused several waves of human infections in China, with a current wave including a number of patients with very severe disease. Jiangsu is one of the most impacted provinces, whereby as of 31 January 2017, the number of human infections (n = 109) in the ongoing fifth H7N9 wave has exceeded the sum of those in the four preceding ones. Ten of 13 cities in Jiangsu have been affected, and clustered infections as well as one co-infection with seasonal influenza have been observed. With a median age of 58 years and 74.3% (81/109) of patients being male, the cha...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huo X, Chen L, Qi X, Huang H, Dai Q, Yu H, Xia Y, Liu W, Xu K, Ma W, Zhang J, Bao C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

GISAID: Global initiative on sharing all influenza data - from vision to reality.
PMID: 28382917 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shu Y, McCauley J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Yield of active screening for tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Germany: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract All asylum seekers in Germany undergo upon-entry screening for tuberculosis TB, but comprehensive evidence on the yield is lacking. We compared the national estimates with the international literature in a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the yield of TB, defined as the fraction of active TB cases detected among asylum seekers screened in Germany upon entry. We searched 11 national and international databases for empirical studies and the internet for grey literature published in English or German without restrictions on publication time. Among 1,253 screened articles, we identifie...
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bozorgmehr K, Razum O, Saure D, Joggerst B, Szecsenyi J, Stock C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Contact investigation after a fatal case of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in an aircraft, Germany, July 2013.
We describe an unusual situation in which we applied contact tracing beyond existing European guidelines; we found one latent tuberculosis infection in a passenger, which we consider probably newly acquired. PMID: 28367796 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: An der Heiden M, Hauer B, Fiebig L, Glaser-Paschke G, Stemmler M, Simon C, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Gilsdorf A, Haas W Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ending tuberculosis in risk groups in Europe: challenges from travel and population movement.
PMID: 28367797 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - March 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jackson C, Abubakar I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research