2015/16 seasonal vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B among elderly people in Europe: results from the I-MOVE+ project.
N, Mickiene A, Gomez V, Kurečić Filipović S, Ferenczi A, Korcinska MR, van Gageldonk-Lafeber R, I-MOVE+ hospital working group, Valenciano M Abstract We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study in 27 hospitals of 11 European countries to measure 2015/16 influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against hospitalised influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B among people aged ≥ 65 years. Patients swabbed within 7 days after onset of symptoms compatible with severe acute respiratory infection were included. Information on demographics, vaccination and underlying conditions was collected. Us...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rondy M, Larrauri A, Casado I, Alfonsi V, Pitigoi D, Launay O, Syrjänen RK, Gefenaite G, Machado A, Vučina VV, Horváth JK, Paradowska-Stankiewicz I, Marbus SD, Gherasim A, Díaz-González JA, Rizzo C, Ivanciuc AE, Galtier F, Ikonen N, Mickiene A, Gomez Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence and prevalence of chronic infection in the adult population in Ireland: a study of residual sera, April 2014 to February 2016.
Abstract Robust data on hepatitis C virus (HCV) population prevalence are essential to inform national HCV services. In 2016, we undertook a survey to estimate HCV prevalence among the adult population in Ireland. We used anonymised residual sera available at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. We selected a random sample comprising persons ≥ 18 years with probability proportional to the general population age-sex distribution. Anti-HCV and HCV Ag were determined using the Architect anti-HCV and HCV Ag assays. Fifty-three of 3,795 specimens were seropositive (age-sex-area weighted seroprevale...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Garvey P, O'Grady B, Franzoni G, Bolger M, Irwin Crosby K, Connell J, Burke D, De Gascun C, Thornton L Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Severe liver disease related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in treatment-naive patients: epidemiological characteristics and associated factors at first expert centre visit, France, 2000 to 2007 and 2010 to 2014.
Abstract Given recent profound improvements in the effectiveness of antiviral treatment for chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we aimed to describe the characteristics of patients referred to hepatology expert centres in France from 2000 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2014, and to identify factors associated with severe liver disease at their first visit for evaluation. We analysed data from two sources covering all of France: the former hepatitis C surveillance network, which included patients between 2000 and 2007, and the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER multi-centre cohort, which included patients between 2012 and 2014. S...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sanna A, Le Strat Y, Roudot-Thoraval F, Deuffic Burban S, Carrieri P, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Larsen C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of intestinal amoebiasis among men who have sex with men, Barcelona (Spain), October 2016 and January 2017.
Barberá MJ Abstract Entamoeba histolytica has been recently recognised as an emerging sexually transmissible pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM), causing sporadic outbreaks in countries where it is not endemic. Here we report two closed clusters of invasive amoebiasis occurring in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2016 (four cases) and in January 2017 (four cases). PMID: 28797327 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Escolà-Vergé L, Arando M, Vall M, Rovira R, Espasa M, Sulleiro E, Armengol P, Zarzuela F, Barberá MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Human myiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi, case series from Norway, 2011 to 2016.
We report a series of 39 human myiasis cases caused by H. tarandi in Norway from 2011 to 2016. Thirty-two were residents of Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway, one a visitor to Finnmark, and six lived in other counties of Norway where reindeer live. Clinical manifestations involved migratory dermal swellings of the face and head, enlargement of regional lymph nodes, and periorbital oedema, with or without eosinophilia. Most cases of human myiasis are seen in tropical and subtropical countries, and in tourists returning from such areas. Our findings demonstrate that myiasis caused by H. tarandi is more common than ...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Landehag J, Skogen A, Åsbakk K, Kan B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Are pertussis cases reported too late for public health interventions? Retrospective analysis of cases in London and South East England, 2010 to 2015.
Abstract In the United Kingdom, pertussis guidance recommends prophylaxis for household contacts within 21 days of case symptom onset if the household includes a vulnerable contact. The aim of our study was to identify characteristics associated with cases reported late for public health action. We reviewed the epidemiology of cases reported in London and South East England for the period 2010 to 2015. We characterised risk factors associated with late reporting of cases and described public health actions taken on timely reported cases. From 2010 to 2015, 9,163 cases of pertussis were reported to health protectio...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Crabbe H, Saavedra-Campos M, Verlander NQ, Leonard A, Morris J, Wright A, Balasegaram S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing hepatitis A among men who have sex with men (MSM) linked to outbreaks in Europe in Tel Aviv area, Israel, December 2016 - June 2017.
Abstract Between December 2016 and June 2017, 19 Hepatitis A virus (HAV)-positive cases, 17 of which were among men who have sex with men (MSM) were identified in the Tel Aviv area. Seven of the 15 sewage samples collected between January and June 2017 were also HAV-positive. All sequences clustered with two of the three strains identified in the current European HAV outbreak. We demonstrate that despite an efficient vaccination programme, HAV can still be transmitted to an unvaccinated high-risk population. PMID: 28749336 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gozlan Y, Bar-Or I, Rakovsky A, Savion M, Amitai Z, Sheffer R, Ceder N, Anis E, Grotto I, Mendelson E, Mor O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Pertussis surveillance and control: exploring variations and delays in testing, laboratory diagnostics and public health service notifications, the Netherlands, 2010 to 2013.
Abstract Pertussis is most severe among unvaccinated infants (
Source: Euro Surveill - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heil J, Ter Waarbeek HLG, Hoebe CJPA, Jacobs PHA, van Dam DW, Trienekens TAM, Cals JWL, van Loo IHM, Dukers-Muijrers NHTM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A cluster of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W among university students, France, February to May 2017.
oya I Abstract Between February and May 2017, two cases of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a new, rapidly expanding serogroup W meningococci variant were reported among students of an international university in Paris. Bacteriological investigations showed that isolates shared identical genotypic formula (W:P1.5,2:F1-1:cc11) and belonged to the South American/UK lineage. A vaccination campaign was organised that aimed at preventing new cases linked to potential persistence of the circulation of the bacteria in the students. PMID: 28749333 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bassi C, Taha MK, Merle C, Hong E, Lévy-Bruhl D, Barret AS, Mounchetrou Njoya I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Evaluation of a widely used culture-based method for detection of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Denmark and Norway, 2014 to 2016.
en Ø Abstract We evaluated a widely used culture-based method for detection of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in samples collected from pigs and the environment inside pig stables in Denmark and Norway. Selective enrichment in tryptic soy broth containing cefoxitin and aztreonam led to a high ratio of false-negative results (26%; 57/221). On this basis, we recommend reconsidering the use of selective enrichment for detection of LA-MRSA in animal and environmental samples. PMID: 28749335 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Larsen J, Sunde M, Islam MZ, Urdahl AM, Barstad AS, Larsen AR, Grøntvedt CA, Angen Ø Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

International risk of yellow fever spread from the ongoing outbreak in Brazil, December 2016 to May 2017.
Abstract States in south-eastern Brazil were recently affected by the largest Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak seen in a decade in Latin America. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of the risk of travel-related international spread of YF indicating that the United States, Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, Italy and Germany may have received at least one travel-related YF case capable of seeding local transmission. Mitigating the risk of imported YF cases seeding local transmission requires heightened surveillance globally. PMID: 28749337 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 13, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dorigatti I, Hamlet A, Aguas R, Cattarino L, Cori A, Donnelly CA, Garske T, Imai N, Ferguson NM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Legionnaires' disease in Europe, 2011 to 2015.
e Network Abstract Under the coordination of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the European Legionnaires' disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) conducts surveillance of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in Europe. Between 2011 and 2015, 29 countries reported 30,532 LD cases to ECDC (28,188 (92.3%) confirmed and 2,344 (7.7%) probable). Four countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) accounted for 70.3% of all reported cases, although their combined populations represented only 49.9% of the study population. The age-standardised rate of all cases increased from 0.97 cases/100,000 population ...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Beauté J, European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.
tel W Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van den Wijngaard CC, Hofhuis A, Simões M, Rood E, van Pelt W, Zeller H, Van Bortel W Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Trends in tuberculosis notification rates by country of origin in the metropolitan area of Rome, 2010 to 2015.
i E, Puro V PMID: 28703099 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sañé Schepisi M, Scognamiglio P, D'Amato M, Girardi E, Puro V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiology of human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Guangdong, 2016 to 2017.
We describe the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9) based on poultry market environmental surveillance and laboratory-confirmed human cases (n = 9) in Guangdong, China. We also compare the epidemiology between human cases of high- and low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) (n = 51) in Guangdong. Case fatality and severity were similar. Touching sick or dead poultry was the most important risk factor for HPAI A(H7N9) infections and should be highlighted for the control of future influenza A(H7N9) epidemics. PMID: 28703705 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kang M, Lau EHY, Guan W, Yang Y, Song T, Cowling BJ, Wu J, Peiris M, He J, Mok CKP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Co-circulation of multiple subtypes of enterovirus A71 (EV- A71) genotype C, including novel recombinants characterised by use of whole genome sequencing (WGS), Denmark 2016.
Abstract In Europe, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has primarily been associated with sporadic cases of neurological disease. The recent emergence of new genotypes and larger outbreaks with severely ill patients demonstrates a potential for the spread of new, highly pathogenic EV-A71 strains. Detection and characterisation of these new emerging EV variants is challenging as standard EV assays may not be adequate, necessitating the use of whole genome analysis. PMID: 28681718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Midgley SE, Nielsen AG, Trebbien R, Poulsen MW, Andersen PH, Fischer TK Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

An outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) type 2 Cosmopolitan genotype in Israeli travellers returning from the Seychelles, April 2017.
This report further demonstrates the role of travellers as sentinels for arboviral infections, especially in countries with limited diagnostic capabilities. PMID: 28681719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lustig Y, Wolf D, Halutz O, Schwartz E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Dot map cartograms for detection of infectious disease outbreaks: an application to Q fever, the Netherlands and pertussis, Germany.
nga J Abstract Geographical mapping of infectious diseases is an important tool for detecting and characterising outbreaks. Two common mapping methods, dot maps and incidence maps, have important shortcomings. The former does not represent population density and can compromise case privacy, and the latter relies on pre-defined administrative boundaries. We propose a method that overcomes these limitations: dot map cartograms. These create a point pattern of cases while reshaping spatial units, such that spatial area becomes proportional to population size. We compared these dot map cartograms with standard dot map...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soetens L, Hahné S, Wallinga J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Genomic investigation of a suspected outbreak of Legionella pneumophila ST82 reveals undetected heterogeneity by the present gold-standard methods, Denmark, July to November 2014.
ons (ESGLI) Abstract Between July and November 2014, 15 community-acquired cases of Legionnaires´ disease (LD), including four with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 sequence type (ST) 82, were diagnosed in Northern Zealand, Denmark. An outbreak was suspected. No ST82 isolates were found in environmental samples and no external source was established. Four putative-outbreak ST82 isolates were retrospectively subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by phylogenetic analyses with epidemiologically unrelated ST82 sequences. The four putative-outbreak ST82 sequences fell into two clades, the two clad...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schjørring S, Stegger M, Kjelsø C, Lilje B, Bangsborg JM, Petersen RF, David S, Uldum SA, ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI) Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Fall in new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) at selected London sexual health clinics since early 2015: testing or treatment or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)?
Abstract Since October 2015 up to September 2016, HIV diagnoses fell by 32% compared with October 2014-September 2015 among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending selected London sexual health clinics. This coincided with high HIV testing volumes and rapid initiation of treatment on diagnosis. The fall was most apparent in new HIV testers. Intensified testing of high-risk populations, combined with immediately received anti-retroviral therapy and a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme, may make elimination of HIV achievable. PMID: 28662762 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brown AE, Mohammed H, Ogaz D, Kirwan PD, Yung M, Nash SG, Furegato M, Hughes G, Connor N, Delpech VC, Gill ON Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Baseline incidence of intussusception in early childhood before rotavirus vaccine introduction, the Netherlands, January 2008 to December 2012.
This study provides a first estimate of intussusception incidence in young children in the Netherlands from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012, which could be used for future rotavirus safety monitoring. Our estimates are based on two different sources: electronic medical records from the primary healthcare database (IPCI), as well as administrative data from the Dutch hospital register (LBZ). The results from our study indicate a low rate of intussusception. Overall incidence rate in children 
Source: Euro Surveill - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gadroen K, Kemmeren JM, Bruijning-Verhagen PC, Straus SM, Weibel D, de Melker HE, Sturkenboom MC Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Third Director of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control takes office.
PMID: 28662765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Clinical and laboratory evidence of Haff disease - case series from an outbreak in Salvador, Brazil, December 2016 to April 2017.
We describe a series of 15 Haff disease cases from an outbreak in Salvador, Brazil, starting early December 2016. Eleven cases were grouped in four family clusters of two to four individuals, four were isolated cases. All but one patient consumed cooked fish; 11 within 24h before symptoms onset. Cases consumed 'Olho de Boi' (Seriola spp.) and 'Badejo' (Mycteroperca spp.). A total of 67 cases were detected, the last case was reported on 5 April 2017. PMID: 28661391 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 15, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bandeira AC, Campos GS, Ribeiro GS, Cardoso CW, Bastos CJ, Pessoa TL, Araujo KA, Grassi MFR, Castro AP, Carvalho RH, Prates APPB, Gois LL, Rocha VF, Sardi SI Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Botulism in Italy, 1986 to 2015.
Abstract Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In Italy, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours. From 1986 to 2015, 466 confirmed cases of botulism were recorded in Italy (of 1,2...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 15, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anniballi F, Auricchio B, Fiore A, Lonati D, Locatelli CA, Lista F, Fillo S, Mandarino G, De Medici D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH) as a tool to detect maritime traffic-related health risks: analysis of MDH forms submitted to Spanish ports, October 2014 to March 2015.
J, Bermejo A, Aramburu C, Dávila M, Carreras F, Neipp R, Mariscal A Abstract The international maritime traffic of people and goods has often contributed to the spread of pathogens affecting public health. The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH), according to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), is a document containing data related to the state of health on board a ship during passage and on arrival at port. It is a useful tool for early detection of public health risks. The main objective of our study was to evaluate compliance with the model provided in the IHR, focusing on the format and ...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 15, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: López-Gigosos RM, Segura M, Díez-Díaz RM, Ureña I, Urzay D, Guillot P, Guerra-Neira A, Rivera A, Pérez-Cobaleda Á, Martín A, Nuñez-Torrón M, Alvarez B, Faraco M, Barrera JM, Calvo MJ, Gallegos J, Bermejo A, Aramburu C, Dávila M, Carreras F, Neip Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) for food-borne pathogen surveillance and control - taking the pulse.
PMID: 28661389 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moran-Gilad J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007-2008 and 2014.
Abstract A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers' knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data fo...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moro ML, Morsillo F, Nascetti S, Parenti M, Allegranzi B, Pompa MG, Pittet D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Measles outbreak after 12 years without endemic transmission, Portugal, February to May 2017.
We report a measles outbreak in two Portuguese health regions (Algarve and Lisbon and the Tagus Valley) since February 2017, and which by 31 May resulted in 28 confirmed cases, of which 16 were unvaccinated. Thirteen cases were healthcare workers. One unvaccinated teenager died. Genotype B3 was identified in 14 cases from both regions. This outbreak occurs after 12 years without endemic measles transmission, and in a context of high measles vaccination coverage and immunity. PMID: 28661392 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: George F, Valente J, Augusto GF, Silva AJ, Pereira N, Fernandes T, Palminha P, Aguiar BA, Martins A, Santos E, Valente P, Calé E, Leça A, Nogueira PJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Necrotising fasciitis as atypical presentation of infection with emerging Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11, the Netherlands, March 2017.
Abstract In March 2017, a patient with necrotising fasciitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11 was diagnosed in the Netherlands. Unusual and severe presentations of MenW infections are common in the current European epidemic. In the Netherlands, the incidence of MenW infections increased 10-fold, from an average of 0.03 per 100,000 population in 2002-2014 to 0.29 in 2016. Awareness of atypical presentations enables timely adequate treatment and public health action. PMID: 28661395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Russcher A, Fanoy E, van Olden GDJ, Graafland AD, van der Ende A, Knol MJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.
Abstract PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The PulseNet International vision is the standardised use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify and subtype food-borne bacterial pathogens worldwide, replacing traditional methods to strengthen preparedness and response, reduce global social and economic disease burden, and save lives. To meet the needs of real...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nadon C, Van Walle I, Gerner-Smidt P, Campos J, Chinen I, Concepcion-Acevedo J, Gilpin B, Smith AM, Man Kam K, Perez E, Trees E, Kubota K, Takkinen J, Nielsen EM, Carleton H, FWD-NEXT Expert Panel Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Investigation of a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis in a school canteen revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V not detected by standard PCR, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2016.
n P Abstract A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hergens MP, Nederby Öhd J, Alm E, Askling HH, Helgesson S, Insulander M, Lagerqvist N, Svenungsson B, Tihane M, Tolfvenstam T, Follin P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A case-control study to assess the effectiveness of pertussis vaccination during pregnancy on newborns, Valencian community, Spain, 1 March 2015 to 29 February 2016.
The objective of this study was to estimate in this region the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in protecting newborns against laboratory-confirmed pertussis infection. A matched case-control study was undertaken in the period between 1 March 2015 and 29 February 2016. Twenty-two cases and 66 controls (+/- 15 days of age difference) were included in the study. Cases were non-vaccinated infants 
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bellido-Blasco J, Guiral-Rodrigo S, Míguez-Santiyán A, Salazar-Cifre A, González-Morán F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Response to a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2)-shedding event following accidental exposure to WPV2, the Netherlands, April 2017.
Abstract On 3 April 2017, a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) spill occurred in a Dutch vaccine manufacturing plant. Two fully vaccinated operators with risk of exposure were advised on stringent personal hygiene and were monitored for virus shedding. Poliovirus (WPV2-MEF1) was detected in the stool of one, 4 days after exposure, later also in sewage samples. The operator was isolated at home and followed up until shedding stopped 29 days after exposure. No further transmission was detected. PMID: 28597830 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Duizer E, Ruijs WL, van der Weijden CP, Timen A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Ongoing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) outbreak caused by sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, Germany, December 2016 to May 2017.
We report an ongoing, protracted and geographically dispersed outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and gastroenteritis in Germany, involving 30 cases since December 2016. The outbreak was caused by the sorbitol-fermenting immotile variant of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) Escherichia coli O157. Molecular typing revealed close relatedness between isolates from 14 cases. One HUS patient died. Results of a case-control study suggest packaged minced meat as the most likely food vehicle. Food safety investigations are ongoing. PMID: 28597831 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vygen-Bonnet S, Rosner B, Wilking H, Fruth A, Prager R, Kossow A, Lang C, Simon S, Seidel J, Faber M, Schielke A, Michaelis K, Holzer A, Kamphausen R, Kalhöfer D, Thole S, Mellmann A, Flieger A, Stark K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Development and validation of the HCV-MOSAIC risk score to assist testing for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM).
group Abstract Current guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with ongoing risk behaviour, without specifying the type of risk behaviour. We developed and validated the HCV-MOSAIC risk score to assist HCV testing in HIV-infected MSM. The risk score consisted of six self-reported risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression using data from the Dutch MOSAIC study (n = 213, 2009-2013). Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, post-test-probability-of-disease and diagnostic gain were calculated. The risk sc...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Newsum AM, Stolte IG, van der Meer JT, Schinkel J, van der Valk M, Vanhommerig JW, Buvé A, Danta M, Hogewoning A, Prins M, MOSAIC (MSM Observational Study of Acute Infection with hepatitis C) study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) in England and Wales, 2004 to 2013: testing and diagnoses.
Abstract Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection has been under enhanced surveillance in England and Wales since 2002, however, little is known about testing patterns. Using data from two surveillance systems held at Public Health England, we described HTLV antibody testing patterns between 2008 and 2013 and the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons diagnosed with HTLV in England and Wales between 2004 and 2013. An increase in HTLV testing was observed in England between 2008 and 2013 (3,581 to 7,130). Most tests (82%; 7,597/9,302) occurred within secondary care, 0.5% (48/9,302) of persons were r...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 18, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ireland G, Croxford S, Tosswill J, Raghu R, Davison K, Hewitt P, Simmons R, Taylor G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Allergic adverse events following 2015 seasonal influenza vaccine, Victoria, Australia.
We describe SAEFVIC's initial investigation and upon conclusion of the 2015 influenza vaccination programme, to define the signal event and implications for vaccine programmes. Allergy-related AEFI were defined as anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria or generalised allergic reaction. Investigations compared 2015 TIV AEFI reports to previous years as proportions and reporting risk (RR) per 100,000, stratified by influenza vaccine brand. The initial investigation showed an increased proportion of allergy-related AEFI compared with 2014 (25% vs 12%), predominantly in adults, with insufficient clinical severity to alter the prog...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 18, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clothier HJ, Crawford N, Russell MA, Buttery JP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Travel-associated gonorrhoea in four Nordic countries, 2008  to 2013.
The objective of this study was to estimate the risk for gonorrhoea among travellers from four Nordic European countries using surveillance data and to identify at-risk travellers to help target interventions. We retrieved gonorrhoea surveillance data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and tourism denominator data from the Statistical Office of the European Union. A travel-associated case of gonorrhoea was defined as one for which the reported country of infection differed from the reporting country. During 2008-2013, the four countries reported 3,224 travel-associated gonorrhoea cases, of which 53% were among indivi...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 18, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Beauté J, Cowan S, Hiltunen-Back E, Kløvstad H, Velicko I, Spiteri G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Biological characterisation of the emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9) viruses in humans, in mainland China, 2016 to 2017.
Abstract With no or low virulence in poultry, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused severe infections in humans. In the current fifth epidemic wave, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged. The insertion of four amino acids (KRTA) at the haemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site enabled trypsin-independent infectivity of this virus. Although maintaining dual receptor-binding preference, its HA antigenicity was distinct from low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9). The neuraminidase substitution R292K conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype. PMID: 28537546 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhu W, Zhou J, Li Z, Yang L, Li X, Huang W, Zou S, Chen W, Wei H, Tang J, Liu L, Dong J, Wang D, Shu Y Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increasing proportion of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and emergence of a MCR-1 producer through a multicentric study among hospital-based and private laboratories in Belgium from September to November 2015.
Abstract Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) strains have been increasingly reported in Belgium. We aimed to determine the proportion of CPE among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalised patients and community outpatients in Belgium in 2015. For the hospitalised patients, the results were compared to a previous similar survey performed in the same hospitals in 2012. Twenty-four hospital-based and 10 private laboratories collected prospectively 200 non-duplicated Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens. All isolates were screened locally by carbapenem disk diffusion using European Com...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huang TD, Bogaerts P, Berhin C, Hoebeke M, Bauraing C, Glupczynski Y, a multicentre study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(11).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2017;22(11). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Household transmission of invasive group A Streptococcus infections in England: a population-based study, 2009, 2011 to 2013.
Abstract Invasive group A streptococcal infection has a 15% case fatality rate and a risk of secondary transmission. This retrospective study used two national data sources from England; enhanced surveillance (2009) and a case management system (2011-2013) to identify clusters of severe group A streptococcal disease. Twenty-four household pairs were identified. The median onset interval between cases was 2 days (range 0-28) with simultaneous onset in eight pairs. The attack rate during the 30 days after first exposure to a primary case was 4,520 per 100,000 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 2,900...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mearkle R, Saavedra-Campos M, Lamagni T, Usdin M, Coelho J, Chalker V, Sriskandan S, Cordery R, Rawlings C, Balasegaram S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Two consecutive large outbreaks of Salmonella Muenchen linked to pig farming in Germany, 2013 to 2014: Is something missing in our regulatory framework?
Abstract In 2013, raw pork was the suspected vehicle of a large outbreak (n = 203 cases) of Salmonella Muenchen in the German federal state of Saxony. In 2014, we investigated an outbreak (n = 247 cases) caused by the same serovar affecting Saxony and three further federal states in the eastern part of Germany. Evidence from epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations strongly implicated different raw pork products as outbreak vehicles. Trace-back analysis of S. Muenchen-contaminated raw pork sausages narrowed the possible source down to 54 pig farms, and S. Muenchen ...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schielke A, Rabsch W, Prager R, Simon S, Fruth A, Helling R, Schnabel M, Siffczyk C, Wieczorek S, Schroeder S, Ahrens B, Oppermann H, Pfeiffer S, Merbecks SS, Rosner B, Frank C, Weiser AA, Luber P, Gilsdorf A, Stark K, Werber D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Passive enhanced safety surveillance for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg in the United Kingdom and Finland during the northern hemisphere influenza season 2015/16.
Passive enhanced safety surveillance for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg in the United Kingdom and Finland during the northern hemisphere influenza season 2015/16. Euro Surveill. 2017 May 04;22(18): Authors: Bricout H, Chabanon AL, Souverain A, Sadorge C, Vesikari T, Caroe TD Abstract Enhanced safety surveillance (ESS) was conducted in the United Kingdom and Finland for Vaxigrip and Intanza 15 µg to comply with the European Medicines Agency interim guidance aimed to detect any potential increase in reactogenicity in near real time following the annual update of the influenza vaccine strain comp...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bricout H, Chabanon AL, Souverain A, Sadorge C, Vesikari T, Caroe TD Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

West Nile virus surveillance in Europe: moving towards an integrated animal-human-vector approach.
This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance a...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gossner CM, Marrama L, Carson M, Allerberger F, Calistri P, Dilaveris D, Lecollinet S, Morgan D, Nowotny N, Paty MC, Pervanidou D, Rizzo C, Roberts H, Schmoll F, Van Bortel W, Gervelmeyer A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Monitoring influenza virus susceptibility to oseltamivir using a new rapid assay, iART.
Abstract A new rapid assay for detecting oseltamivir resistance in influenza virus, iART, was used to test 149 clinical specimens. Results were obtained for 132, with iART indicating 41 as 'resistant'. For these, sequence analysis found known and suspected markers of oseltamivir resistance, while no such markers were detected for the remaining 91 samples. Viruses isolated from the 41 specimens showed reduced or highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibition assay. iART may facilitate broader antiviral resistance testing. PMID: 28494845 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gubareva LV, Fallows E, Mishin VP, Hodges E, Brooks A, Barnes J, Fry AM, Kramp W, Shively R, Wentworth DE, Weidemaier K, Jacobson R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Establishing and maintaining the National Vaccination Register in Finland.
This report describes the establishment and maintenance of the National Vaccination Register (NVR) in Finland. Currently, the NVR covers nationwide records of vaccinations given within the frame of the National Vaccination Programme since 2009. All vaccinations registered in the NVR contain a record of the personal identity code, the administered vaccine, and the date of vaccination. The vaccine lot number is the key component for recording and identifying vaccinations, because of its broad availability across patient information systems and its importance in vaccine safety monitoring. Vaccination records are accumulated a...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Baum U, Sundman J, Jääskeläinen S, Nohynek H, Puumalainen T, Jokinen J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015.
This study indicates a marked effect of personalised written reminders, highest for the vaccines given later in the schedule in the older cohort. In addition, the reminders increased awareness about correct registration of vaccinations in DDV. PMID: 28488995 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suppli CH, Rasmussen M, Valentiner-Branth P, Mølbak K, Krause TG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Assessing varicella vaccine effectiveness and its influencing factors using health insurance claims data, Germany, 2006 to 2015.
Abstract In Germany, routine childhood varicella vaccination was implemented in 2004 with two doses recommended since 2009. We used an immunisation information system based on countrywide health insurance claims data to analyse vaccine effectiveness (VE) and factors influencing VE. We applied proportional hazard models to estimate VE under various conditions and compared the risk of acquiring varicella among unvaccinated children in regions with high vs low vaccination coverage (VC). Among 1.4 million children we identified 29,404 varicella cases over a maximum follow-up of 8 years post-vaccination. One-dose VE wa...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rieck T, Feig M, An der Heiden M, Siedler A, Wichmann O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Registries: An essential tool for maximising the health benefits of immunisation in the 21st century.
PMID: 28488997 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Crowcroft NS, Levy-Bruhl D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research