VIRO-TypeNed, systematic molecular surveillance of enteroviruses in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2014.
Abstract VIRO-TypeNed is a collaborative molecular surveillance platform facilitated through a web-based database. Genetic data in combination with epidemiological, clinical and patient data are shared between clinical and public health laboratories, as part of the surveillance underpinning poliovirus eradication. We analysed the combination of data submitted from 2010 to 2014 to understand circulation patterns of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) of public health relevance. Two epidemiological patterns were observed based on VIRO-TypeNed data and classical surveillance data dating back to 1996: (i) endemic cyclic, c...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benschop KS, Rahamat-Langendoen JC, van der Avoort HG, Claas EC, Pas SD, Schuurman R, Verweij JJ, Wolthers KC, Niesters HG, Koopmans MP, VIRO-TypeNed Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: The first tick-borne encephalitis case in the Netherlands: reflections and a note of caution.
PMID: 27719753 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clement J, Lagrou K, Saegeman V, Maes P, van Ranst M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Expert committee declares WHO Region of the Americas measles-free.
PMID: 27719754 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

French Aedes albopictus are able to transmit yellow fever virus.
Abstract We assessed the ability of a French population of Aedes albopictus to transmit yellow fever virus (YFV). Batches of 30 to 40 female mosquitoes were analysed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-exposure (dpe). Bodies, heads and saliva were screened for YFV. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies and heads at 7, 14 and 21 dpe whereas the virus was found in saliva only from 14 dpe. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus can potentially transmit YFV. PMID: 27719755 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amraoui F, Vazeille M, Failloux AB Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

'European Antibiotics Awareness Day' wins 'European Health Award 2016' accolade.
PMID: 27719756 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(38).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(38). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Author's reply: The first tick-borne encephalitis case in the Netherlands: reflections and a note of caution.
PMID: 27719758 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hira V, de Graaf JA, Rockx B, authors of the original article Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Community-wide outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 in southern Italy, summer 2013.
Abstract In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae. No cases in adults were detec...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Germinario C, Caprioli A, Giordano M, Chironna M, Gallone MS, Tafuri S, Minelli F, Maugliani A, Michelacci V, Santangelo L, Mongelli O, Montagna C, Scavia G, all participants of the Outbreak investigation team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2015;20(45).
PMID: 27684287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a rubella outbreak, Romania, 2011 to 2012.
We describe a rubella outbreak that occurred in Romania between September 2011 and December 2012. During this period 24,627 rubella cases, 41.1% (n=10,134) of which female, were notified based on clinical criteria, and a total of 6,182 individuals were found serologically positive for IgM-specific rubella antibody. The median age of notified cases was 18 years (range:
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lazar M, Abernathy E, Chen MH, Icenogle J, Janta D, Stanescu A, Pistol A, Santibanez S, Mankertz A, Hübschen JM, Mihaescu G, Necula G, Lupulescu E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of the live attenuated and the inactivated influenza vaccine in two-year-olds - a nationwide cohort study Finland, influenza season 2015/16.
n J Abstract Although widely recommended, influenza vaccination of children is part of the national vaccination programme only in few countries. In addition to Canada and the United States (US), in Europe Finland and the United Kingdom have introduced live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children in their programmes. On 22 June 2016, the US Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices, voted against further use of LAIV due to no observed vaccine effectiveness (VE) over three consecutive influenza seasons (2013/14 to 2015/16). We summarise the results of a nationwide, register-based cohort study (N...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nohynek H, Baum U, Syrjänen R, Ikonen N, Sundman J, Jokinen J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

South-east Asian Zika virus strain linked to cluster of cases in Singapore, August 2016.
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is an ongoing global public health emergency with 70 countries and territories reporting evidence of ZIKV transmission since 2015. On 27 August 2016, Singapore reported its first case of local ZIKV transmission and identified an ongoing cluster. Here, we report the genome sequences of ZIKV strains from two cases and find through phylogenetic analysis that these strains form an earlier branch distinct from the recent large outbreak in the Americas. PMID: 27684526 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maurer-Stroh S, Mak TM, Ng YK, Phuah SP, Huber RG, Marzinek JK, Holdbrook DA, Lee RT, Cui L, Lin RT Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for adults and children in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 end-of-season results.
M Abstract The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.0-61.6) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultation, 54.5% (95% CI: 41.6-64.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 54.2% (95% C...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pebody R, Warburton F, Ellis J, Andrews N, Potts A, Cottrell S, Johnston J, Reynolds A, Gunson R, Thompson C, Galiano M, Robertson C, Byford R, Gallagher N, Sinnathamby M, Yonova I, Pathirannehelage S, Donati M, Moore C, de Lusignan S, McMenamin J, Zambon Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Lack of virological and serological evidence for continued circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in wild birds in the Netherlands, 14 November 2014 to 31 January 2016.
RA Abstract In 2014, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus. One HPAI H5N...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poen MJ, Verhagen JH, Manvell RJ, Brown I, Bestebroer TM, van der Vliet S, Vuong O, Scheuer RD, van der Jeugd HP, Nolet BA, Kleyheeg E, Müskens GJ, Majoor FA, Grund C, Fouchier RA Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Decreased effectiveness of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in live attenuated influenza vaccines: an observational bias or a technical challenge?
PMID: 27684999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Penttinen PM, Friede MH Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.
group Abstract In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define a...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rizzo C, Napoli C, Venturi G, Pupella S, Lombardini L, Calistri P, Monaco F, Cagarelli R, Angelini P, Bellini R, Tamba M, Piatti A, Russo F, Palù G, Chiari M, Lavazza A, Bella A, Italian WNV surveillance working group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014.
Abstract Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six wer...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Messiaen P, Forier A, Vanderschueren S, Theunissen C, Nijs J, Van Esbroeck M, Bottieau E, De Schrijver K, Gyssens IC, Cartuyvels R, Dorny P, van der Hilst J, Blockmans D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Towards a consensus on genotyping schemes for surveillance and outbreak investigations of Cryptosporidium, Berlin, June 2016.
ve; S PMID: 27685759 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chalmers RM, Cacciò S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

National survey of colistin resistance among carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and outbreak caused by colistin-resistant OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, France, 2014.
Abstract From January 2014 to December 2014, 972 consecutive non-replicate carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from colonised or infected patients were collected at the Associated French National Reference Centre as part of the French national survey on antimicrobial resistance. It included 577 Klebsiella spp. (59%), 236 Escherichia coli (24%), 108 Enterobacter spp. (11%), 50 Citrobacter spp. (5%), and a single Salmonella spp. isolate (0.1%). Of 561 K. pneumoniae isolates, 35 were found to be resistant to colistin (6.2%). PFGE analysis revealed a clonal outbreak involving 15 K. pneumoniae isolates ...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jayol A, Poirel L, Dortet L, Nordmann P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Chikungunya virus infections among travellers returning to Spain, 2008 to 2014.
This report highlights the need for integrated active case and vector surveillance in Spain and other parts of Europe where chikungunya virus may be introduced by returning travellers. PMID: 27631156 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandez-Garcia MD, Bangert M, de Ory F, Potente A, Hernandez L, Lasala F, Herrero L, Molero F, Negredo A, Vázquez A, Minguito T, Balfagón P, de la Fuente J, Puente S, Ramírez de Arellano E, Lago M, Martinez M, Gascón J, Norman F, Lopez-Velez R, Sull Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013.
We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0-25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cas...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dalby T, Andersen PH, Hoffmann S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.
We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08)...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Regnath T, Mertes T, Ignatius R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.
Abstract We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. PMID: 27605056 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Boccolini D, Toma L, Di Luca M, Severini F, Romi R, Remoli ME, Sabbatucci M, Venturi G, Rezza G, Fortuna C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus.
We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. PMID: 27605159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amraoui F, Atyame-Nten C, Vega-Rúa A, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Vazeille M, Failloux AB Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Descriptive epidemiology of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England, April 2012 to March 2014.
Abstract We determined the incidence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility associated with Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England over a 24 month period. Case data were obtained from the national mandatory surveillance database, with susceptibility data linked from LabBase2, a voluntary national microbiology database. Between April 2012 and March 2014, 66,512 E. coli bacteraemia cases were reported. Disease incidence increased by 6% from 60.4 per 100,000 population in 2012-13 to 63.5 per 100,000 population in 2013-14 (p 
Source: Euro Surveill - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bou-Antoun S, Davies J, Guy R, Johnson AP, Sheridan EA, Hope RJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015.
Abstract Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human-poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influe...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhou J, Wu J, Zeng X, Huang G, Zou L, Song Y, Gopinath D, Zhang X, Kang M, Lin J, Cowling BJ, Lindsley WG, Ke C, Peiris JS, Yen HL Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.
Abstract Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 ...
Source: Euro Surveill - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vollmer T, Diekmann J, Eberhardt M, Knabbe C, Dreier J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012.
Abstract In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly d...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Berghold C, Herzog SA, Jakse H, Berghold A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016.
Abstract In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID: 27562931 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Graaf JA, Reimerink JH, Voorn GP, Bij de Vaate EA, de Vries A, Rockx B, Schuitemaker A, Hira V Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.
, Hos N, Hagel S, Pletz M, Harbarth S, TIMBER Study Group Abstract We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stewardson AJ, Allignol A, Beyersmann J, Graves N, Schumacher M, Meyer R, Tacconelli E, De Angelis G, Farina C, Pezzoli F, Bertrand X, Gbaguidi-Haore H, Edgeworth J, Tosas O, Martinez JA, Ayala-Blanco MP, Pan A, Zoncada A, Marwick CA, Nathwani D, Seifert Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05.
Abstract Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yung CF, Ramsay M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barr é syndrome on Martinique, January 2016.
We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed. PMID: 26967758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - August 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rozé B, Najioullah F, Fergé JL, Apetse K, Brouste Y, Cesaire R, Fagour C, Fagour L, Hochedez P, Jeannin S, Joux J, Mehdaoui H, Valentino R, Signate A, Cabié A, GBS Zika Working Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barr é syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016.
We report a cluster of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome in 10 adults temporally related to a cluster of four children with acute flaccid paralysis, over a 3-month period in South Wales, United Kingdom. All adult cases were male, aged between 24 and 77 years. Seven had prominent facial diplegia at onset. Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three chil...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Williams CJ, Thomas RH, Pickersgill TP, Lyons M, Lowe G, Stiff RE, Moore C, Jones R, Howe R, Brunt H, Ashman A, Mason BW Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Systematic review on tuberculosis transmission on aircraft and update of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control risk assessment guidelines for tuberculosis transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA-TB).
In this study evidence of TB transmission on aircraft was identified to update the Risk Assessment Guidelines for TB Transmitted on Aircraft (RAGIDA-TB) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Electronic searches were undertaken from Medline (Pubmed), Embase and Cochrane Library until 19 July 2013. Eligible records were identified by a two-stage screening process and data on flight and index case characteristics as well as contact tracing strategies extracted. The systematic literature review retrieved 21 records. Ten of these records were available only after the previous version of the RAGIDA gu...
Source: Euro Surveill - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kotila SM, Payne Hallström L, Jansen N, Helbling P, Abubakar I Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

WHO publishes an implementation framework on active tuberculosis drug-safety monitoring and management (ADSM).
PMID: 27486630 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - August 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.
Abstract In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tan...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Krutova M, Matejkova J, Kuijper EJ, Drevinek P, Nyc O, Czech Clostridium difficile study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Enhanced surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection occurring outside hospital, England, 2011 to 2013.
Abstract There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)-Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) up to 10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or less than 48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks. Pa...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fawley WN, Davies KA, Morris T, Parnell P, Howe R, Wilcox MH, Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) Working Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Difficile indeed.
PMID: 27469287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tassios PT Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.
Net Abstract To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kola A, Wiuff C, Akerlund T, van Benthem BH, Coignard B, Lyytikäinen O, Weitzel-Kage D, Suetens C, Wilcox MH, Kuijper EJ, Gastmeier P, members of ECDIS-Net Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Survey of diagnostic and typing capacity for Clostridium difficile infection in Europe, 2011 and 2014.
n behalf of all participants Abstract Suboptimal laboratory diagnostics for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) impedes its surveillance and control across Europe. We evaluated changes in local laboratory CDI diagnostics and changes in national diagnostic and typing capacity for CDI during the European C. difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) project, through cross-sectional surveys in 33 European countries in 2011 and 2014. In 2011, 126 (61%) of a convenience sample of 206 laboratories in 31 countries completed a survey on local diagnostics. In 2014, 84 (67%) of these 126 laboratories in 26 count...
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Dorp SM, Notermans DW, Alblas J, Gastmeier P, Mentula S, Nagy E, Spigaglia P, Ivanova K, Fitzpatrick F, Barbut F, Morris T, Wilcox MH, Kinross P, Suetens C, Kuijper EJ, European Clostridium difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) project Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013.
This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. PMID: 27470194 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Davies KA, Ashwin H, Longshaw CM, Burns DA, Davis GL, Wilcox MH, EUCLID study group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.
This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. PMID: 27472820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Dorp SM, Kinross P, Gastmeier P, Behnke M, Kola A, Delmée M, Pavelkovich A, Mentula S, Barbut F, Hajdu A, Ingebretsen A, Pituch H, Macovei IS, Jovanović M, Wiuff C, Schmid D, Olsen KE, Wilcox MH, Suetens C, Kuijper EJ, European Clostridium difficile Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

WHO publishes viral hepatitis surveillance guide.
PMID: 27413795 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ECDC public consultation on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors.
PMID: 27358927 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

First European Union Laboratory Capability Monitoring System report published.
PMID: 27358928 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - July 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus.
PMID: 27326435 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Resources and latest news about Zika virus disease available from ECDC.
Resources and latest news about Zika virus disease available from ECDC. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(5):32 Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team PMID: 27299167 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance editorial team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Effects of previous episodes of influenza and vaccination in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, 2013/14 season.
Influenza Surveillance in Hospitals of Navarra Abstract We estimated whether previous episodes of influenza and trivalent influenza vaccination prevented laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, in season 2013/14. Patients with medically-attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) in hospitals (n = 645) and primary healthcare (n = 525) were included. We compared 589 influenza cases and 581 negative controls. MA-ILI related to a specific virus subtype in the previous five seasons was defined as a laboratory-confirmed influenza infection with the same virus subtype or MA-ILI during ...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Castilla J, Navascués A, Fernández-Alonso M, Reina G, Albéniz E, Pozo F, Álvarez N, Martínez-Baz I, Guevara M, García-Cenoz M, Irisarri F, Casado I, Ezpeleta C, Primary Health Care Sentinel Network and Network for Influenza Surveillance in Hospitals Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Clinical and histopathological features of fatal cases with dengue and chikungunya virus co-infection in Colombia, 2014 to 2015.
This study provides evidence of mortality in patients with DENV and CHIKV co-infection. Fatal cases were characterised by variable clinical and laboratory features. Evaluation of histopathology of autopsy tissues provided evidence of the pathological consequences of the disease. PMID: 27277216 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mercado M, Acosta-Reyes J, Parra E, Pardo L, Rico A, Campo A, Navarro E, Viasus D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.
Abstract The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandator...
Source: Euro Surveill - June 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mozalevskis A, Eramova I, Safreed-Harmon K, Lazarus JV Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research