Ethnic Differences in Bone Microarchitecture
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe aim of this review is to briefly introduce updates in global fracture epidemiology and then to highlight recent contributions to understanding ethnic differences in bone density, geometry and microarchitecture and consider how these might contribute to differences in fracture risk. The review focuses on studies using peripheral quantitative computed tomography techniques.Recent FindingsRecent studies have contributed to our understanding of the differences in fracture incidence both between countries, as well as between ethnic groups living within the same country. In terms of understanding...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - November 17, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Osteocytes and Diabetes: Altered Function of Diabetic Osteocytes
This article gives an overview of events occurring in diabetic osteocytes. In particular, mechanical responses seem to be seriously affected in these conditions, suggesting that mechanical sensibility could be a target for future research in the field. (Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports)
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - November 13, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Glucose-Lowering Drugs and Fracture Risk —a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased fracture risk. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effects of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs on fracture risk in patients with type 2 DM. The heterogeneity of the included studies did not allow formal statistical analyses.Recent FindingsSixty studies were included in the review. Metformin, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and sodium –glucose cotransporter 2-inhibitors do not appear to increase fracture risk. Results for insulin and sulphonylureas were more disparate, ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - November 9, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Correction to: Do Bisphosphonates Alleviate Pain in Children? A Systematic Review
In a previous version of this publication, the author Mercedes Rodriguez Celin ’s name was listed as M.R. Celin. (Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports)
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 29, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Biological Response to Nanosurface Modification on Metallic Biomaterials
AbstractPurpose of reviewNew biomaterials for biomedical applications have been developed over the past few years. This work summarizes the current cell lines investigations regarding nanosurface modifications to improve biocompatibility and osseointegration.Recent findingsMaterial surfaces presenting biomimetic morphology that provides nanoscale architectures have been shown to alter cell/biomaterial interactions. Topographical and biofunctional surface modifications present a positive effect between material and host response.SummaryNanoscale surfaces on titanium have the potential to provide a successful interface for i...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Play During Growth: the Effect of Sports on Bone Adaptation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe development of exercise interventions for bone health requires an understanding of normative growth trends. Here, we summarize changes in bone during growth and the effect of participating in sports on structural and compositional measures in different bones in males and females.Recent FindingsGrowing females and males have similar normalized density and bone area fraction until age 16, after which males continue increasing at a faster rate than females. All metrics for both sexes tend to plateau or decline in the early 20s. Areal BMD measures indicate significant heterogeneity in adaptation to...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

When the Nervous System Turns Skeletal Muscles into Bones: How to Solve the Conundrum of Neurogenic Heterotopic Ossification
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is the abnormal formation of extra-skeletal bones in periarticular muscles after damage to the central nervous system (CNS) such as spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, or cerebral anoxia. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments in the understanding of NHO pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Recent animal models of NHO and recent findings investigating the communication between CNS injury, tissue inflammation, and upcoming NHO therapeutics are discussed.Recent FindingsAnimal models of NHO following TBI or SCI ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Biomechanical Properties of Metastatically Involved Osteolytic Bone
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkeletal metastasis involves the uncoupling of physiologic bone remodeling resulting in abnormal bone turnover and radical changes in bony architecture, density, and quality. Bone strength assessment and fracture risk prediction are critical in clinical treatment decision-making. This review focuses on bone tissue and structural mechanisms altered by osteolytic metastasis and the resulting changes to its material and mechanical behavior.Recent FindingsBoth organic and mineral phases of bone tissue are altered by osteolytic metastatic disease, with diminished bone quality evident at multiple length-...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 19, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Exercise and Diet: Uncovering Prospective Mediators of Skeletal Fragility in Bone and Marrow Adipose Tissue
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight recent basic, translational, and clinical works demonstrating exercise and diet regulation of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone and how this informs current understanding of the relationship between marrow adiposity and musculoskeletal health.Recent FindingsMarrow adipocytes accumulate in the bone in the setting of not only hypercaloric intake (calorie excess; e.g., diet-induced obesity) but also with hypocaloric intake (calorie restriction; e.g., anorexia), despite the fact that these states affect bone differently. With hypercaloric intake, bone quantity is largely unaffected, whe...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 17, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A Review on Recent Advances in the Constitutive Modeling of Bone Tissue
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImage-based finite element analysis (FEA) to predict and understand the biomechanical response has become an essential methodology in musculoskeletal research. An important part of such simulation models is the constitutive material model of which recent advances are summarized in this review.Recent FindingsThe review shows that existing models from other fields were introduced, such as cohesion zone (cortical bone) or phase-field models (trabecular bone). Some progress has been made in describing cortical bone involving physical mechanisms such as microcracks. Problems with validations at differen...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 17, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Failures of Endochondral Ossification in the Mucopolysaccharidoses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cells and tissues. MPS patients frequently exhibit failures of endochondral ossification during postnatal growth leading to skeletal deformity and short stature. In this review, we outline the current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying failures of endochondral ossification in MPS and discuss associated treatment challenges and opportunities.Recent FindingsStudies in MPS patients and animal models have demonstrated ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 16, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Understanding Bone Disease in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: a Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBoth diabetes and kidney disease associate with the development of bone disease and an increased risk of fragility fractures. The etiologies of bone disease in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are multiple and complex. This review explores the association between DKD and bone disease and discusses how the presence of both diabetes and kidney disease may impair bone quality and increase fracture risk. Diagnostic tools as well as future research areas are also discussed.Recent FindingsPatients with DKD have an increased risk of fragility fracture, most pronounced in patients with type 1 di...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 13, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Cancer Cachexia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCachexia, a feature of cancer and other chronic diseases, is marked by progressive weight loss and skeletal muscle wasting. This review aims to highlight the sex differences in manifestations of cancer cachexia in patients, rodent models, and our current understanding of the potential mechanisms accounting for these differences.Recent FindingsMale cancer patients generally have higher prevalence of cachexia, greater weight loss or muscle wasting, and worse outcomes compared with female cancer patients. Knowledge is increasing about sex differences in muscle fiber type and function, mitochondrial me...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 12, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

3D Analysis of Tooth Movement Using 3D Technology
AbstractPurpose of Review3D cone beam imaging (CBCT) has allowed clinicians to better understand the anatomical variations of cranial anatomy. One crucial aspect of this technology plays is the understanding of alveolar bone morphology and remodeling. Variations in cortical bone thickness between individuals have been reported. No published study has analyzed the relationship between cortical bone thickness and rate of tooth movement. The aim of this study is to begin answering the question: is there an association between rate of tooth movement and cortical bone thickness?Recent FindingsTwenty-three patients underwent ext...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 10, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Markers for Identification of Postnatal Skeletal Stem Cells In Vivo
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe adult skeleton contains stem cells involved in growth, homeostasis, and healing. Mesenchymal or skeletal stem cells are proposed to provide precursors to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow adipocytes, and stromal cells. We review the evidence for existence and functionality of different skeletal stem cell pools, and the tools available for identifying or targeting these populations in mouse and human tissues.Recent FindingsLineage tracing and single cell-based techniques in mouse models indicate that multiple pools of stem cells exist in postnatal bone. These include growth plate stem cells, ste...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 9, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Effects of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide on Bone Homeostasis and Regeneration
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goals of this review are two folds: (1) to describe the recent understandings on the roles of calcitonin gene-related peptide- α (CGRP) in bone homeostasis and the underlying mechanisms of related neuronal regulation and (2) to propose innovative CGRP-modulated approaches for enhancing bone regeneration in challenging bone disorders.Recent FindingsCGRP is predominantly produced by the densely distributed sensory neuronal fibers in bone, declining with age. Under mechanical and biochemical stimulations, CGRP releases and exerts either physiological or pathophysiological roles. CGRP at phys...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 8, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Impact of Bone Fracture on Muscle Strength and Physical Performance —Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLow muscle strength and poor physical performance are associated with high risk of fracture. Many studies assessed clinical and functional outcomes of fractures. Fewer studies analyzed the impact of fractures on muscle strength and physical performance.Recent FindingsVertebral fractures (especially multiple and severe ones) are associated with back pain, back-related disability, lower grip strength, lower strength of lower limbs, lower gait speed, and poor balance. Patients with hip fracture have slower gait and lower quadriceps strength. Non-vertebral fractures were associated with lower strength ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 8, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiome and Bone Strength
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOsteoporosis is commonly diagnosed through the clinical assessment of bone quantity using bone mineral density; however, the primary clinical concern is bone fragility. Bone fragility is determined by both bone quantity and bone quality. Over the past decade, the gut microbiome has emerged as a factor that can regulate diseases throughout the body. This review discusses how microbial organisms and their genetic products that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract influence bone quantity, bone quality, and bone strength.Recent FindingsRecent studies have shown that the gut microbiome regulates bone loss...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - October 8, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Do Bisphosphonates Alleviate Pain in Children? A Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this systematic review is to analyze the effectiveness of bisphosphonates (BPs) to treat bone pain in children and adolescents who have diseases with skeletal involvement.Recent FindingsWe included 24 studies (2 randomized controlled trials, 3 non-randomized controlled trials, 10 non-randomized open-label uncontrolled studies, 8 retrospective studies, and 1 study with design not specified). The majority of included studies assessed pain from a unidimensional approach, with pain intensity the most frequently evaluated dimension. Only 38% of studies used validated tools; visual analogue s...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - September 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Genetic Pleiotropy of Bone-Related Phenotypes: Insights from Osteoporosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize recent evidence on the shared genetics within and outside the musculoskeletal system (mostly related to bone density and osteoporosis).Recent FindingsOsteoporosis is determined by an interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Significant progress has been made regarding its genetic background revealing a number of robustly validated loci and respective pathways. However, pleiotropic factors affecting bone and other tissues are not well understood.SummaryThe analytical methods proposed to test for potential associations between genetic variants and multiple phenotypes...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - September 7, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone-Targeting Systems to Systemically Deliver Therapeutics to Bone Fractures for Accelerated Healing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCompared with the current standard of implanting bone anabolics for fracture repair, bone fracture-targeted anabolics would be more effective, less invasive, and less toxic and would allow for control over what phase of fracture healing is being affected. We therefore sought to identify the optimal bone-targeting molecule to allow for systemic administration of therapeutics to bone fractures.Recent FindingsWe found that many bone-targeting molecules exist, but most have been developed for the treatment of bone cancers, osteomyelitis, or osteoporosis. There are a few examples of bone-targeting ligan...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 28, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone-Specific Drug Delivery for Osteoporosis and Rare Skeletal Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe skeletal system provides an important role to support body structure and protect organs. The complexity of its architecture and components makes it challenging to deliver the right amount of the drug into bone regions, particularly avascular cartilage lesions. In this review, we describe the recent advance of bone-targeting methods using bisphosphonates, polymeric oligopeptides, and nanoparticles on osteoporosis and rare skeletal diseases.Recent FindingsHydroxyapatite (HA), a calcium phosphate with the formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is a primary matrix of bone mineral that includes a high concentrati...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 25, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Assessment, Quantification, and Management of Fracture Pain: from Animals to the Clinic
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFractures are painful and disabling injuries that can occur due to trauma, especially when compounded with pathologic conditions, such as osteoporosis in older adults. It is well documented that acute pain management plays an integral role in the treatment of orthopedic patients. There is no current therapy available to completely control post-fracture pain that does not interfere with bone healing or have major adverse effects. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of pain behaviors post-fracture.Recent FindingsWe review animal models of bone fracture and the assays that...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Osteocyte Cellular Senescence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSenescent cells are now known to accumulate in multiple tissues with aging and through their inflammation (the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, SASP) contribute to aging and chronic diseases. Here, we review the roles of senescent osteocytes in the context of bone loss.Recent FindingsNumerous studies have established that senescent osteocytes accumulate in the bone microenvironment with aging in mice and in humans. Moreover, at least in mice, elimination of senescent cells results in attenuation of age-related bone loss. Osteocyte senescence also occurs in response to other cellular stres...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Epigenetic Regulators of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Lineage Determination
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough many signalling pathways have been discovered to be essential in mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSC) differentiation, it has become increasingly clear in recent years that epigenetic regulation of gene transcription is a vital component of lineage determination, encompassing diet, lifestyle and parental influences on bone, fat and cartilage development.Recent FindingsThis review discusses how specific enzymes that modify histone methylation and acetylation or DNA methylation orchestrate the differentiation programs in lineage determination of MSC and the epigenetic changes that facilitate devel...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

New and Old Osteocytic Cell Lines and 3D Models
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review was to compile a list of tools currently available to study bone cells and in particular osteocytes. As the interest (and importance) in osteocyte biology has greatly expanded over the past decade, new tools and techniques have become available to study these elusive cells,Recent FindingsOsteocytes are the main orchestrators of bone remodeling. They control both osteoblasts and osteoclast activities via cell-to cell communication or through secreted factors. Osteocytes are also the mechanosensors of the bone and they orchestrate skeletal adaptation to loads. Recent discoverie...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 12, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

How to Include Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Clinical Trials
This article outlines how we can incorporate patient-reported outcome measures in clinical trials. (Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports)
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 4, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: a Dimmer Switch of Gene Regulation in Calvarial Bone Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEpigenetic regulation is a distinct mechanism of gene regulation that functions by modulating chromatin structure and accessibility. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is a conserved chromatin regulator that is required in the developing embryo to control the expression of key developmental genes. An emerging feature of PRC2 is that it not only allows for binary ON/OFF states of gene expression but can also modulate gene expression in feed-forward loops to change the outcome of gene regulatory networks. This striking feature of epigenetic modulation has improved our understanding of musculoskelet...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 3, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

3D Printing for Bone Regeneration
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to illustrate the current state of 3D printing (3DP) technology used in biomedical industry towards bone regeneration. We have focused our efforts towards correlating materials and structural design aspects of 3DP with biological response from host tissue upon implantation. The primary question that we have tried to address is —can 3DP be a viable technology platform for bone regeneration devices?Recent FindingsRecent findings show that 3DP is a versatile technology platform for numerous materials for mass customizable bone regeneration devices that are also gett...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - August 2, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Advanced Modeling Methods —Applications to Bone Fracture Mechanics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to summarize recent advances in modeling of bone fracture using fracture mechanics –based approaches at multiple length scales spanning nano- to macroscale.Recent FindingsDespite the additional information that fracture mechanics –based models provide over strength-based ones, the application of this approach to assessing bone fracture is still somewhat limited. Macroscale fracture models of bone have demonstrated the potential of this approach in uncovering the contributions of geometry, material property variation, as we ll as loading mode and rate on whole ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 31, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Benefits of Bisphosphonate Therapy: Beyond the Skeleton
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent evidence from clinical trials and observational studies raises the possibility that bisphosphonate use might confer a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, resulting in a mortality benefit. This review summarizes clinical and preclinical studies examining the non-skeletal effects of bisphosphonates.Recent FindingsData from clinical trials are conflicting regarding whether or not bisphosphonates have beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, or cancer incidence. No clinical trials have assessed these outcomes as primary endpoints, and most trials were shorter than 4 &...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 30, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Biomechanics of Implant Fixation in Osteoporotic Bone
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the current literature regarding implant fixation in osteoporotic bone.Recent FindingsClinical studies have not only demonstrated the growing prevalence of osteoporosis in patients undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) but may also indicate a significant gap in screening and treatment of this comorbidity. Osteoporosis negatively impacts bone in multiple ways beyond the mere loss of bone mass, including compromising skeletal regenerative capacity, architectural deterioration, and bone matrix quality, all of which could diminish implant fixation...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Gone Caving: Roles of the Transcriptional Regulators YAP and TAZ in Skeletal Development
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe development of the skeleton is controlled by cellular decisions determined by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors. Recent evidence suggests that the transcriptional regulator proteins, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), could have important roles in directing the activity of these transcriptional programs. However, in vitro evidence for the roles of YAP and TAZ in skeletal cells has been hopelessly contradictory. The goals of this review are to provide a cross-sectional view on the state of the field and to synthe...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 24, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Diabetes and Bone Fragility: SGLT2 Inhibitor Use in the Context of Renal and Cardiovascular Benefits
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to negatively impact bone quality and increase fracture risk. While the pathophysiology of bone fragility in T2DM is not clear and likely multifactorial, medications used to treat T2DM are increasingly scrutinized for their potential role in aberrant bone metabolism. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are gaining popularity in patients with T2DM. In addition to lowering blood glucose, there is evidence that these drugs offer cardiac and renal benefit to individuals with T2DM, leading to FDA-approved indications for use in at-risk indivi...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Stem Cell Therapy as a Treatment for Osteogenesis Imperfecta
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a chronic disease with few treatment options available. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on treating OI with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).Recent FindingsOff-the-shelf MSC have a good safety profile and exhibit multilineage differentiation potential and a low immunogenic profile and are easy to manufacture. Their ability to migrate, engraft, and differentiate into bone cells, and also to act via paracrine effects on the recipient ’s tissues, makes MSC candidates as a clinical therapy for OI. Due to their high osteogenic potency, fetal MSC off...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 23, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Cannabinoids Effect on Bone Formation and Bone Healing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we overview the latest findings from studies investigating the skeletal endocannabinoid (EC) system and its involvement in bone formation and resorption.Recent FindingsThe endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous ligands, receptors, and enzymes. The main cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are expressed in bone and regulate bone homeostasis in rodents and humans. CBD treatment was shown to enhance fracture healing in rats. Recent studies in mice indicate that strain, age, and sex differe...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 22, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Does Whole-Body Vibration Treatment Make Children ’s Bones Stronger?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the last 10  years of literature regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on bone in children, and if WBV results in increased bone acquisition.Recent FindingsWBV intervention appears to be a safe intervention with beneficial effects on bone mass in some diseases and syndromes, but there is still low evidence for WBV in clinical practice. The positive effects on muscle strength, balance, and walking speed are more conclusive. One of the takeaways of this review is that well-trained individuals may not further improve bone mass with WBV; thus, interventions are more bene...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 20, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Is There a Governing Role of Osteocytes in Bone Tissue Regeneration?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBone regeneration plays an important role in contemporary clinical treatment. Bone tissue engineering should result in successful bone regeneration to restore congenital or acquired bone defects in the human skeleton. Osteocytes are thought to have a governing role in bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and thus bone loss and formation. In this review, we address the so far largely unknown role osteocytes may play in bone tissue regeneration.Recent FindingsOsteocytes release biochemical signaling molecules involved in bone remodeling such as prostaglandins, nitric oxid...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - July 16, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Muscle, Bone, and Fat Crosstalk: the Biological Role of Myokines, Osteokines, and Adipokines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkeletal muscle and bone are connected anatomically and physiologically, and play a crucial role in human locomotion and metabolism. Historically, the coupling between muscle and bone has been viewed in light of mechanotransduction, which dictates that the mechanical forces applied to muscle are transmitted to the skeleton to initiate bone formation. However, these organs also communicate through the endocrine system, orchestrated by a family of cytokines namely myokines (derived from myocytes) and osteokines (derived from bone cells). A third player in this biochemical crosstalk is adipose tissue ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 11, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Impact of Exercise on Bone Health in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus —a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased fracture risk. Weight loss in T2DM management may result in lowering of bone mass. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to investigate how exercise affects bone health in people with T2DM. Furthermore, we examined the types of exercise with the potential to prevent and treat bone fragility in people with T2DM.Recent FindingsExercise differs in type, mechanical load, and intensity, as does the osteogenic response to exercise. Aerobic exercise improves metabolic health in people with T2DM. However, the weight-bearing component ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 10, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone-Muscle Mutual Interactions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the current state of our thinking regarding bone-muscle interactions beyond the mechanical perspective.Recent FindingsRecent and prior evidence has begun to dissect many of the molecular mechanisms that bone and muscle use to communicate with each other and to modify each other ’s function. Several signaling factors produced by muscle and bone have emerged as potential mediators of these biochemical/molecular interactions. These include muscle factors such as myostatin, Irisin, BAIBA, IL-6, and the IGF family and the bone factors FGF-23, Wnt1 and Wnt3...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone Muscle Crosstalk in Spinal Cord Injuries: Pathophysiology and Implications for Patients ’ Quality of Life
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of (i) bone and muscle tissue modifications pathophysiology in spinal cord injury (SCI), (ii) experimental data on the physiopathological mechanisms underpinning these modifications and their similarities with the aging process, and (iii) potential clinical implications in the management of the disabling sequelae of SCI.Recent FindingsSeveral studies attempted to describe the biology underpinning the links between bone and muscle tissues in the setting of highly disabling conditions, such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and neurodegenerati...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Rare Bone Disease TeleECHO Program: Leveraging Telehealth to Improve Rare Bone Disease Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRare bone diseases constitute ~  5% of all known rare diseases and can require complex, multidisciplinary care. Advancing access to current medical knowledge is an important strategy for improving care for rare bone diseases throughout the world. To support this goal, the Rare Bone Disease Alliance launched the Rare Bone Disease TeleECHO in 2019.Recent FindingsThe Rare Bone Disease TeleECHO is a monthly video teleconference that fosters a collegial community of practice and opportunities for active learning through interactive case-based learning. TeleECHO relies on a hub-and-spoke model, wh...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 7, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Myokines and Osteokines in the Pathogenesis of Muscle and Bone Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review we aim to summarize the latest findings on the network of molecules produced by muscle and bone under physiological and pathological conditions.Recent FindingsThe concomitant onset of osteoporosis and sarcopenia is currently one of the main threats that can increase the risk of falling fractures during aging, generating high health care costs due to hospitalization for bone fracture surgery. With the growing emergence of developing innovative therapies to treat these two age-related conditions that often have common onset, a broader understanding of molecular messengers regulating th...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 7, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Update on the Acute Effects of Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins on Bone Turnover In Vivo
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an update on the acute effects of glucose, insulin, and incretins on markers of bone turnover in those with and without diabetes.Recent FindingsBone resorption is suppressed acutely in response to glucose and insulin challenges in both healthy subjects and patients with diabetes. The suppression is stronger with oral glucose compared with intravenous delivery. Stronger responses with oral glucose may be related to incretin effects on insulin secretion or from a direct effect on bone turnover. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) infusion ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 4, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Potential Importance of Immune System Response to Exercise on Aging Muscle and Bone
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe age-related loss of skeletal muscle and bone tissue decreases functionality and increases the risk for falls and injuries. One contributing factor of muscle and bone loss over time is chronic low-grade inflammation. Exercise training is an effective countermeasure for decreasing the loss of muscle and bone tissue, possibly by enhancing immune system response. Herein, we discuss key interactions between the immune system, muscle, and bone in relation to exercise perturbations, and we identify that there is substantial “cross-talk” between muscle and bone and the immune system in resp...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - June 3, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Correction to: New Developments in Fracture Risk Assessment
The article, “New Developments in Fracture Risk Assessment for Current Osteoporosis Reports. (Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports)
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - May 20, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Actions of IGF-1 in the Growth Plate and Its Role in Postnatal Bone Elongation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBone elongation is a complex process driven by multiple intrinsic (hormones, growth factors) and extrinsic (nutrition, environment) variables. Bones grow in length by endochondral ossification in cartilaginous growth plates at ends of developing long bones. This review provides an updated overview of the important factors that influence this process.Recent FindingsInsulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is the major hormone required for growth and a drug for treating pediatric skeletal disorders. Temperature is an underrecognized environmental variable that also impacts linear growth. This paper revie...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - May 14, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Delivery of RNAi-Based Therapeutics for Bone Regeneration
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe clinical significance, target pathways, recent successes, and challenges that preclude translation of RNAi bone regenerative approaches are overviewed.Recent FindingsRNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new therapeutic approach for bone regeneration by stimulating or inhibiting critical signaling pathways. However, RNAi suffers from significant delivery challenges. These challenges include avoiding nuclease degradation, achieving bone tissue targeting, and reaching the cytoplasm for mRNA inhibition. Many drug delivery systems have overcome stability and intracellular localization challenges b...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - May 10, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Modelling Human Locomotion to Inform Exercise Prescription for Osteoporosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the literature on hip fracture mechanics and models of hip strain during exercise to postulate the exercise regimen for best promoting hip strength.Recent FindingsThe superior neck is a common location for hip fracture and a relevant exercise target for osteoporosis. Current modelling studies showed that fast walking and stair ambulation, but not necessarily running, optimally load the femoral neck and therefore theoretically would mitigate the natural age-related bone decline, being easily integrated into routine daily activity. High intensity jumps and hopping have been shown to promote...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - April 24, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research