Need for additional capacity and improved capability for molecular detection of yellow fever virus in European Expert Laboratories: External Quality Assessment, March 2018.
Abstract An external quality assessment of yellow fever virus (YFV) molecular detection in European laboratories was organised in rapid response to an increase in human cases in Brazil in 2018 with risk of import to Europe. Detection of YFV was assessed among 32 laboratories in 23/31 European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries and two laboratories in one non-EU/EEA country. Adequate capabilities were lacking in 10/23 countries; five did not participate as they lacked implemented assays. PMID: 30017021 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Domingo C, Ellerbrok H, Koopmans M, Nitsche A, Leitmeyer K, Charrel RN, Reusken CBEM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Community outbreak of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Beaujolais, France, February to June 2016: from alert to targeted vaccination.
Abstract In February and March 2016, four cases of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) occurred over 3 weeks in a small area north of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, France. There were no deaths but two cases had sequelae. This community outbreak was caused by a rare meningococcal strain of the clonal complex ST-32, covered by the 4CMenB/Bexsero vaccine. The incidence rate for serogroup B IMD in this area was 22.5 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is above the epidemic threshold (10/100,000). The number of cases observed was significantly higher than expected in the age group of 0-24 year-...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thabuis A, Tararbit K, Taha MK, Dejour-Salamanca D, Ronin V, Parent du Chatelet I, Spaccaferri G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Screening for infectious diseases in newly arrived migrants in Europe: the context matters.
PMID: 30017023 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Panagiotopoulos T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Challenging measles case definition: three measles outbreaks in three Health Regions of Portugal, February to April 2018.
We report three simultaneous measles outbreaks with 112 confirmed cases in three Health Regions of Portugal, from February to April 2018. The mean age of cases was 30 years, 79% worked in a healthcare setting and 87% were vaccinated. Genotype B3 was identified in 84 cases from the three outbreaks. Primary cases in each outbreak were imported. Several cases presented with modified measles, highlighting the importance of rethinking the measles case definition for vaccinated cases. PMID: 30017024 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Augusto GF, Cruz D, Silva A, Pereira N, Aguiar B, Leça A, Serrada E, Valente P, Fernandes T, Guerra F, Palminha P, Vinagre E, Lopo S, Cordeiro R, Sáez-López E, Neto M, Nogueira PJ, Freitas G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Two concurrent outbreaks of hepatitis A highlight the risk of infection for non-immune travellers to Morocco, January to June 2018.
r L Abstract From January to June 2018, two ongoing hepatitis A outbreaks affected travellers returning from Morocco and cases in Europe without travel history, resulting in 163 patients in eight European countries. Most interviewed travel-related cases were unaware of the hepatitis A risk in Morocco. Molecular analysis revealed two distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains (subgenotype IA DK2018_231; subgenotype IB V18-16428). Vaccination recommendations should be emphasised to increase awareness among non-immune travellers to Morocco and HAV-endemic countries. PMID: 29991381 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gassowski M, Michaelis K, Wenzel JJ, Faber M, Figoni J, Mouna L, Friesema IH, Vennema H, Avellon A, Varela C, Sundqvist L, Lundberg Ederth J, Plunkett J, Balogun K, Ngui SL, Midgley SE, Gillesberg Lassen S, Müller L Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Applying incidence-based disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) disease burden estimates to foster change in national vaccination policy, Slovenia, 2017 to 2018.
PMID: 29991382 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fafangel M, Grgič Vitek M, Klavs I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Gonorrhoea treatment failure caused by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with combined ceftriaxone and high-level azithromycin resistance, England, February 2018.
We describe a gonorrhoea case with combined high-level azithromycin resistance and ceftriaxone resistance. In February 2018, a heterosexual male was diagnosed with gonorrhoea in the United Kingdom following sexual intercourse with a locally resident female in Thailand and failed treatment with ceftriaxone plus doxycycline and subsequently spectinomycin. Resistance arose from two mechanisms combining for the first time in a genetic background similar to a commonly circulating strain. Urgent action is essential to prevent further spread. PMID: 29991383 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eyre DW, Sanderson ND, Lord E, Regisford-Reimmer N, Chau K, Barker L, Morgan M, Newnham R, Golparian D, Unemo M, Crook DW, Peto TE, Hughes G, Cole MJ, Fifer H, Edwards A, Andersson MI Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Sharing more than friendship - transmission of NDM-5 ST167 and CTX-M-9 ST69 Escherichia coli between dogs and humans in a family, Finland, 2015.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, canine clinical NDM-5 E. coli in Europe, and confirmed CPE transmission between dogs and humans have not been previously reported. The screening of veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates for carbapenem resistance is highly recommended. PMID: 29991384 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Grönthal T, Österblad M, Eklund M, Jalava J, Nykäsenoja S, Pekkanen K, Rantala M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Use of an ingredient-based analysis to investigate a national outbreak of Escherichia coli O157, United Kingdom, July 2016.
Abstract Public Health England was alerted to a national outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 PT34 in July 2016. Early investigations suggested that the likely source was a salad item consumed outside of the home. A number of cases reported consuming meals at a staff canteen (Venue A) and a garden café (Venue B). Both venues shared a common salad supplier. An investigation was undertaken to measure associations between salad items and illness using an 'ingredient-based analysis'. A retrospective case-control study was conducted using an online questionnaire to collect information on menu ...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gardiner D, Gobin M, Verlander NQ, Oliver I, Hawker J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from recent issues.
PMID: 29970218 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal patterns of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 spread, France, 2016 to 2017.
Conclusion: HPAI-H5N8 infections varied over time and space in France. Intense transmission events occurred at the early stages of the epidemic, followed by long-range jumps in the disease spread towards its end. Findings support strict control strategies in poultry production as well as the maintenance of high biosecurity standards for poultry holdings. Factors and mechanisms driving HPAI spread need to be further investigated. PMID: 29970219 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guinat C, Nicolas G, Vergne T, Bronner A, Durand B, Courcoul A, Gilbert M, Guérin JL, Paul MC Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The potential value of crowdsourced surveillance systems in supplementing sentinel influenza networks: the case of France.
Conclusion: Evaluation of the epidemic intensity from crowdsourced data requires epidemic and intensity threshold estimations from several consecutive seasons. The study provides a standardised analytical framework for crowdsourced surveillance showing high sensitivity in detecting influenza-related changes in the population. It contributes to improve the comparability of epidemics across seasons and with sentinel systems. In France, GrippeNet.fr may supplement the ILI sentinel network after ARI surveillance discontinuation in 2014. PMID: 29945696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Souty C, Poletto C, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Bonmarin I, Levy-Bruhl D, Colizza V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Resurgence risk for measles, mumps and rubella in France in 2018 and 2020.
Conclusions: The high risk for teenagers and young adults is of concern in view of their vulnerability to more severe measles, mumps and rubella disease and complications. PMID: 29945697 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Béraud G, Abrams S, Beutels P, Dervaux B, Hens N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Uptake and impact of vaccinating primary school-age children against influenza: experiences of a live attenuated influenza vaccine programme, England, 2015/16.
Abstract The 2015/16 influenza season was the third season of the introduction of an intra-nasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for children in England. All children aged 2‒6 years were offered LAIV, and in addition, a series of geographically discrete areas piloted vaccinating school-age children 7‒11 years old. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the dominant circulating strain during 2015/16 followed by influenza B. We measured influenza vaccine uptake and the overall and indirect effect of vaccinating children of primary school -age, by comparing cumulative disease incidence in targeted and...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody RG, Sinnathamby MA, Warburton F, Andrews N, Boddington NL, Zhao H, Yonova I, Ellis J, Tessier E, Donati M, Elliot AJ, Hughes HE, Pathirannehelage S, Byford R, Smith GE, de Lusignan S, Zambon M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Reducing demand for antibiotic prescriptions: evidence from an online survey of the general public on the interaction between preferences, beliefs and information, United Kingdom, 2015.
This study aimed to investigate what drives patient expectations of antibiotics for ILI and particularly whether AMR awareness, risk preferences (attitudes to taking risks with health) or time preferences (the extent to which people prioritise good health today over good health in the future) play a role. METHODS: In 2015, a representative online panel survey of 2,064 adults in the United Kingdom was asked about antibiotic use and effectiveness for ILI. Explanatory variables in multivariable regression included AMR awareness, risk and time preferences and covariates. RESULTS: The tendency not to prioritise immedi...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Roope LSJ, Tonkin-Crine S, Butler CC, Crook D, Peto T, Peters M, Walker AS, Wordsworth S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Transmission potential of modified measles during an outbreak, Japan, March ‒May 2018.
Transmission potential of modified measles during an outbreak, Japan, March‒May 2018. Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(24): Authors: Mizumoto K, Kobayashi T, Chowell G Abstract A recent outbreak of measles in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan ended with 33 measles cases whose symptoms were masked because of insufficient protection against the disease (modified measles). Using quantitative modelling, we determined the transmission potential of measles by clinical presentation (classic vs modified measles). We found low ascertainment probabilities among modified measles cases, indicating that intensified public hea...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mizumoto K, Kobayashi T, Chowell G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increased risk for autochthonous vector-borne infections transmitted by Aedes albopictus in continental Europe.
Abstract Autochthonous outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue during the past decade showed that continental Europe is vulnerable to Aedes albopictus-borne infections. Ae. albopictus has spread geographically, resulting in more people exposed to risk. Timely application of adequate mosquito suppression measures may delay, or even prevent, the vector population from crossing the potential epidemic abundance threshold should a pathogen be introduced. Health authorities should be on alert to detect early cases to prevent autochthonous outbreaks. PMID: 29921345 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gossner CM, Ducheyne E, Schaffner F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Analysis of consumer food purchase data used for outbreak investigations, a review.
Conclusions: Several of the outbreaks were unlikely to have been solved without the use of consumer purchase datasets. The method is potentially powerful and with future improved access to big data purchase information, may become a widely applicable tool for outbreak investigations, enabling investigators to quickly find hypotheses and at the same time estimate odds ratios or relative risks hereof. We suggest using the term 'consumer purchase data' to refer to the approach in the future. PMID: 29921346 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Møller FT, Mølbak K, Ethelberg S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Potential adjustment methodology for missing data and reporting delay in the HIV Surveillance System, European Union/European Economic Area, 2015.
Abstract Accurate case-based surveillance data remain the key data source for estimating HIV burden and monitoring prevention efforts in Europe. We carried out a literature review and exploratory analysis of surveillance data regarding two crucial issues affecting European surveillance for HIV: missing data and reporting delay. Initial screening showed substantial variability of these data issues, both in time and across countries. In terms of missing data, the CD4+ cell count is the most problematic variable because of the high proportion of missing values. In 20 of 31 countries of the European Union/European Eco...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosinska M, Pantazis N, Janiec J, Pharris A, Amato-Gauci AJ, Quinten C, Ecdc Hiv/Aids Surveillance Network Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Spillover of a hepatitis A outbreak among men who have sex with men (MSM) to the general population, the Netherlands, 2017.
Abstract Since 2015, outbreaks of hepatitis A among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide. To examine the impact of these MSM outbreaks in the Netherlands, we combined notification and epidemiological data with sequence analysis. Our results show the hazards of outbreaks within risk-groups spilling over into the largely susceptible general population. One third of the outbreak-related hepatitis A virus genotypes were detected in non-MSM cases. PMID: 29897040 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Friesema IH, Sonder GJ, Petrignani MW, Meiberg AE, van Rijckevorsel GG, Ruijs WL, Vennema H Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Persistence of an outbreak of gonorrhoea with high-level resistance to azithromycin in England, November 2014 ‒May 2018.
Persistence of an outbreak of gonorrhoea with high-level resistance to azithromycin in England, November 2014‒May 2018. Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(23): Authors: Smolarchuk C, Wensley A, Padfield S, Fifer H, Lee A, Hughes G Abstract Between November 2014 and May 2018, 118 laboratory-confirmed cases of high-level azithromycin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae were identified in England. Cases emerged among heterosexuals in Leeds but spread across England and into sexual networks of men who have sex with men as the outbreak progressed. The few epidemiological links identified indicate substantial under-d...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smolarchuk C, Wensley A, Padfield S, Fifer H, Lee A, Hughes G Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Dengue serosurvey after a 2-month long outbreak in N îmes, France, 2015: was there more than met the eye?
Conclusion: This serosurvey confirms the potential for arboviral diseases to cause outbreaks - albeit limited for now - in France and Europe. PMID: 29897042 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Succo T, Noël H, Nikolay B, Maquart M, Cochet A, Leparc-Goffart I, Catelinois O, Salje H, Pelat C, de Crouy-Chanel P, de Valk H, Cauchemez S, Rousseau C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(21).
PMID: 29871717 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
PMID: 29871718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(20).
PMID: 29871719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Travel-associated hepatitis A in Europe, 2009 to 2015.
The objective of this study was to estimate the risk for hepatitis A among European travellers using surveillance and travel denominator data. Methods: We retrieved hepatitis A surveillance data from 13 European Union (EU)/ European Economic Area (EEA) countries with comprehensive surveillance systems and travel denominator data from the Statistical Office of the European Union. A travel-associated case of hepatitis A was defined as any case reported as imported. Results: From 2009 to 2015, the 13 countries reported 18,839 confirmed cases of hepatitis A, of which 5,233 (27.8%) were travel-associated. Of these...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Beauté J, Westrell T, Schmid D, Müller L, Epstein J, Kontio M, Couturier E, Faber M, Mellou K, Borg ML, Friesema I, Vold L, Severi E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Introduction of new and reinforcement of existing compulsory vaccinations in Italy: first evaluation of the impact on vaccination coverage in 2017.
Abstract In June 2017, a decree-law to increase the number of mandatory vaccinations from 4 to 10 for minors up to 16-years-old was issued in Italy. The vaccination coverage for 2017 showed a positive impact for all the vaccines, particularly for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine at 91.6% for the year 2017, showing a 4.4% increase compared with 2016 (87.2%). Continued monitoring is needed to evaluate the medium to long-term effects of the law. PMID: 29871721 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: D'Ancona F, D'Amario C, Maraglino F, Rezza G, Ricciardi W, Iannazzo S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Vector competence of Aedes albopictus for the Indian Ocean lineage (IOL) chikungunya viruses of the 2007 and 2017 outbreaks in Italy: a comparison between strains with and without the E1:A226V mutation.
Abstract We compared the vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for two strains of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), with and without E1:A226V mutation, responsible for outbreaks in 2007 in the Emilia Romagna region and 2017 in the Lazio and Calabria regions, respectively. Ae. albopictus showed similar vector competence for both viral strains indicating that E1:A226V mutation is not exclusively responsible for ability of CHIKV to replicate well in this mosquito species. PMID: 29871722 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fortuna C, Toma L, Remoli ME, Amendola A, Severini F, Boccolini D, Romi R, Venturi G, Rezza G, Di Luca M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis A: an epidemiological survey in blood donors, France 2015 to 2017.
Abstract Since mid-2016, hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks, involving predominantly men who have sex with men (MSM), have affected countries in Europe and overseas. In France, HAV screening of blood donations in 2017 revealed a HAV-RNA prevalence ca fivefold higher than during 2015-16 (4.42/106 vs 0.86/106; p = 0.0005). In 2017, despite a higher male-to-female ratio (5.5 vs 0.7) and the identification of MSM-associated outbreak strains, only one of 11 infected male donors self-reported being a MSM. PMID: 29845926 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gallian P, Barlet V, Mouna L, Gross S, Lecam S, Ricard C, Wind F, Pouchol E, Fabra C, Flan B, Visse C, Djoudi R, Couturier E, de Valk H, Tiberghien P, Roque-Afonso AM Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Yellow fever in two unvaccinated French tourists to Brazil, January and March, 2018.
We report two yellow fever cases in unvaccinated French travellers in Brazil in January and March 2018, respectively; one exposed during an excursion in Minas Gerais and the other in Ilha Grande. Both presented with fever, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Yellow fever diagnosis was based on RT-PCR and serological tests. Both patients recovered within a few days. The increasing occurrence of cases in unvaccinated travellers highlights the need to reinforce vaccination recommendation for travellers at-risk. PMID: 29845927 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliosi E, Serero Corcos C, Barroso PF, Bleibtreu A, Grard G, De Filippis BAM, Caumes E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae failing treatment with ceftriaxone and doxycycline in France, November 2017.
We report a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae urogenital and pharyngeal infection with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate resistance to azithromycin in a heterosexual woman in her 20s in France. Treatment with ceftriaxone plus doxycycline failed for the pharyngeal localisation. Whole-genome sequencing of isolate F90 identified MLST1903, NG-MAST ST3435, NG-STAR233, and relevant resistance determinants. F90 showed phenotypic and genotypic similarities to an internationally spreading multidrug-resistant and ceftriaxone-resistant clone detected in Japan and subsequently in Australia, Canada and Denmark. PMID:...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poncin T, Fouere S, Braille A, Camelena F, Agsous M, Bebear C, Kumanski S, Lot F, Mercier-Delarue S, Ngangro NN, Salmona M, Schnepf N, Timsit J, Unemo M, Bercot B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Process and outcome indicators for infection control and prevention in European acute care hospitals in 2011 to 2012 - Results of the PROHIBIT study.
Discussion/conclusion: Objectives and methods of surveillance vary across Europe, with BSI, SSI and MRSA receiving considerably more attention than indicators such as pneumonia and urinary tract infection, which may be equally important. In order to maximise prevention and control of HCAI and MDRO in Europe, surveillance should be further improved by targeting relevant HCAI. The role of feedback should be explored in more detail. PMID: 29845929 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hansen S, Schwab F, Zingg W, Gastmeier P, The Prohibit Study Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Increasing macrolide resistance among Streptococcus agalactiae causing invasive disease in non-pregnant adults was driven by a single capsular-transformed lineage, Portugal, 2009 to 2015.
tions Abstract We characterised Lancefield group B streptococcal (GBS) isolates causing invasive disease among non-pregnant adults in Portugal between 2009 and 2015. All isolates (n = 555) were serotyped, assigned to clonal complexes (CCs) by multilocus sequence typing and characterised by surface protein and pilus island gene profiling. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion and resistance genotypes identified by PCR. Overall, serotype Ia was most frequent in the population (31%), followed by serotypes Ib (24%) and V (18%). Serotype Ib increased significantly throughout the study period (p 
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lopes E, Fernandes T, Machado MP, Carriço JA, Melo-Cristino J, Ramirez M, Martins ER, The Portuguese Group For The Study Of Streptococcal Infections Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Persistent disparities in antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and virological suppression across Europe, 2004 to 2015.
e EuroSIDA Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: Direct comparisons between countries in core HIV care parameters are often hampered by differences in data collection. AIM: Within the EuroSIDA study, we compared levels of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and virological suppression (HIV RNA 
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Laut K, Shepherd L, Radoi R, Karpov I, Parczewski M, Mussini C, Maltez F, Losso M, Chkhartishvili N, Elinav H, Kovari H, Blaxhult A, Zangerle R, Trofimova T, Inglot M, Zilmer K, Kuzovatova E, Staub T, Raben D, Lundgren J, Mocroft A, Kirk O, On Behalf Of T Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Establishment of the European meningococcal strain collection genome library (EMSC-GL) for the 2011 to 2012 epidemiological year.
agi M, Maiden MC, Caugant DA Abstract Invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Europe combines isolate characterisation and epidemiological data to support public health intervention. A representative European Meningococcal Strain Collection (EMSC) of IMD isolates was obtained, and whole genome sequenced to characterise 799 EMSC isolates from the epidemiological year July 2011-June 2012. To establish a genome library (GL), the isolate information was deposited in the pubMLST.org/neisseria database. Genomes were curated and annotated at 2,429 meningococcal loci, including those defining clonal complex, capsul...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bratcher HB, Brehony C, Heuberger S, Pieridou-Bagatzouni D, Křížová P, Hoffmann S, Toropainen M, Taha MK, Claus H, Tzanakaki G, Erdôsi T, Galajeva J, van der Ende A, Skoczyńska A, Pana M, Vaculíková A, Paragi M, Maiden MC, Caugant DA Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Measles outbreak in a tertiary level hospital, Porto, Portugal, 2018: challenges in the post-elimination era.
nes D Abstract A measles outbreak has been occurring in a healthcare setting in Porto, Portugal, since early March 2018, posing public health challenges for a central hospital and the community. Up to 22 April, 96 cases were confirmed, 67 in vaccinated healthcare workers, mostly between 18-39 years old. Following identification of the first cases, control measures were rapidly implemented. Concomitantly, other measles cases were notified in the Northern Region of the country. No common epidemiological link was identified. PMID: 29790461 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sá Machado R, Perez Duque M, Almeida S, Cruz I, Sottomayor A, Almeida I, R Oliveira J, Antunes D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Negligible import of enteric pathogens by newly-arrived asylum seekers and no impact on incidence of notified Salmonella and Shigella infections and outbreaks in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, January 2015 to May 2016.
Conclusion: Public health risk associated with imported enteric pathogens is very low overall. Addressing individual and public health risks, we recommend replacing stool screening of all newly-arrived asylum seekers by a targeted approach, with target groups and approaches being adapted if necessary. Target groups supported by our data are children, adolescents, and Eritreans. PMID: 29790462 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ehlkes L, George M, Knautz D, Burckhardt F, Jahn K, Vogt M, Zanger P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Status, quality and specific needs of Ebola virus diagnostic capacity and capability in laboratories of the two European preparedness laboratory networks EMERGE and EVD-LabNet.
s M Abstract From December 2013 to March 2016, West Africa experienced the largest Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak to date, leading to a European-wide activation of laboratory preparedness and response. At the end of the outbreak, laboratories associated with the two European preparedness networks of expert laboratories EMERGE JA and EVD-LabNet were invited to participate in an assessment of the response of European laboratories to the EBOV outbreak, to identify learning points and training needs to strengthen future outbreak responses. Response aspects assessed included diagnostics, biorisk management and quality ass...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reusken CB, Mögling R, Smit PW, Grunow R, Ippolito G, Di Caro A, Koopmans M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Rubella infection in pregnancy and congenital rubella in United Kingdom, 2003 to 2016.
Abstract Rubella vaccination has been included in the United Kingdom's (UK) routine childhood schedule for nearly 30 years. The UK achieved World Health Organization (WHO) elimination status in 2016 and acute rubella infections are rare. In the period 2003-16, 31 rubella infections in pregnancy (0.23 per 100,000 pregnancies) were identified through routine surveillance, of which 26 were in women who were born abroad. Five of the 31 rubella infections led to congenital rubella syndrome in the infant and three had confirmed congenital rubella infection without congenital rubella syndrome. An additional seven babies ...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bukasa A, Campbell H, Brown K, Bedford H, Ramsay M, Amirthalingam G, Tookey P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Case-control study on risk factors for acute hepatitis E in Germany, 2012 to 2014.
The objective of this case-control study was to assess risk factors for autochthonous symptomatic hepatitis E and explore reasons for delays in diagnosis. Methods: Demographic, clinical and exposure data from notified hepatitis E cases and individually matched population controls were collected in semi-standardised telephone interviews. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate matched odds ratios (mOR) and population attributable fractions (PAF). Results: In total, 270 cases and 1,159 controls were included (mean age 53 years, 61% men in both groups). Associated with disease were: consumption of under...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Faber M, Askar M, Stark K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

National outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 linked to mixed salad leaves, United Kingdom, 2016.
Abstract We investigated a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 in the United Kingdom (UK) with 165 cases between 31 May and 29 July 2016. No linked cases were reported in other countries. Cases were predominately female (n = 128) and adult (n = 150), 66 attended hospital and nine had features of haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome. A series of epidemiological studies (case-control, case-case, ingredients-based and venue-based studies) and supply chain investigations implicated mixed salad leaves from Supplier A as the likely outbreak vehicle. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) indicated a link with strains from t...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gobin M, Hawker J, Cleary P, Inns T, Gardiner D, Mikhail A, McCormick J, Elson R, Ready D, Dallman T, Roddick I, Hall I, Willis C, Crook P, Godbole G, Tubin-Delic D, Oliver I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Preventing sepsis in healthcare - 200 years after the birth of Ignaz Semmelweis.
PMID: 29741152 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pittet D, Allegranzi B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prolonged detection of dengue virus RNA in the semen of a man returning from Thailand to Italy, January 2018.
This study reports the presence of dengue virus RNA in longitudinally collected semen samples of a previously healthy Caucasian man, returning to Italy from Thailand with primary dengue fever, up to 37 days post-symptom onset, when viraemia and viruria were undetectable. This finding, coupled with the evidence of dengue virus negative-strand RNA, an indirect marker of ongoing viral replication, in the cellular fraction of semen, indicates a need to further investigate possible sexual transmission. PMID: 29741153 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lalle E, Colavita F, Iannetta M, Gebremeskel Teklè S, Carletti F, Scorzolini L, Bordi L, Vincenti D, Castilletti C, Ippolito G, Capobianchi MR, Nicastri E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Novel application of the matched case-control design to compare food supply chains during an Escherichia coli O157 outbreak, United Kingdom, 2016.
Abstract There is a need for innovative methods to investigate outbreaks of food-borne infection linked to produce with a complex distribution network. The investigation of a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 PT34 infection in the United Kingdom in 2016 indicated that catering venues associated with multiple cases had used salad leaves sourced from one supplier. Our aim was to investigate whether catering venues linked to cases were more likely to have used salad leaves from this supplier. We conducted a matched case-control study, with catering venues as the units of analysis. We compared venues linked to c...
Source: Euro Surveill - May 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Inns T, Cleary P, Bundle N, Foulkes S, Sharp A, Utsi L, McBrien C, Teagle R, Waldram A, Williams C, McCann C, Smith R, Saleh S, McCarthy N, Vivancos R, Hawker J, Decraene V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Vaccine hesitancy in the French population in 2016, and its association with vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine risk-benefit balance.
Conclusion: Further research is needed to study the association between VH and vaccine uptake for other vaccines, and to design and validate measurement tools to monitor VH over time. PMID: 29717693 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rey D, Fressard L, Cortaredona S, Bocquier A, Gautier A, Peretti-Watel P, Verger P, On Behalf Of The Baromètre Santé Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Vaccines, trust and European public health.
te; X PMID: 29717694 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ammon A, Prats Monné X Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A modified chain binomial model to analyse the ongoing measles epidemic in Greece, July 2017 to February 2018.
Abstract Greece is currently experiencing a large measles outbreak, in the context of multiple similar outbreaks across Europe. We devised and applied a modified chain-binomial epidemic model, requiring very simple data, to estimate the transmission parameters of this outbreak. Model results indicate sustained measles transmission among the Greek Roma population, necessitating a targeted mass vaccination campaign to halt further spread of the epidemic. Our model may be useful for other countries facing similar measles outbreaks. PMID: 29717695 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lytras T, Georgakopoulou T, Tsiodras S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Extension of French vaccination mandates: from the recommendation of the Steering Committee of the Citizen Consultation on Vaccination to the law.
lon F Abstract On 4 December 2017, French parliamentarians passed a law extending the vaccination mandates for children up to 2 years of age from three vaccinations (against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis) to 11 by adding vaccinations against pertussis, Haemophilus influenza b (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal diseases, meningococcal C diseases, measles, mumps and rubella. This vote follows a recommendation made by the Steering Committee of the Citizen Consultation on Vaccination that took place in 2016. The law applies to all children born after 1 January 2018. Parents who do not fulfil the mandate will not...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lévy-Bruhl D, Desenclos JC, Quelet S, Bourdillon F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Adverse events following immunisation with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine: report from post-marketing surveillance, Germany, 2013 to 2016.
Conclusions: The safety profile described in the Summary of Product Characteristics, in general, is confirmed by data from spontaneous reporting. No safety concerns were identified. PMID: 29717697 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mentzer D, Oberle D, Keller-Stanislawski B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Life in vaccine science - a conversation with Stanley Plotkin at the 4th Conference on Vaccines in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 2017.
PMID: 29717698 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Musa S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research