Current Advances in Pharmacotherapy and Drug Design against Inflammatory-related Pathologies.
PMID: 30022736 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arguelles S Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Neuropsychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Heme oxygenase (HO) family catalyzes the conversion of heme into free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. It possesses two well characterized isoforms: HO-1 and HO-2. Under brain physiological conditions, the expression of HO-2 is constitutive, abundant and ubiquitous, whereas HO-1 mRNA and protein are restricted to small populations of neurons and neuroglia. HO-1 is an inducible enzyme that has been shown to participate as an essential defensive mechanism for neurons exposed to oxidant challenges, being related to antioxidant defenses in certain neuropathological conditions. Considering that neurodegen...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Neis VB, Rosa PB, Moretti M, Rodrigues ALS Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease: Alpha synuclein, heme oxygenase and biotherapeutic countermeasures.
Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders have been and remain a persistent source of enormous suffering throughout human history. The tragedy of their impact on human relationships, physical vitality, and fundamental dignity cannot be understated. Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common of these terrible illnesses, has a global incidence of approximately one-to-two percent of the human population, along with devastating social and economic impact. The present review analyzes aspects of PD pathophysiology that offer particularly attractive strategies for the development of improved prevention and therapy. The ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Haines DD, Trushin MV, Rose S, Bernard IAS, Mahmoud FF Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Heme oxygenase and the skin in health and disease.
Abstract The skin is often introduced as the largest organ of the human body which - being uniquely exposed to external stress - faces several types of challenges, from physical, chemical, biological, and immunological origin. Therefore, the skin is also a site where inflammation, oxidative stress and cellular damage occurs regularly. Heme oxygenase (HO), primarily functioning in the catabolism of heme, is a very important cytoprotective enzyme that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Given the need for an enzyme with such a combination of attributes in the skin, it is not surprising ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Szabo IL, Kenyeres A, Szegedi A, Szollosi AG Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

M1/M2 macrophages in diabetic nephropathy: Nrf2/HO-1 as therapeutic targets.
Abstract The process of inflammation is orchestrated by macrophages, according to their state of differentiation: thus, classically activated (M1) macrophages initiate the process by elaborating proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, whereas the latter phase is controlled by alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to resolve inflammation and promote tissue remodelling with the release of growth factors. In a simple human inflammatory response, such as acute crystal arthropathy, macrophages progress linearly through M1 and M2 phases; however, in chronic inflammatory responses, such as atheroscleros...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Landis RC, Quimby KR, Greenidge AR Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Mycoplasmas and Novel HO-1 Inducers: Recent Advances.
CONCLUSIONS: The study of the molecular network that causes the corresponding outcome can facilitate the development of new approaches for the treatment of inflammatory processes. The derivatives of LAMPs and MALP-2 and of their analogues may prove promising for the treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation. PMID: 30014797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chernov VM, Chernova OA, Mouzykantov AA, Lopukhov LV, Trushin MV Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Heme oxygenase-1: clinical relevance in ischemic stroke.
Abstract Stroke is the second-leading cause of death and a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide, with an icreasing global burden due to the growing and aging population. However, strict eligibility criteria for current treatment opportunities make novel therapeutic apporaches desirable. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role during cerebral ischemia, eventually leading to neuronal injury and cell death. The significant correlation between redox imbalance and ischemic stroke has led to various treatment strategies targeting the endogenous antioxidant system in order to ameliorate the adverse progn...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bereczki D, Balla J, Bereczki D Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Recent advances in probiotics as live biotherapeutics against gastrointestinal diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: Several reports and clinical trials point out to the beneficial effects of probiotics in modulating the gut microbiota and improving the side effects of gastrointestinal diseases. Live biotherapeutics and FMT's could be suitable and successful alternatives to conventional therapies in mitigating the gastrointestinal pathogens. PMID: 30014799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kota RK, Ambati RR, Yalakurthi AK, Srirama K, Reddy PN Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Metallothionein: a Novel Therapeutic Target for Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of disorders characterized by chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. It is a multifactorial disease associated with immune-cell mediated oxidative damage to the intestinal mucosa. There is no cure for IBD, but anti-cytokine therapy can limit target inflammation and disease progression. Unfortunately, many patients are nonresponsive or develop resistance to anti-cytokine therapy over time creating a need for new therapeutic agents. Metallothionein (MT) is a small, highly conserved stress response protein that has been shown to modulate the immune...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dostie KE, Thees AV, Lynes MA Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Preoperative albumin level serves as a predictor for postoperative pulmonary complications following elective laparoscopic gastrectomy.
This study aimed to investigate potential risk factors for PPCs in elderly GC patients following elective laparoscopic gastrectomy. METHODS: Eligible consecutive elderly GC patients (aged over 65 years) who were scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. The demographic, clinicopathological characteristics and laboratory variables were compared in patients with or without PPCs within postoperative 30 days. Risk factors for PPCs were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: 35 of all the 262 enrol...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen Y, Wu G, Wang R, Chen J Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Crystal engineering for enhanced solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.
CONCLUSION: Each of these techniques has advantages and limitations which are emphasized on them. PMID: 29998799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Varshosaz J, Ghassami E, Ahmadipour F Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

BPC 157 and standard angiogenic growth factors. Gastrointestinal tract healing, lessons from tendon, ligament, muscle and bone healing.
Abstract Commonly, the angiogenic growth factors signify healing. However, gastrointestinal ulceration is still poorly understood particularly with respect to a general pharmacological/pathophysiological role of various angiogenic growth factors implemented in growth factors wound healing concept. Thereby, we focused on the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, a peptide given always alone vs. standard peptidergic angiogenic growth factors (EGF, FGF, VEGF), and numerous carriers. Further, we reviewed how the gastrointestinal tract healing could be generally perceived (i) in terms of angiogenic growth factors, a...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Sever M, Klicek R, Radic B, Drmic D, Stupnisek M, Misic M, Vuletic LB, Pavlov KH, Barisic I, Kokot A, Japjec M, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Rokotov DS, Vrcic H, Staresinic M, Sebecic B, Sikiric P Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Cell stress signaling cascades regulating cell fate.
Abstract Initiating anti-apoptotic signaling or triggering cell death depends to a great extent on the nature or source of cellular stress and cell type. Interplay between each stress response eventually determines the fate of stressed cell. Numerous factors induce cell death by a number of pathways including apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis. Not surprisingly, some of the pathways are interrelated to each other through a mediator that could articulate the entire mechanism. The present review attempts to consolidate all the pathways included in intrinsic cellular stress such as oxidative stress and autophagy, endo...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R, Chong WC, Geraghty DP, Eri R Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Coronary Microcirculation in Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function.
CONCLUSION: There are no precise answers with respect to the pathophysiological mechanism, nor are there any precise practical clinical assessment of and diagnostic method for coronary microvascular dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. In accordance with that, there is not the well-established treatment for HFpEF. PMID: 29992878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vasiljevic Z, Krljanac G, Zdravkovic M, Lasica R, Trifunovic D, Asanin M Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Dyslipidemias and Microcirculation.
Abstract Dyslipidemia is widely accepted as one of the major risk factors in cardiovascular disease mainly due to its contribution in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in medium-sized and large arteries. However, it has become increasingly accepted that high-cholesterol levels can also adversely affect the microvasculature prior the development of overt atherosclerosis. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia has shown, in preclinical animal models, to exert detrimental effects beyond the vascular tree leading to larger infarcts and adverse cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction. At a functional level hypercholete...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Padro T, Vilahur G, Badimon L Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Targeted Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics Using Ligand Mediated Biodegradable Polymeric Nanocarriers.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we provide ⅰ) an overview of the non-viral carrier associated with siRNA delivery for cancer treatment, and ⅱ) a description of the five major cancer-targeting ligands. PMID: 29962332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin HS, Soo CK, Hye AM, Sukdeb P, Pill-Hoon C, Sangshetti J, Arote RB Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Contribution of the Rho-kinase to Systemic Sclerosis and Beh çet's Disease.
CONCLUSION: Dysregulation in the Rho/ROCK pathway may represent a common pathogenic mechanism in multiple autoimmune disorders. Current evidences indicate that Rho/ROCK genes might be risk factors, and can contribute to susceptibility and development of systemic sclerosis and Behçet's disease. These studies may also provide important insights into the future development or use of potential novel therapeutic approaches, such as selective Rho-kinase inhibitors, for the treatment of patients with systemic sclerosis and Behçet's disease. PMID: 29962333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Demiryurek S, Baysalman E, Mammadov A, Demiryürek AT Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Assessment of coronary microcirculation during cardiac catheterization.
Abstract Functional tests used in the catheterization laboratory have emerged as a very important adjunctive tool to coronary angiography that can identify patients with myocardial blood flow impairment. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement is highly recommended for detection of ischemia-related coronary lesion(s) when objective evidence of vessel-related ischemia is not available. Recently, much simpler instantaneous wave free ratio (iFR) was proposed as an alternative to FFR without requirement for administration of vasodilators. More user friendly techniques like iFR might further contribute toward value b...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kedev S, Vasilev I Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Coronary No-Reflow Phenomenon in Clinical Practice.
Abstract Timely delivered coronary revascularization with no residual anatomical stenosis does not always lead to prompt restoration of anterograde coronary flow and complete myocardial reperfusion. This condition is known as coronary no-reflow and is associated with major clinical adverse events and poor prognosis. The pathophysiology of no-reflow phenomenon is still poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms include distal microembolization of thrombus and plaque debris, ischemic injury, endothelial dysfunction and individual susceptibility to microvascular dysfunction/obstruction. Older age, diabetes, hypercholeste...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Scarpone M, Cenko E, Manfrini O Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Microvascular (Dys)Function In Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Cross Talk With Epicardial Segments.
Abstract Myocardial ischemia is the consequence of an unbalance between coronary flow that can be achieved and myocardial metabolic needs. Pathological state of both epicardial and intramyocardial vessels may be responsible for inducing ischemia. However revascularization decision should be based on the severity of each epicardial lesion that is evaluated. There are different diagnostic tools that may help for evaluation of each compartment which are based on measurement of coronary hemodynamics. Pressure derived indices are recommended by current guidelines for evaluation of epicardial stenosis significance. We a...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Calmac L, Bataila V, Dragoescu B, Mihai C, Scafa-Udriste A, Dorobantu M Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Assessment of Coronary Microcirculation with Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography.
Abstract Myocardial contrast echocardiography has been used in clinical arena and for scientific research extensively in the last fifteen years. This non-invasive, bed-side and radiation free imaging technique offers several important possibilities: better delineation of the endocardial border, more reliable assessment of the left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, both in rest and during stress, and myocardial perfusion evaluation. Here we provide an overview on the different application of the myocardial contrast echocardiography in the ischemic heart disease with the special focus on perfusion studies and e...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Trifunovic D, Dudic J, Petrovic O, Vasiljevic-Pokrajcic Z Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Microvasculature recovery by angiogenesis after myocardial infarction.
Abstract Advances on early reperfusion therapies focused on the revascularization of the ischemic tissues have lead, in the last decades, to reduced mortality in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients. However, a large proportion of patients show inadequate myocardial perfusion because of dysfunction of the microcirculation. The high prevalence of microvascular dysfunction after reperfusion therapies and the negative prognostic of this procedure justify the search for therapeutic strategies that aim to restore the microvascular network. It is well known that the size of the initial infarct, the duration of isch...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Badimon L, Borrell M Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Roles of Cyclooxygenase, Prostaglandin E2 and EP Receptors in Mucosal Protection and Ulcer Healing in the Gastrointestinal Tract.
Abstract Endogenous prostaglandins (PGs), produced from arachidonic acid by the two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX), play a pivotal role in maintaining mucosal integrity by modulating various functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and PGE2 is most effective in these actions. The PGE2 receptor is classified into 4 specific G-protein coupled subtypes, EP1-EP4, and their distribution accounts for the multiple effects of this prostanoid. PGE2 prevents acid-reflux esophagitis and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions through EP1 receptors, while endogenous PGs protect the stomach against cold restraint stress me...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takeuchi K, Amagase K Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Process Analytical Technology for Crystallization of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.
CONCLUSION: Application of PAT in crystallization of APIs facilitates development of robust processes that works within the design space to produce the drug products of consistent quality. Furthermore, it opens up the opportunities for continuous improvement of the process by generating knowledge base of existing processes. PMID: 29956616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Malwade CR, Qu H Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Exploring the benefits of cellular models to uncover bioactive polyphenols for neurodegeneration.
Abstract Our society is currently experiencing increased lifespan; one of the top causes for the high incidence of neurodegenerative disorders. The lack of effective treatments delaying or blocking disease progression has encouraged the active search for novel therapies. Many evidences support the protective role of phytochemicals in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly (poly)phenols. In this review, we described the use of cellular-based models of neurodegenerative diseases and the benefits of their use as potent tools in the search for bioactive molecules, particularly (poly)phenols. Studie...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rosado-Ramos R, Godinho-Pereira J, Figueira I, Jardim C, Garcia G, Menezes R Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Coronary microvascular and cardiac dysfunction due to homocysteine pathometabolism; a complex therapeutic design.
Abstract In various metabolic diseases both the coronary circulation and cardiac metabolism are altered. Here we summarize the effects of a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) - which can develop due to genetic or environmental causes - on the function of coronary microvessels and heart. This metabolic disease is underappreciated, yet even mild or moderate elevation of plasma concentrations of homocystein (Hcy, plasma Hcy>16 M), a sulfur-containing amino acid produced via methionine metabolism) leads to coronary and peripheral artery and even venous vessel diseases, leading to vasomotor dysfunction ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koller A, Szenasi A, Dornyei G, Kovacs N, Lelbach A, Kovacs I Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Coronary Microcirculation in Ischemic Heart Disease.
CONCLUSION: Disturbances of the coronary microcirculation are involved in different pathophysiological aspects of reperfusion injury. PMID: 29938611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pries AR, Kuebler WM, Habazettl H Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Microcirculation and Heart Failure.
Abstract The idea of coronary microcirculation playing a role in the pathophysiology of heart failure dates from decades ago, with authors hypothesizing that structural and functional alterations in the coronary microcirculation could potentially contribute to heart failure. It is known that in a wide range of primary cardiomyopathies, from dilated to hypertrophic, there are pathological alterations in myocardial vasculature structure and function, playing a role in the clinical course of the disease. Needless to say, many patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries can suffer from coronary microvascular dys...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Milicic D, Jakus N, Fabijanovic D Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Vasospastic angina and its relationship with the coronary microcirculation.
Abstract Vasospastic angina is an import cause of chest pain due to coronary artery vasospasm that is related with poor quality of life and can lead to myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and death. Since its first description as "Prinzmetal or variant angina" which was believed to be a focal spam that occurred in non-obstructed epicardial coronary arteries, physician and researchers were gradually, confronted with the clinical reality, and came to the conclusion that the coronary artery vasospasm was considerably more polymorphic than initially described. Although mechanism leading to vasospastic angina ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cenko E, Bergami M, Varotti E, Bugiardini R Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Impact of the 719Arg variant of KIF6 and major cardiovascular events on patients who received statins: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Kinesin like protein 6 (KIF6) gene Trp719Arg and major cardiovascular events (MACEs) risk in subjects who received statin therapy. Methods PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through September 2017. The selected studies evaluated the association of Trp719Arg with MACEs in individuals who received statins. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the effect of statin therapy on MACEs in subjects carrying polymorphisms, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen S, Xiang Q, Zhao X, Xie Q, Zhou S, Zhang Z, Mu G, Cui Y Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Different Targeting Strategies For Treating Breast Cancer Bone Metastases.
CONCLUSION: A deeper understanding of these metastatic pathways can provide oncology researchers with novel avenues for treating bone metastasis, one of the main challenges to cure breast cancer. The restoration of healthy bone environment will not only improve the patient's quality of life but also reduces the tumor burden. PMID: 29921200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Irshad I, Varamini P Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Toll-like receptors signaling pathways as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality, and associated with an important economic burden globally. Over the last decade, the prevalence of CVD has been rising globally, and is now associated with millions of death annually in both developed and developing countries. There is good evidence that the immune system is involved in the pathophysiology of CVD. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their down-stream signaling pathways play an important role in the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that the TLRs are involved in atherogenesis, including strok...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Parizadeh SM, Ghandehari M, Heydari-Majd M, Seifi S, Mardani R, Parizadeh SM, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ferns GA, Hassanian SM, Avan A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

BPC157 as potential agent rescuing from cancer cachexia.
Abstract Cancer cachexia, one of the metabolic syndromes caused by cancer, is a devastating and miserable condition encountered in more than 50% of terminal cancer patients presenting with significant weight loss associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and fat loss. Though cachexia may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths, no significant treatment is still lacking and is of urgent unmet medical need in cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms is essential for anticipating therapeutic approaches. Since the primary events driving cachexia are mediated via either the central ne...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kang EA, Han YM, An JM, Park YJ, Sikiric P, Kim DH, Kwon KA, Kim YJ, Yang D, Tchah H, Hahm KB Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

New Approaches for Weight Loss: Experiments in Animal Model.
Abstract The number of people that are overweight and obese is continuously increasing both in the adult and adolescent populations. Coinciding with this is the increased prevalence of health problems such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Bariatric surgery is the only proven long-term treatment of obesity and may induce remission of T2D, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The translational studies presented here might provide insight on the mechanism of steady-state energy balance of the obese phenotype using a special time-restricted feeding regimen for weight loss during the steady-state energy balance; an...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Olsen MK, Johannessen H, Zhao CM, Chen D Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Target molecules and delivery vehicles for anti-HIV drugs in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most serious stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The combinatorial anti-retroviral therapy (cART) is widely used in suppressing HIV-1 infection and enhancing life span of infected patients to a significant level. However, delivery of therapeutic molecules is still a major challenge in vivo. The studies showed that the anti-HIV drugs delivered via nano-carriers could be selectively accumulated in infected cells accompanied by low side effects. On the other hand, HIV-1 infection kinetics is different in macrophages and T-cells suggesting v...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bolhassani A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Editorial: Novel Pharmacotherapeutic Targets and Emerging Approaches to Prevent Preterm Birth, Part 2.
PMID: 29865995 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Reznik SE Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Combination of SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists: potential benefits in surrogate and hard endpoints.
CONCLUSION: The combination of metformin with SGLT2i, GLP-1 RA, and a potent statin, in high CVD risk patients with DM, is expected to substantially reduce CVD mortality and morbidity, improving the quality of life of patients with DM at the same time. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID: 29865997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Doumas M, Imprialos Κ, Stavropoulos K, Reklou A, Sachinidis A, Athyros VG Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

MMPs are involved in osteoporosis and are correlated with cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract Osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in people aged over 60 years. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density, which deteriorates the microarchitecture of bones and increases the risk of bone fractures. Other pathologies also constitute risk factors for the development of osteoporosis, mainly cardiovascular diseases. In fact, a growing number of reports have shown a positive correlation between cardiovascular diseases and low bone mineral density. MMPs are proteases that participate in the organized degradation of the ex...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Azevedo A, Prado AF, Feldman S, de Figueiredo FAT, Dos Santos MCG, Issa JPM Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Theranostics of Gold Nanoparticles with an Emphasis on Photoacoustic Imaging and Photothermal Therapy.
Abstract Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising biomedical agents in terms of both imaging and therapy, exhibiting excellent physical and chemical characteristics. The actions of AuNPs can be remotely controlled using strong near-infrared (NIR) light, associated with minimal lateral invasion. Employing the photoacoustic (PA) principle, AuNPs integrate imaging and temperature control, affording both diagnosis and treatment mediated by NIR light. We here review recent progress in the theranostic field employing AuNPs to both PA and photothermal ends. PMID: 29865999 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source:...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liu Y, Ma W, Wang J Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Current Perspectives regarding Stem Cell-based Therapy for Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Conventional treatment has a limitation of very narrow therapeutic time window and its devastating nature necessitate a novel regenerative approach. Transplanted stem cells resulted in functional recovery through multiple mechanisms including neuroprotection, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, immunomodulation, and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the promising features shown in experimental studies, results from clinical trials are inconclusive from the perspective of efficacy. The present review presents a synopsis of stem cell research on ischemic...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park YS, Lee JW, Kwon HB, Kwak KA Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Kinetics of the Solution-Mediated Polymorphic Transformation of Organic Compounds.
Abstract Polymorphism is a behavior of a substance to crystallize into more than one district crystal structures. Preferential formation of a polymorph depends strongly on the kinetics of the relevant mechanisms. Solution-mediated polymorphic transformation is an important mechanism in crystallization of organic compounds from solution. Knowing its kinetics allows us to understand the process and control the polymorphic formation. In this review, concepts, kinetics, and process modeling of crystallization and solution-mediated polymorphic transformation are examined and summarized. PMID: 29852861 [PubMed - as...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wantha L Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

The role of cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.
Abstract Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are an important cell type present in solid tumor microenvironments, including that of gastric cancer. They play a vital role in the promotion of tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer progression through paracrine signaling and modulation of the extracellular matrix. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between gastric cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts remains poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that various factors, such as gene and microRNA variations, are involved in this process. This review discusses recent advance...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ma Z, Chen M, Yang X, Xu B, Song Z, Zhou B, Yang T Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

The efficacy of omega-3 supplement on prevention of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants: A randomized double-blinded controlled trial.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of omega-3 in treating ROP in premature infants. METHODS: This randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed on 160 premature infants with gestational age lower than 32 weeks and birth weight
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Khalesi N, Bordbar A, Khosravi N, Kabirian M, Karimi A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

The Several Activities of 4 - Methyl Pyrazole In Animals And Humans.
Abstract 4-MP is a potent competitive inhibitor of ADH activity with an affinity about a 1000 times more than toxic alcohols. 4-MP was shown to reduce the formation of toxic metabolites in lethal methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning in animal models and in methanol poisoning in humans. 4-MP has long-lasting gastroprotective effect against ethanol and other chemically induced acute gastric mucosa lesions in rats. We showed, for the first time, that 4-MP also provides significant protection of the human stomach against alcohol induced acute mucosal injury. PMID: 29807511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (S...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Iaquinto G Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

The emerging roles of the HERC ubiquitin ligases in cancer.
CONCLUSION: HERC proteins as ubiquitin ligases are widely involved in various cancers. Targeting at specific HERC proteins could be a strategy for the treatment of certain cancers. PMID: 29807510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mao X, Sethi G, Zhang Z, Wang Q Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Recent Trends in Nanocrystals for Pharmaceutical Applications.
CONCLUSION: The current technologies including top-down, bottom-up, and combinative technologies for nanocrystals were fully examined. Most importantly, the emphasis is put on the pharmaceutical applications including their formulation, administration methods, safety, and toxicity. The commercial status, limitations, challenges, and future trends of the nanocrystals for pharmaceutical applications were also discussed. PMID: 29792137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun L, Hu Y, Zhang L Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Phytomedicines and Novel Polymeric Strategies for Significant Management of Candidiasis.
CONCLUSION: The reported studies suggested the promising role of phytomedicines and novel polymeric drug delivery systems in therapeutic management of candidiasis. Phytomedicines are effective substitute of synthetic drugs as they are inexpensive with lesser number of side effects. Various novel particulate approaches can be successfully used to reduce the fungal burden at the target site. PMID: 29792138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rohilla S, Bhatt DC, Gupta A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Process intensification techniques for the production of nano- and submicronic particles for food and medical applications.
CONCLUSIONS: By reducing the technology transfer gap, nanotechnologies may become convenient and feasible, allowing both industries to achieve the production of higher quality products with particular characteristics without sensibly increasing additional costs. This will represent in the next future a strategic key feature of industries in the global market. PMID: 29792139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stoller M, Di Palma L, Vuppala S, Verdone N, Vilardi G Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Editorial: Molecular Imaging of Inflammation/Infection: The Future of Disease Management.
PMID: 29773052 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Signore A, Erba PA Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Editorial: Colchicine: Conventional and Contemporary Indications.
PMID: 29768995 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design)
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vrachatis DA, Giannopoulos G, Deftereos SG Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research