Whole genome sequencing-based analysis of tuberculosis (TB) in migrants: rapid tools for cross-border surveillance and to distinguish between recent transmission in the host country and new importations.
ConclusionWe provide a new model for optimising the analysis of cross-border surveillance of TB transmission in the scenario of global migration. PMID: 30696526 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abascal E, Pérez-Lago L, Martínez-Lirola M, Chiner-Oms Á, Herranz M, Chaoui I, Comas I, El Messaoudi MD, Cárdenas JAG, Santantón S, Bouza E, García-de-Viedma D Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Air-conditioner cooling towers as complex reservoirs and continuous source of Legionella pneumophila infection evidenced by a genomic analysis study in 2017, Switzerland.
ConclusionCurrent outbreak-related and historic isolates were linked to ACCTs, which form a complex environmental habitat where strains are conserved over years. PMID: 30696527 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wüthrich D, Gautsch S, Spieler-Denz R, Dubuis O, Gaia V, Moran-Gilad J, Hinic V, Seth-Smith HM, Nickel CH, Tschudin-Sutter S, Bassetti S, Haenggi M, Brodmann P, Fuchs S, Egli A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing of Salmonella Chester reveals geographically distinct clusters, Norway, 2000 to 2016.
ConclusionWhole genome sequencing of S. Chester in Norway showed four geographically distinct clusters, with a possible outbreak occurring during summer 2016 related to Greece. We recommend public health institutes to implement cgMLST-based real-time Salmonella enterica surveillance for early and accurate detection of future outbreaks and further development of cluster cut-offs. PMID: 30696528 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siira L, Naseer U, Alfsnes K, Hermansen NO, Lange H, Brandal LT Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prospective genomic surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) associated with bloodstream infection, England, 1 October 2012 to 30 September 2013.
ConclusionsWe demonstrate the potential utility of combined epidemiological and genomic MRSA BSI surveillance to determine the national population structure of MRSA, contextualise previous MRSA outbreaks, and detect potentially high-risk lineages. These findings support the integration of epidemiological and genomic surveillance for MRSA BSI as a step towards a comprehensive surveillance programme in England. PMID: 30696529 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toleman MS, Reuter S, Jamrozy D, Wilson HJ, Blane B, Harrison EM, Coll F, Hope RJ, Kearns A, Parkhill J, Peacock SJ, Török ME Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Cocirculation of Hajj and non-Hajj strains among serogroup W meningococci in Italy, 2000 to 2016.
This study intends to define the main characteristics of 63 MenW isolates responsible of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Italy from 2000 to 2016. We performed whole genome sequencing on bacterial isolates or single gene sequencing on culture-negative samples to evaluate molecular heterogeneity. Our main finding was the cocirculation of the Hajj and the South American sublineages belonging to MenW/clonal complex (cc)11, which gradually surpassed the MenW/cc22 in Italy. All MenW/cc11 isolates were fully susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, penicillin G and rifampicin. We identified the full-length N...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fazio C, Neri A, Vacca P, Ciammaruconi A, Arghittu M, Barbui AM, Vocale C, Bernaschi P, Isola P, Galanti IA, Mencacci A, De Nittis R, Chironna M, Giammanco A, Pagani E, Bisbano A, Stefanelli P Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Genomic sequence of yellow fever virus from a Dutch traveller returning from the Gambia-Senegal region, the Netherlands, November 2018.
Abstract In November 2018, yellow fever was diagnosed in a Dutch traveller returning from a bicycle tour in the Gambia-Senegal region. A complete genome sequence of yellow fever virus (YFV) from the case was generated and clustered phylogenetically with YFV from the Gambia and Senegal, ruling out importation into the Netherlands from recent outbreaks in Brazil or Angola. We emphasise the need for increased public awareness of YFV vaccination before travelling to endemic countries. PMID: 30696531 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Phan MV, Murad SD, van der Eijk AA, Metselaar HJ, Hartog H, Harinck F, GeurtsvanKessel CH, Molenkamp R, Cotten M, Koopmans MP Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Impact of whole genome sequencing on the investigation of food-borne outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7, England, 2013 to 2017.
Abstract We aim to provide insight and guidance on the utility of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data for investigating food-borne outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 in England between 2013 and 2017. Analysis of WGS data delivered an unprecedented level of strain discrimination when compared with multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. The robustness of the WGS method ensured confidence in the microbiological identification of linked cases, even when epidemiological links were obscured. There was evidence that phylogeny derived from WGS data can be used to trace the geogra...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jenkins C, Dallman TJ, Grant KA Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Expanding Usutu virus circulation in Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018.
tti C Abstract Blood donation screening for West Nile virus (WNV) was mandatory in the Lazio region in 2017 and 2018 (June-November) according to the national surveillance plan. In these years, all five donations reactive in WNV nucleic acid amplification tests harboured instead Usutu virus (USUV). Clade 'Europe 2' was identified in four blood donations and a 2018 mosquito pool. The cocirculation of WNV and USUV in Lazio warrants increased laboratory support and awareness of possible virus misidentification. PMID: 30670139 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carletti F, Colavita F, Rovida F, Percivalle E, Baldanti F, Ricci I, De Liberato C, Rosone F, Messina F, Lalle E, Bordi L, Vairo F, Capobianchi MR, Ippolito G, Cappiello G, Spanò A, Meschi S, Castilletti C Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Disentangling a complex nationwide Salmonella Dublin outbreak associated with raw-milk cheese consumption, France, 2015 to 2016.
llo S Abstract On 18 January 2016, the French National Reference Centre for Salmonella reported to Santé publique France an excess of Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. We investigated to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were performed to identify microbiological clusters and links among cases, animal and food sources. Clusters were defined as isolates with less than 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms determined by WGS and/or with identical MLVA pa...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ung A, Baidjoe AY, Van Cauteren D, Fawal N, Fabre L, Guerrisi C, Danis K, Morand A, Donguy MP, Lucas E, Rossignol L, Lefèvre S, Vignaud ML, Cadel-Six S, Lailler R, Jourdan-Da Silva N, Le Hello S Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2019;24(1).
PMID: 30670141 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir in Japan, December 2018.
Abstract The novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil was approved for the treatment of influenza virus infection in Japan in February 2018. Two influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic subunit (PA) were detected in baloxavir-treated children in December 2018. This mutation is known to confer reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, and the two mutant viruses exhibited 76- and 120-fold reduced susceptibility to baloxavir. PMID: 30670142 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takashita E, Kawakami C, Morita H, Ogawa R, Fujisaki S, Shirakura M, Miura H, Nakamura K, Kishida N, Kuwahara T, Mitamura K, Abe T, Ichikawa M, Yamazaki M, Watanabe S, Odagiri T, On Behalf Of The Influenza Virus Surveillance Group Of Japan Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Emergence of enterovirus D68 clade D1, France, August to November 2018.
We report a seasonal increase of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) cases in France, with 54 cases detected between 19 August and 14 November 2018. Molecular typing revealed that 20 of 32 of the isolates belonged to clade D1, only sporadically detected before in France. Median age of D1-cases was 42 years, 10 developed severe respiratory signs and one had neurological complications. The 2018-D1 viruses showed a genetic divergence of 3.34 % with D1 viruses identified previously. PMID: 30670143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bal A, Sabatier M, Wirth T, Coste-Burel M, Lazrek M, Stefic K, Brengel-Pesce K, Morfin F, Lina B, Schuffenecker I, Josset L Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Assessing baloxavir susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in the United States during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons.
Abstract The anti-influenza therapeutic baloxavir targets cap-dependent endonuclease activity of polymerase acidic (PA) protein. We monitored baloxavir susceptibility in the United States with next generation sequencing analysis supplemented by phenotypic one-cycle infection assay. Analysis of PA sequences of 6,891 influenza A and B viruses collected during 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons showed amino acid substitutions: I38L (two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses), E23G (two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses) and I38M (one A(H3N2) virus); conferring 4-10-fold reduced susceptibility to baloxavir. PMID: 30670144 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gubareva LV, Mishin VP, Patel MC, Chesnokov A, Nguyen HT, De La Cruz J, Spencer S, Campbell AP, Sinner M, Reid H, Garten R, Katz JM, Fry AM, Barnes J, Wentworth DE Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Report of simultaneous measles outbreaks in two different health regions in Portugal, February to May 2017: lessons learnt and upcoming challenges.
Nogueira PJ Abstract In Portugal, measles vaccination coverage and population immunity are high, and no endemic measles cases had been reported since 2004. The World Health Organization classified measles as eliminated in the country in 2015 and 2016, based on data from the previous 3 years. However, in a context of increasing incidence in several European countries in 2016 and 2017, Portugal experienced two simultaneous measles outbreaks with a total of 27 laboratory-confirmed cases (0.3 cases/100,000 population) in two health regions between February and May 2017. Nineteen cases (70.1%) were adults, of whom 12 w...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Augusto GF, Silva A, Pereira N, Fernandes T, Leça A, Valente P, Calé E, Aguiar BA, Martins A, Palminha P, Vinagre E, Cordeiro R, Lopo S, Nogueira PJ Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing suggests transmission of Corynebacterium diphtheriae-caused cutaneous diphtheria in two siblings, Germany, 2018.
Sing A Abstract In September 2018, a child who had returned from Somalia to Germany presented with cutaneous diphtheria by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis. The child's sibling had superinfected insect bites harbouring also toxigenic C. diphtheriae. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the same strain in both patients suggesting very recent human-to-human transmission. Epidemiological and NGS data suggest that the two cutaneous diphtheria cases constitute the first outbreak by toxigenic C. diphtheriae in Germany since the 1980s. PMID: 30646974 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Berger A, Dangel A, Schober T, Schmidbauer B, Konrad R, Marosevic D, Schubert S, Hörmansdorfer S, Ackermann N, Hübner J, Sing A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Measles outbreak: preliminary report on a case series of the first 8,070 suspected cases, Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil, February to November 2018.
We report an ongoing measles outbreak in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. As at 3 November 2018, 1,631 cases were confirmed corresponding to an incidence of 75.3 per 100,000 inhabitants; all five sanitary districts presented confirmed cases. Reintroduction of measles virus in Manaus is likely related to the current outbreak in Venezuela and due to recent decline in measles vaccine coverage. Given the current scenario, prevention and control measures should target individuals aged 15-29 years. PMID: 30646975 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elidio GA, França GVA, Pacheco FC, Ferreira MM, Pinheiro JDS, Campos EN, Cláudio de Albuquerque B, Pinto RC, Santos da Silva ADC, Leal E Leite P, do Carmo GMI, Luiz de Abreu A, Carrero CPV, Rocha de Abreu M, Rosa FM, de Oliveira CM, Guilhem DB Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(50).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(50). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A definition for community-based surveillance and a way forward: results of the WHO global technical meeting, France, 26 to 28 June 2018.
PMID: 30646977 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Technical Contributors To The June Who Meeting Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Eurosurveillance reviewers in 2018.
PMID: 30646978 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Towards equity in immunisation.
Abstract In the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, differences in uptake rates of routine childhood immunisation persist within and among countries, with rates even falling in some areas. There has been a tendency among national programmes, policymakers and the media in recent years to attribute missed vaccinations to faltering demand or refusal among parents. However, evidence shows that the reasons for suboptimal coverage are multifactorial and include the social determinants of health. At the midpoint in the implementation of the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (EVAP), national immunisation...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Boyce T, Gudorf A, de Kat C, Muscat M, Butler R, Habersaat KB Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Note from the editors: Open access and sound science for rapid public health action.
PMID: 30646980 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Epidemiologic and phylogenetic analysis of the 2018 West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in Israel demonstrates human infection of WNV lineage I.
Abstract As at 12 November 2018, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) was responsible for 139 WNV infection cases in Israel. Here, we characterise the epidemiology of the outbreak and demonstrate that only WNV lineage I was circulating in mosquitoes and responsible for WNV infection in humans. This suggests that the concurrence of the outbreak in Israel with WNV outbreaks in several European countries is not due to a common, more virulent WNV genotype. PMID: 30621816 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lustig Y, Gosinov R, Zuckerman N, Glazer Y, Orshan L, Sofer D, Schwartz E, Schvartz G, Farnoushi Y, Lublin A, Erster O, Shalom U, Yeger T, Mor O, Anis E, Mendelson E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The contribution of child, family and health service factors to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospital admissions in the first 3 years of life: birth cohort study in Scotland, 2009 to 2015.
Abstract IntroductionSeveral vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are under development. Designing an effective vaccination programme for RSV requires information about the relative contribution of risk factors for severe RSV symptoms.AimTo inform preventive strategies in Europe by quantifying the contribution of key child, family and health service risk factors to the burden of RSV hospital admissions in young children.MethodsWe constructed a birth cohort study of all singleton children born in Scotland between October 2009 and September 2012 using linkage between birth registration, maternity, vaccinat...
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hardelid P, Verfuerden M, McMenamin J, Smyth RL, Gilbert R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis disease epidemiology, seroprevalence, vaccine effectiveness and waning immunity, England, 1998/99 to 2015/16.
ConclusionHigh quality surveillance has furthered understanding of MenC vaccines and improved schedules, maximising population benefit. The UK programme provides high direct and indirect protection despite low levels of seroprotection in some age groups. High-resolution characterisation supports ongoing surveillance of distinct MenC cc11 lineages. PMID: 30621818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Findlow H, Campbell H, Lucidarme J, Andrews N, Linley E, Ladhani S, Borrow R Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Development of a public health emergency preparedness competency model for European Union countries.
Abstract In 2017, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) developed a competency model for individuals who work in public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) in European Union (EU) countries. The model serves as the basis for developing competency-based training programmes to support professionals in PHEP efforts at the country level. The competency model describes the knowledge and skills professionals need when working in national-level PHEP, such as preparedness committee members or their equivalents. In order to develop the model, existing competency statements were reviewed, as well as ...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stoto MA, Savoia E, Nelson C, Piltch-Loeb R, Guicciardi S, Takacs J, Varela Santos C, Ciotti M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Quantifying unmet prevention needs among MSM in Europe through a multi-site bio-behavioural survey.
ConclusionThe Sialon II project has made an important contribution to the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV epidemic across Europe, integrating the use of GAM indicators within a second generation HIV surveillance systems approach and in participatory collaboration with MSM communities. It influenced the harmonisation of European data collection procedures and indicators via GAM country reporting and contributed essential knowledge informing the development and implementation of strategic, evidence-based HIV prevention campaigns for MSM. PMID: 30621823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mirandola M, Gios L, Sherriff N, Marcus U, Toskin I, Rosinska M, Schink S, Kühlmann-Berenzon S, Suligoi B, Folch C, Nöstlinger C, Dias S, Stanekova D, Klavs I, Caplinskas S, Rafila A, Marin C, Alexiev I, Zohrabyan L, Noori T, Menel-Lemos C, On Behalf Of Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Hepatitis E in pigs in Israel: seroprevalence, molecular characterisation and potential impact on humans.
ConclusionsThis study showed that domestic pigs in Israel are infected with HEV-G3. The high HEV seropositivity of the farm workers together with the previous identification of this virus in human sewage suggests circulation to humans. The clinical impact of these findings on public health should be further explored. PMID: 30621824 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shirazi R, Pozzi P, Wax M, Bar-Or I, Asulin E, Lustig Y, Mendelson E, Ben-Ari Z, Schwartz E, Mor O Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Note from the editors: Special issue on advanced diagnostics to inform public health policy.
PMID: 30563589 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Assessment of metagenomic Nanopore and Illumina sequencing for recovering whole genome sequences of chikungunya and dengue viruses directly from clinical samples.
ConclusionsThis work demonstrates that metagenomic whole genome sequencing is feasible for the majority of CHIKV and DENV PCR-positive patient serum or plasma samples. Additionally, it explores the use of Nanopore metagenomic sequencing for DENV and CHIKV, which can likely be applied to other RNA viruses, highlighting the applicability of this approach to front-line public health and potential portable applications using the MinION. PMID: 30563591 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kafetzopoulou LE, Efthymiadis K, Lewandowski K, Crook A, Carter D, Osborne J, Aarons E, Hewson R, Hiscox JA, Carroll MW, Vipond R, Pullan ST Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Improvement of Legionnaires' disease diagnosis using real-time PCR assay: a retrospective analysis, Italy, 2010 to 2015.
ConclusionRegardless of the real-time PCR assay used, it was possible to diagnose LD cases with higher sensitivity than using culture or UAT. These data encourage the adoption of PCR as routine laboratory testing to diagnose LD and such methods should be eligible to define a confirmed LD case. PMID: 30563592 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ricci ML, Grottola A, Fregni Serpini G, Bella A, Rota MC, Frascaro F, Pegoraro E, Meacci M, Fabio A, Vecchi E, Girolamo A, Rumpianesi F, Pecorari M, Scaturro M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from recent issues.
PMID: 30563593 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

ECDC's latest publications.
PMID: 30563594 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Is malaria re-emerging in southern Europe? Cryptic Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Malta, October 2018.
PMID: 30563595 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Medialdea-Carrera R, Melillo T, Gauci C, Rocco G, Borg ML Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Culture-free genotyping of Neisseria gonorrhoeae revealed distinct strains at different anatomical sites in a quarter of patients, the Netherlands, 2012 to 2016.
Abstract BackgroundGenotyping of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is essential for surveillance to monitor NG transmission and dissemination of resistant strains. Current genotyping methods rely on bacterial culture which frequently fails.AimOur aim was to develop a culture-free genotyping method that is compatible with the widely used N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) database, which facilitates genotyping of NG detected at separate anatomical sites in individual patients.MethodsSpecific primers for both PCR targets porB and tbpB were designed and technically validated by assessing the analytical s...
Source: Euro Surveill - December 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van der Veer BM, Wolffs PF, Hoebe CJ, Dukers-Muijrers NH, van Alphen LB Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Herd immunity and primary immune deficiencies.
Abstract This letter addresses the issues adjoining the article by Bernadou et al. Measles outbreak linked to insufficient vaccination coverage in Nouvelle-Aquitaine Region, France, October 2017 to July 2018. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(30):pii = 1800373. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.30.1800373. The decreased vaccination rates against measles are decreasing herd immunity to this agent, posing a risk for patients with Patient Immune Deficiency as the measles antibody titre decreases in products used to provide prophylactic cover against this illness. PMID: 30497836 [PubMed - as supplied by publi...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farrugia A, Quinti I Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(46).
PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(46). Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Polio eradication: next steps and future challenges.
PMID: 30482261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zambon M, Martin J Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2018;23(46).
PMID: 30482262 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance: challenges and opportunities from 18 years' experience, Spain, 1998 to 2015.
This study describes AFP surveillance in Spain from 1998 to 2015. During this time, 678 AFP cases were reported to the Spanish National Surveillance Network. The mean notification rate was 0.58 AFP cases/100,000 population under 15 years old (range: 0.45/100,000-0.78/100,000). Two periods (P) are described: P1 (1998-2006) with the AFP notification rate ranging from 0.66/100,000 to 0.78/100,000, peaking in 2001 (0.84/100,000); and P2 (2007-2015) when the AFP rate ranged from 0.43/100,000 to 0.57/100,000, with the lowest rate in 2009 (0.31/100,000). No poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, although two Sabin...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Masa-Calles J, Torner N, López-Perea N, Torres de Mier MV, Fernández-Martínez B, Cabrerizo M, Gallardo-García V, Malo C, Margolles M, Portell M, Abadía N, Blasco A, García-Hernández S, Marcos H, Rabella N, Marín C, Fuentes A, Losada I, Gutiérrez Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines introduction on antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in children aged 5 years or younger, Israel, 2004 to 2016.
Abstract PMID: 30482264 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ben-Shimol S, Givon-Lavi N, Greenberg D, Stein M, Megged O, Bar-Yochai A, Negari S, Dagan R, On Behalf Of The Israel Bacteremia And Meningitis Active Surveillance Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

A comparison of two biological markers of recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: implications for the monitoring of interventions and strategies to reduce HCV transmission among people who inject drugs.
ConclusionBoth markers have utility in monitoring HCV incidence among PWID. When HCV transmission is high, one marker may provide an accurate estimate of incidence; when it is low or decreasing, a combination may be required. PMID: 30482265 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hope VD, Harris RJ, Vickerman P, Platt L, Shute J, Cullen KJ, Ijaz S, Mandal S, Ncube F, Desai M, Parry JV Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Arbovirus surveillance: first dengue virus detection in local Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Europe, Catalonia, Spain, 2015.
ute;nchez-Seco MP, Busquets N Abstract Dengue has emerged as the most important viral mosquito-borne disease globally. The current risk of dengue outbreaks in Europe appeared with the introduction of the vector Aedes albopictus mosquito in Mediterranean countries. Considering the increasing frequency of dengue epidemics worldwide and the movement of viraemic hosts, it is expected that new autochthonous cases will occur in the future in Europe. Arbovirus surveillance started in Catalonia in 2015 to monitor imported cases and detect possible local arboviral transmission. During 2015, 131 patients with a recent trave...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aranda C, Martínez MJ, Montalvo T, Eritja R, Navero-Castillejos J, Herreros E, Marqués E, Escosa R, Corbella I, Bigas E, Picart L, Jané M, Barrabeig I, Torner N, Talavera S, Vázquez A, Sánchez-Seco MP, Busquets N Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate, belonging to the internationally spreading Japanese FC428 clone, with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate resistance to azithromycin, Ireland, August 2018.
We describe a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae urethritis case with ceftriaxone resistance and azithromycin intermediate resistance in a heterosexual man in Ireland, August 2018. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the isolate IR72 belongs to the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant ceftriaxone-resistant FC428 clade, initially described in Japan in 2015. IR72 was assigned MSLT ST1903, NG-MAST ST17842 and NG-STAR type 1133, including the ceftriaxone resistance-mediating penA-60.001. Global awareness of spreading ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strains that threaten recommended dual therapies is essential....
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Golparian D, Rose L, Lynam A, Mohamed A, Bercot B, Ohnishi M, Crowley B, Unemo M Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Antimicrobial prescribing and infections in long-term care facilities (LTCF): a multilevel analysis of the HALT 2016 study, Ireland, 2017.
ConclusionsMultilevel modelling identified significant inter-facility variation, as well as institutional factors associated with AMU and HAI. An antimicrobial stewardship committee linked with feedback on IPC and prescribing was associated with reduced AMU and HAI. PMID: 30458910 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tandan M, Burns K, Murphy H, Hennessy S, Cormican M, Vellinga A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Severe enterovirus A71 associated hand, foot and mouth disease, Vietnam, 2018: preliminary report of an impending outbreak.
Abstract Since January 2018, over 53,000 hospitalisations and six deaths due to hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have occurred across Vietnam with most cases from September onward. In a large tertiary referral hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, enterovirus A71 subgenogroup C4 was predominant, while B5 was only sporadically detected. The re-emergence of C4 after causing a severe HFMD outbreak with > 200 deaths in 2011-12 among susceptible young children raises concern of another impending severe outbreak. PMID: 30458911 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nhan LNT, Hong NTT, Nhu LNT, Nguyet LA, Ny NTH, Thanh TT, Han DDK, Van HMT, Thwaites CL, Hien TT, Qui PT, Quang PV, Minh NNQ, van Doorn HR, Khanh TH, Chau NVV, Thwaites G, Hung NT, Tan LV Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prevalence of healthcare-associated infections, estimated incidence and composite antimicrobial resistance index in acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities: results from two European point prevalence surveys, 2016 to 2017.
y Group Abstract Point prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and antimicrobial use in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) from 2016 to 2017 included 310,755 patients from 1,209 acute care hospitals (ACH) in 28 countries and 117,138 residents from 2,221 long-term care facilities (LTCF) in 23 countries. After national validation, we estimated that 6.5% (cumulative 95% confidence interval (cCI): 5.4-7.8%) patients in ACH and 3.9% (95% cCI: 2.4-6.0%) residents in LTCF had at least one HAI (country-weighted prevalence). On any given day, 98,166 patients (95% cCI: 81,022-117,484...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suetens C, Latour K, Kärki T, Ricchizzi E, Kinross P, Moro ML, Jans B, Hopkins S, Hansen S, Lyytikäinen O, Reilly J, Deptula A, Zingg W, Plachouras D, Monnet DL, The Healthcare-Associated Infections Prevalence Study Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Antimicrobial use in European long-term care facilities: results from the third point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use, 2016 to 2017.
oup Abstract Antimicrobials are commonly prescribed and contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In 2010, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated point prevalence surveys (PPS) of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in European LTCFs, performed by external contractors as the Healthcare-Associated infections in Long-Term care facilities (HALT) projects. Here, we investigated prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial use and antimicrobial stewardship indicators in European LTCFs in 2016-17. Twenty-four European U...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ricchizzi E, Latour K, Kärki T, Buttazzi R, Jans B, Moro ML, Nakitanda OA, Plachouras D, Monnet DL, Suetens C, Kinross P, The Halt Study Group Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Antimicrobial prescribing in long-term care facilities: a nationwide point-prevalence study, Slovenia, 2016.
, Beović B Abstract Residents in long-term care are at high risk of infections because of their old age and many related health problems that lead to frequent antibiotic prescribing. The aim of the study was to assess antibiotic use in Slovenian long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The point-prevalence study was conducted between April and June 2016. Online questionnaires were sent to all Slovenian LTCFs. Eighty (68.4%) of the 117 LTCFs contacted, caring for 13,032 residents (70.6% of all Slovenian LTCF residents), responded to the survey. On the day of the study, the mean antibiotic prevalence per LTCF was 2.4% (9...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stepan D, Ušaj L, Petek Šter M, Smolinger Galun M, Smole H, Beović B Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Prospective enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) surveillance from September 2015 to November 2018 indicates a current wave of activity in Wales.
Abstract Since 7 June 2018, an enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) season (the third since 2015) is ongoing in Wales, with 114 confirmed cases thus far. Median age of the 220 cases since 2015 is 2.5 years (2.5 years in intensive care cases), 94% were hospitalised, 17% (n = 38) in intensive care. All had respiratory symptoms; bronchiolitis symptoms were reported in 60 cases, severe respiratory symptoms in 23 and acute flaccid myelitis in two cases. PMID: 30458915 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cottrell S, Moore C, Perry M, Hilvers E, Williams C, Shankar AG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

7th Eurosurveillance scientific seminar 'Artificial intelligence (AI) in epidemiology: a reality in 2018?' at ESCAIDE 2018 in Malta.
PMID: 30458916 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eurosurveillance Editorial Team Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research