Pulmonary embolism in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): rational and stepwise use of clinical data and imaging in its diagnosis
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Towards quantitative small-animal imaging on hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI systems
ConclusionsMulti-modality imaging has attracted a lot of research, particularly in the preclinical portfolio. Nevertheless, more research is still needed to optimize the conceptual design, reach the limits of quantitative imaging and implement standardized protocols for small-animal studies. Without any doubt, exploring the potential advantages of combined imaging units providing optimal image quality and reliable tools for quantification of biological parameters through standardized imaging protocols is one of the goals of translational research. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New insight and future perspective of mesothelin-targeted agents in nuclear medicine
ConclusionsRadiolabeled anti-mesothelin antibodies could be crucial as a treatment tool and for predicting the eligibility and the response of the patient to radioimmunotherapy through the study of the expression grade of mesothelin. They can be a relevant tool for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, lung cancer, human epidermoid carcinoma, ovarian cancer, malignant mesothelioma in which mesothelin is widely expressed. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The current role of PET/CT in urological malignancies
ConclusionPET/CT imaging has an established role in the diagnosis of some urological malignancies and, in specific clinical indications, is used because of the enormous potential to alter patient management. Besides the established roles of FDG PET/CT, the advances of novel radiotracers for PET/CT imaging in urological malignancies, such as PSMA PET/CT, allows evaluation in the settings of staging, recurrence, response to therapy, and prognosis. Furthermore, PET/CT imaging helps in planning and assessing response to treatment in theranostics. Molecular images identify early changes that conventional anatomical studies cann...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET/MR in neuro-oncology: is it ready for prime-time?
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental 18 F-FDG uptake in the pituitary
ConclusionsClinicians, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians should be aware that incidental18F-FDG uptake in the pituitary is an infrequent finding corresponding to benign lesions in most of the cases. Nevertheless, if the patient has normal life expectancy, MRI pituitary examination should be performed to better characterize these incidental findings due to possible clinical consequences of some pituitary incidentalomas if untreated. Further well-designed studies are needed on this topic, especially in view of the increasing frequency of immunotherapy, whose side-effects can be seen by increased18F-FDG uptake in t...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer patient ’s clinical management: a pictorial essay of interesting cases with histologic confirmation
DiscussionIn this pictorial essay and review, the meaning of high PSMA expression in neovasculature and uncommon PCa metastatic spread were addressed. Furthermore, recent information about the possible explanation of (1) PCa metastases without PSMA expression due to dedifferentiation and specific PCa subtypes, and (2) some discordant findings on PSMA expression evaluated by PET/CT and immunohistochemistry related to the anti-PSMA antibody used in each technique is presented. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Nuclear imaging for diagnosing fracture-related infection
ConclusionRetrospective studies show promising results for both FDG-PET/CT and WBC scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in diagnosing FRI. A prospective, multicenter study (IFI trial), directly comparing MRI, FDG-PET/CT, and WBC scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in patients with suspected FRI, is currently in progress. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sentinel node identification with [99mTc]-tilmanocept SPECT/CT: a pictorial essay of clinical applications
Discussion[99mTc]-tilmanocept SPECT/CT resulted in an excellent choice for preoperative lymphatic mapping and presented an optimal biodistribution with a rapid injection-site clearance and persistent SLN retention that could lead to improved accuracy of sentinel node identification in selected cases of melanoma, oral and breast cancer. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In memoriam of Professor Giovanni Lucignani
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Metabolic connectivity in Alzheimer ’s diseases
AbstractMultiple studies have investigated the disruptions in structural and functional connectivity in aging, dementia and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). The study of metabolic connectivity between brain regions using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) however, is a new focus of interest. Several methodological approaches, including seed-based correlation, independent and principal component analysis, and gra ph-theoretical approaches have been employed to study the metabolic disconnectivity in AD. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using the keywords metabolic connectivity and Alz...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Copper-mediated late-stage radiofluorination: five years of impact on preclinical and clinical PET imaging
ConclusionsCMRF has significantly expanded the chemical space that is accessible to fluorine-18 radiolabeling with production methods that can meet the regulatory requirements for use in Nuclear Medicine. Furthermore, it has enabled novel and improved syntheses of radiopharmaceuticals and facilitated subsequent PET imaging studies. The rapid adoption of CMRF will undoubtedly continue to simplify the production of imaging agents and inspire the development of new radiofluorination methodologies. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular imaging of cardiovascular inflammation and infection in people living with HIV infection
ConclusionThis review aimed to present an update on the evidence supporting the role of molecular imaging modalities with radionuclide techniques for imaging of cardiovascular inflammation and infection focusing on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis in PLHIV. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current role of 18F-FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of the main forms of dementia
ConclusionThe large experience accumulated using FDG-PET for the differential diagnosis of the main conditions with dementia has been translated into more formal evidence to support its clinical use. Although FDG-PET form currently part of the clinical practice in many countries, there is still a lack of studies using standardized analysis that confirm specific patterns at individual level. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of 18 F-FDG PET for COVID-19 infection: myth versus reality
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Typical lung carcinoids: review of classification, radiological signs and nuclear imaging findings
ConclusionsTCs of lung are rare lung tumours placed within a defined classification system. MDCT morphological features combined with functional nuclear medicine imaging are an important tool for the detection of these rare neoplasms and contribute to their characterisation and staging. Therefore, MDCT and nuclear medicine parameters could give a preliminary orientation before the pathological examination, on the biological behaviour and the prognostic outcome of TCs. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: 18 F-FMISO PET imaging: insights over MRI in patients with glioma
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The sequence of all author names were incorrect. The correct names are: Riccardo Laudicella, Natale Quartuccio, Pierpaolo Alongi, Domenico Albano, Maria Gazzilli, Rexhep Durmo, Francesco Bertagna, Sergio Baldari. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison between 18 F-FDG and 18 F-NaF PET imaging for assessing bone metastases in breast cancer patients: a literature review
ConclusionBoth18F-NaF and18F-FDG are suitable for assessing skeletal involvement in BC patients. However, inherent different uptake mechanism highlights differences in diagnostic performance between these tracers, reflecting specific bone metastases ’ characteristics. Therefore, a complementary use of18F-NaF and18F-FDG PET imaging may be considered in clinically selected BC patients, such as those with suspicious bone involvement despite negative18F-FDG PET imaging, with prevalent CT-sclerotic bone findings or with apparently confined or oligo-metastatic cancer to exclude widespread disease. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Nuclear medicine: a global perspective
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance and prognostic role of FDG PET/CT performed at staging in anal cancer
ConclusionsFDG PET/CT performed at staging has a good diagnostic performance in anal cancer patients. Some baseline metabolic parameters seem to have also a prognostic significance. Further research is required to validate these results. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of [ 18 F]-FDG PET in patients with atypical parkinsonism associated with dementia
ConclusionAlthough available studies in patients with APS and dementia suffer from methodological limitations, the expert consensus emerged from the EANM/EAN recommendations was in favor of its use for specific clinical questions in these group of patients. Studies in a larger number of patients published after the publication of the joint recommendations have further supported the use of18F-FDG PET in patients with APS associated with dementia. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiolabelled Trastuzumab PET/CT imaging: a promising non-invasive tool for the in vivo assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer patients
ConclusionAdditional studies are needed to validate the potential role of radiolabelled trastuzumab PET/CT, demonstrating its effectiveness in detection of HER2-positive lesions and in identification of BC patients who could benefit from specific and personalized therapy. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hypoxia PET imaging beyond 18 F-FMISO in patients with high-grade glioma: 18 F-FAZA and other hypoxia radiotracers
ConclusionHypoxia PET imaging has the potential to provide useful information for the clinicians and to guide hypoxia tailored treatments. According to the present literature, the most promising hypoxic tracer seems to be18F-FAZA, but well-designed and wide trials to validate hypoxia radiotracers and evaluate their clinical utility in daily practice are still lacking. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical and translational imaging 2020: update on progresses thanks to readers and editors
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiolabeled somatostatin analogues for the diagnosis and therapy of NETs: upcoming new strategies
ConclusionsInteresting perspectives are opened by the availability of PET/MRI and full digital PET/CT due to the improved detector sensitivity and spatial resolution. At the same time, new strategies will be sought based on the association of PRRT with old and/or newer oncologic therapeutic strategies, or on the use of radionuclide cocktails. An intriguing future can be envisaged due to the commercial availability of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides, which may allow better results compared to beta-emitters, likely due to the bystander and/or abscopal effect. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The need of a clinically oriented reporting of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung  cancer (NSCLC)
ConclusionA multidisciplinary approach to cancer patients has a significant impact in their management and outcome.  A clinically-oriented report is needed to transfer the relevant information to the clinician to fully exploit PET potential in NSCLC. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

18 F-FDG PET/CT role in Burkitt lymphoma
ConclusionsBL is an18F-FDG-avid lymphoma histotype and18F-FDG PET/CT is the best imaging tool to stage patients affected by BL. Preliminary findings about the usefulness of FDG PET/CT features in the evaluation of treatment response and prognosis are available without strong evidence. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

18 F-FMISO PET imaging: insights over MRI in patients with glioma
ConclusionHypoxia PET imaging has demonstrated potential benefits for grading, diagnostic and prognostic purposes, despite the lack of tangible results able to introduce such method in a wide clinical setting. MRI remains the gold standard in the morphologic evaluation of glioma, but the integration of results provided by18F-FMISO PET imaging concerning hypoxia might provide new crucial information in patients with glioma. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

18 F-FDG in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias
AbstractThe diagnostic workflow of patients with cognitive decline needs an extensive clinical evaluation. The use of FDG-PET can be helpful because the finding of a rather specific pattern of hypometabolism could point to specific neurodegenerative disorders. In patients with memory impairment and visuo-spatial deficits, FDG-PET may reveal a pattern of temporo-parietal hypometabolism that is associated with Alzheimer ’s disease or a more extended area of hypometabolism that spreads to the occipital cortex, as in posterior cortical atrophy indicating signs of neurodegeneration in the associative visual cortex. In the...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodal therapy of advanced differentiated thyroid cancer, with emphasis on the role of radioiodine
AbstractIntroductionDifferentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for 95% of all thyroid cancers and is generally an indolent tumor, tending to present with limited loco-regional disease with an excellent long-term survival after treatment. However, 5 –10% present with locally advanced disease and aero-digestive tract invasion or distant metastases that are the main cause of thyroid cancer-related deaths.MethodsThe present review aims to underline the complex management of advanced DTC including treatment of gross extra-thyroidal extension, recurrent loco-regional, or distant metastatic disease.ResultsRadioiodine ther...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Liquid biopsies and molecular imaging: friends or foes?
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of FDG PET in large vessel vasculitis
ConclusionsOverall, FDG PET has a good diagnostic performance for the detection of active disease in LVV. Future prospective studies, more consistent with the joint procedural recommendations in LVV, are needed to support the use of standardized procedures and reproducible criteria for defining the presence of LVV with FDG PET/CT. Hybrid imaging and novel radiopharmaceuticals, more specific than FDG, are the future of PET in this field. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PSMA-PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer: why and when
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Management of hyperglycemia in oncological patients scheduled for an FDG-PET/CT examination
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hybrid cardiac PET/MR: the value of multiparametric assessment in cardiac sarcoidosis
ConclusionHybrid cardiac PET/MR is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. Moreover, as it offers activity and tissue characterisation, it can be used to tailor and monitor treatment. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET/MRI for neuroendocrine tumors: a match made in heaven or just another hype?
ConclusionThe current literature reports successful technical feasibility of PET/MRI for imaging of NETs. While whole-body PET/CT in conjunction with an abdominal MRI may serve as a comprehensive approach for baseline staging, follow-up with PET/MRI may be preferred for those with liver-only disease. Another possible role for PET/MRI is to provide a multiparametric approach to follow-up of response to treatment. With further advances in MRI imaging acquisitions and post-processing techniques, PET/MRI may become more applicable to a broader group of patients with NETs, and possibly the imaging modality of choice for this pa...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced approaches to imaging primary breast cancer: an update
ConclusionConventional BC-imaging modalities have both advantages and limitations. When utilized in combination, they are often complementary. For example, a limitation of mammography is low sensitivity in dense breasts. The addition of DBT lessens this limitation by providing three-dimensional (3D) images of the breast that minimizes the effect of overlying breast tissue. Additionally, US added to mammography in dense breasts increases screening sensitivity and has the advantages of accessibility and lack of ionizing radiation. MRI is currently the most sensitive method used for detecting BC. When MRI is not suitable for ...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

68 Ga-DOTA-peptides PET/MRI in pancreatico-duodenal neuroendocrine tumours: a flash pictorial essay on assets and lacks
Conclusion68Ga-DOTATOC PET/MRI combines the high sensitivity and specificity of68Ga-DOTATOC PET tracer and MR high-quality imaging, especially for the liver. The clinical setting of GEP-NETs represents an interesting setting of application of this imaging technique, although the pros and cons should be taken into account until further methodological improvements will occur, especially for the characterization of lung findings. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy plus somatostatin analogues for a neuroendocrine tumour combined and maintenance treatment
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy and 18 F-FDG PET/CT: standardised procedures are needed
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Investigations of possible links between Alzheimer ’s disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by positron emission tomography: a systematic review
ConclusionThe relationships between DM and AD identified by PET appear to be independent of amyloid deposition and predominantly highlighted by reduced glucose metabolism, as suggested by four of the five glucose metabolism studies. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The eye of nuclear medicine
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Targeting prostate cancer with the anti-PSMA scFvD2B: a theranostic promise for nuclear medicine
ConclusionscFvD2B seems to be a promising fragment as a molecular vector in NM applications. Nevertheless, further investigations, especially with radiometal-labeled scFvD2B, are necessary to better characterize and optimize the unique properties of this fragment, providing the basis for a rapid translation into the clinic. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

FDG-PET/CT as a diagnostic tool in vascular graft infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsAccording to this systematic review and meta-analysis, FDG-PET/CT performs well especially when using focal versus diffuse FDG uptake to diagnose VGI. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral –oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: standards, new technical procedures, and clinical advances
ConclusionNumerous studies have demonstrated that SNB can be proposed for accurate histopathological staging of the neck and the guidelines support the introduction of SNB as an alternative to END in T1/T2 N0 OSCC patients. New hybrid imaging techniques, which are offering new possibilities to assist clinicians and surgeons in localizing the site of uptake in sentinel node detection, need to be confirmed in ongoing and future clinical trials. In the future, the integration of new PET tracers could continue along the route mapped out in SNB. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The value of yttrium-90 PET/CT after hepatic radioembolization: a pictorial essay
ConclusionPET/CT is an excellent modality for post-treatment imaging of90Y-microspheres and could lead to improved dose planning and more personalized treatment. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET imaging of vulnerable coronary artery plaques
ConclusionsMolecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool for imaging different components of vulnerable coronary artery plaques and, potentially, for selecting patients at high-risk of myocardial infarction for personalized treatments. However, the results of large clinical trials on asymptomatic patients to link coronary plaque activity to patient outcome are strongly required. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A look ahead: future directions of SSR-directed imaging and therapy in meningioma
AbstractBackgroundMeningiomas, which are the most common of CNS tumours in adults, show a high expression of the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSR). Visualization of these receptors with specific PET ligands augments contrast-enhanced MRI and CT of the brain in resolving several clinical issues related to differential diagnosis, evaluation of meningioma extent, and therapy planning or follow-up. Moreover, SSR-directed radioligands labeled with beta-emitters serve for radiopeptide therapy (RPT) in patients with recurrent or refractory meningioma. In the light of recent developments in radiochemistry, neuropathology/molec...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET biomarkers and probes for treatment response assessment in glioblastoma: a work in progress
ConclusionWhereas it appears that the use of old and new PET radiopharmaceuticals can advance the non-invasive assessment of treatment response in GBM, the optimal match of biomarker –probe pairs although highly needed is still being sought in particular with the active development of new highly specific treatments characterized by novel antitumoral targeting strategies. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 27, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detection rate of radiolabelled choline PET or PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsRadiolabelled choline PET/CT demonstrated good ability in detecting HCC. The DR increased when dual-tracer PET/CT was performed. Large multicenter studies and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research