Pictorial essay: incidental findings on 18 F-Fluciclovine PET/CT scan
DiscussionClinical cases selected in this pictorial essay have demonstrated that Fluciclovine is not an exclusive and specific radiotracer for prostate cancer and, therefore, can induce misdiagnosis. In fact, incidental benign and malignant uptake might occur and should be further evaluated with clinical correlation or other imaging. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive review on design perspective of PET ligands based on β-amyloids, tau and neuroinflammation for diagnostic intervention of Alzheimer’s disease
ConclusionOur comprehensive review will provide comparison and help in the design perspective of the futuristic PET tracers for Alzheimer's disease by improving their affinity towards biomarkers with higher selectivity A β/tau for delineation of AD at an early stage.Graphic abstract (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Funding of nuclear medicine research and association with citation impact
ConclusionsMore than half of research in major nuclear medicine journals declared funding. The far majority were supported federally, followed by non-profit foundations, intramural institutional foundations, and private industry. Funding was associated with higher citation impact. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning in Nuclear Medicine —focus on CNN-based approaches for PET/CT and PET/MR: where do we stand?
DiscussionOverall, CNN applications for PET/CT and PET/MR are exponentially growing, demonstrating encouraging results for both technical and clinical purposes. Novel research strategies emerged to face the challenges of DL algorithms development. Education and confidence with DL-based tools are needed for proper technology implementation. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New kid on the block in theranostics: Glypican-3
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cervical alterations in Hirayama disease: an MRI and FDG-PET combined approach
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of PSMA PET on management of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies
AbstractPurposeProstate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA PET) is a promising imaging modality for detection of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer (BRPCa). This systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the impact of PSMA PET on the management of BRPCa patients based on prospective studies.MethodsAccording to the PRISMA statement, articles in Pubmed and Embase were searched till May 26th, 2020 to identify eligible prospective studies that reported changes in the management of BRPCa patients after PSMA PET assessment. The quality of included studies was accessed using the Cochrane Co...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Change of management by using hybrid imaging with radiolabelled choline in biochemical recurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review and a meta-analysis
ConclusionsOur meta-analysis demonstrated that hybrid imaging with radiolabelled choline may change the management in about half of BRPCa patients. However, as for other PET radiopharmaceuticals, large-scale prospective multicentric studies are needed to investigate whether BRPCa patients can benefit from PET-related treatment changes. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular imaging of pancreatic neoplasms
ConclusionFDG PET/CT plays a key role in PDAC in staging, restaging as well as disease monitoring during follow-up. Functional imaging with68Ga-labeled SSA is the gold standard in imaging of well-differentiated pNETs. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Head-to-head comparison between 18 F-FDG PET/low-dose CT and 18 F-FDG PET/contrast-enhanced CT in relapsing ovarian carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
In this study, a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis was carried out to compare18F-FDG PET/ldCT18F-FDG PET/ceCT in relapsing OC.Materials and methodsWe performed a systematic review of the literature through the most relevant databases and web sources. Original articles published before September 2020 and concerning a direct comparison of18F-FDG PET/ceCT and18F-FDG PET/ldCT in detecting an OC recurrence were considered. A proportion meta-analysis was then performed using a random-effects model.ResultsOut of 111 identified papers, a total of four (296 patients) were selected, all of them representing re...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic role of 11 C-methionine PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma and other plasma cell malignancy: a literature review
AbstractIn patients with plasma cell malignancy (multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma), whole-body low-dose computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and18F-FDG PET/CT are widely applied and suggested by international guidelines to assess the disease extension. Recently,11C-methionine PET/CT has proven to be promising in those patients compared to other diagnostic techniques. We aimed to review current literature on the state of the art of11C-methionine PET/CT in patients with plasma cell malignancy. PubMed/MEDLINE database was screened to find articles regarding the role of11C-methionine PET/CT in plasma cell malignan...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

False iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy findings in adrenal tumors: correlation with MR imaging
In this study, we report our experience regarding the occurrence of false radionuclide findings in adrenal iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy. We present a total of five patients in which nuclear images were false negative or positive in three and two cases, respectively, according to the standard radionuclide established criteria. In particular, the three cases of false-negative MIBG images consisted of two patients with necrotic or cystic pheochromocytomas (Cases 1 and 3) and a patient with a small pheochromocytoma (Case 2); the two cases of false-positive MIBG imaging consisted of a patient with an adenoma showing intense tra...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - December 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence techniques support nuclear medicine modalities to improve the diagnosis of Parkinson ’s disease and Parkinsonian syndromes
ConclusionThe recent literature provides strong evidence that AI techniques can play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of movement disorders by means of nuclear medicine modalities, therefore paving the way towards personalized medicine. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - December 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiolabeled fibroblast activation protein inhibitor (FAPI) pet in oncology: has the time come for 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose to think to a well-deserved retirement?
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical applications of receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Tilmanocept: sentinel node biopsy and beyond
AbstractPurpose99mTc-tilmanocept is the first mannose-containing, receptor-directed, radiopharmaceutical for molecular imaging and mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in solid tumor staging. This review focuses on the approved and innovative clinical application of99mTc-tilmanocept.Results and conclusion99mTc-Tilmanocept is a new-generation radiotracer designed to overcome certain limitations of the conventionally used radiocolloids. The superior efficacy profile of99mTc-tilmanocept has been demonstrated in several preclinical and clinical studies based on its specific properties like rapid injection site clearance, hig...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Choline PET/CT and intraoperative management of primary brain tumors. New insights for contemporary neurosurgery
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pictorial review of the clinical applications of MIBG in neuroblastoma: current practices
ConclusionIodine-123-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is the cornerstone of functional imaging for staging, therapeutic response monitoring, prognostication, and the detection of recurrence in patients with neuroblastoma. MIBG images are interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System and the International Neuroblastoma Staging System are used to stage the disease extent before and after surgical resection, respectively. The Revised International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria, updated in 2017, stratify the treatment response based on findings on func...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET –CT for staging patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer: is it more than just a fancy tool?
ConclusionPET –CT/MRI appears to have higher diagnostic accuracy than CT or MRI for local and distant staging of MIBC but it cannot (yet) be recommended in clinical practice because the quality of the evidence is insufficient and the effects on treatment decisions and patient’s outcome remain unclear. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiolabelled PSMA PET/CT or PET/MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a systematic review
ConclusionRadiolabelled PSMA imaging seems to be useful in analyzing hepatocellular carcinoma. Further studies enrolling a wider population are needed to clarify the real clinical and diagnostic role of radiolabelled PSMA in this setting. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 27, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CuATSM PET to diagnose age-related diseases: a systematic literature review
ConclusionCuATSM uptake is higher in neurological and cardiovascular diseases and associated with disease severity and duration. Further investigations using CuATSM PET in other age-related diseases are needed. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

18F-FDG PET/MRI in adult sarcomas
Conclusions18F-FDG PET/MRI has promising indications in patients with sarcomas, from disease staging to the assessment of response to treatment. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results, especially in subgroups with specific histopathological features. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Value of chest computed tomography scan in diagnosis of COVID-19; a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionSimultaneous observation of GGO and other features of viral pneumonia in CT scan had optimum performance in detection of COVID-19. However, it is suggested to make the final diagnosis based on both CT scan and RT-PCR, as none of the two diagnostic modalities are reliable alone. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging of the roots of the brachial plexus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of normative values
ConclusionsThe FA and MD of the roots of the brachial plexus vary according to experimental conditions and participant factors. We provide summary estimates of the normative values in different conditions which may be valuable to researchers and clinicians alike. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Accidental diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia after 18F FDG PET/CT: a case series
ConclusionSuspicious accidental COVID-19 findings in Nuclear Medicine Department need to be reported and appropriately evaluated to implement proper supportive treatment and infection control measures. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

FDG PET/CT versus somatostatin receptor PET/CT in TENIS syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionFDG PET/CT has a higher capability to detect metastases than SSTR PET/CT in patients with TENIS Syndrome. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Surveys on COVID-19 in nuclear medicine: what happened and what we learned
ConclusionSurveys about the impact of COVID-19 in NM could improve the departments ’ daily activities, to find a compromise between the security protocols suggested by international guidelines. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain PET/CT using prostate cancer radiopharmaceutical agents in the evaluation of gliomas
ConclusionspcPET tracers present potential utility in the differential diagnosis, estimation of prognosis, evaluation of recurrence and treatment planning in patients with glioma. These radiotracers may hold a complementary role in conjunction with advanced MRI techniques in the non-invasive grading of gliomas. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dopamine transporter imaging in neurodegenerative movement disorders: PET vs. SPECT
ConclusionDAT-SPECT is established for differentiating degenerative from non-degenerative parkinsonism. For further differentiation within neurodegenerative Parkinsonian syndromes, DAT-PET has essential benefits. Nowadays, because of wider availability of PET systems and radioligand production centers, and the possibility to use simplified quantification methods, DAT-PET imaging is feasible for clinical use. Therefore, DAT-PET needs to be considered for a more active role in the clinic to take a step forward to a more comprehensive understanding and assessment of Parkinson ’s disease. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in endometrial adenocarcinoma: a review of the literature and recent advances
ConclusionDespite evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance are increasing, the low sensitivity represents the main limitation of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging utilization for the detection of primary tumor and lymph node metastases. Better performances were observed for distant metastasis and EC recurrence. Further randomized prospective studies are needed to increase both the low level of evidence and low strength of recommendation for using 18F-FDG PET/CT in EC. Promising results emerged from PET/MRI. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging HCC treated with radioembolization: review of the literature and clinical examples of choline PET utility
ConclusionHCC staging is better performed with PET/CT, thus allowing for a more adequate selection of patients candidate to transarterial radioembolization. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pancreatic nodule positive for 68-Ga-DOTAPEPTIDE-PET: NET or ectopic spleen? The importance of a good differential diagnosis
Discussion and conclusionsDespite concern in the medical literature, a differential IPAS diagnosis is still subordinate to other clinical, radiological, nuclear medicine, and cytological criteria. After reviewing the literature, we recommend that IPAS should always be considered as a possibility before diagnosis of pNET is made. IPAS should be suspected in the presence of the following findings: asymptomatic pancreatic nodule found incidentally, absence of laboratory findings of NETs, localization in the pancreatic tail, between 1 and 3  cm in size with well-defined margins, homogeneous enhancement, and similar attenu...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

We will continue to grow up together!
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New challenges for the clinical and translational imaging journal
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pulmonary embolism in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): rational and stepwise use of clinical data and imaging in its diagnosis
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 27, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Towards quantitative small-animal imaging on hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI systems
ConclusionsMulti-modality imaging has attracted a lot of research, particularly in the preclinical portfolio. Nevertheless, more research is still needed to optimize the conceptual design, reach the limits of quantitative imaging and implement standardized protocols for small-animal studies. Without any doubt, exploring the potential advantages of combined imaging units providing optimal image quality and reliable tools for quantification of biological parameters through standardized imaging protocols is one of the goals of translational research. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

New insight and future perspective of mesothelin-targeted agents in nuclear medicine
ConclusionsRadiolabeled anti-mesothelin antibodies could be crucial as a treatment tool and for predicting the eligibility and the response of the patient to radioimmunotherapy through the study of the expression grade of mesothelin. They can be a relevant tool for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, lung cancer, human epidermoid carcinoma, ovarian cancer, malignant mesothelioma in which mesothelin is widely expressed. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The current role of PET/CT in urological malignancies
ConclusionPET/CT imaging has an established role in the diagnosis of some urological malignancies and, in specific clinical indications, is used because of the enormous potential to alter patient management. Besides the established roles of FDG PET/CT, the advances of novel radiotracers for PET/CT imaging in urological malignancies, such as PSMA PET/CT, allows evaluation in the settings of staging, recurrence, response to therapy, and prognosis. Furthermore, PET/CT imaging helps in planning and assessing response to treatment in theranostics. Molecular images identify early changes that conventional anatomical studies cann...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET/MR in neuro-oncology: is it ready for prime-time?
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental 18 F-FDG uptake in the pituitary
ConclusionsClinicians, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians should be aware that incidental18F-FDG uptake in the pituitary is an infrequent finding corresponding to benign lesions in most of the cases. Nevertheless, if the patient has normal life expectancy, MRI pituitary examination should be performed to better characterize these incidental findings due to possible clinical consequences of some pituitary incidentalomas if untreated. Further well-designed studies are needed on this topic, especially in view of the increasing frequency of immunotherapy, whose side-effects can be seen by increased18F-FDG uptake in t...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 24, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer patient ’s clinical management: a pictorial essay of interesting cases with histologic confirmation
DiscussionIn this pictorial essay and review, the meaning of high PSMA expression in neovasculature and uncommon PCa metastatic spread were addressed. Furthermore, recent information about the possible explanation of (1) PCa metastases without PSMA expression due to dedifferentiation and specific PCa subtypes, and (2) some discordant findings on PSMA expression evaluated by PET/CT and immunohistochemistry related to the anti-PSMA antibody used in each technique is presented. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Nuclear imaging for diagnosing fracture-related infection
ConclusionRetrospective studies show promising results for both FDG-PET/CT and WBC scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in diagnosing FRI. A prospective, multicenter study (IFI trial), directly comparing MRI, FDG-PET/CT, and WBC scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in patients with suspected FRI, is currently in progress. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sentinel node identification with [99mTc]-tilmanocept SPECT/CT: a pictorial essay of clinical applications
Discussion[99mTc]-tilmanocept SPECT/CT resulted in an excellent choice for preoperative lymphatic mapping and presented an optimal biodistribution with a rapid injection-site clearance and persistent SLN retention that could lead to improved accuracy of sentinel node identification in selected cases of melanoma, oral and breast cancer. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In memoriam of Professor Giovanni Lucignani
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Metabolic connectivity in Alzheimer ’s diseases
AbstractMultiple studies have investigated the disruptions in structural and functional connectivity in aging, dementia and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). The study of metabolic connectivity between brain regions using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) however, is a new focus of interest. Several methodological approaches, including seed-based correlation, independent and principal component analysis, and gra ph-theoretical approaches have been employed to study the metabolic disconnectivity in AD. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using the keywords metabolic connectivity and Alz...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Copper-mediated late-stage radiofluorination: five years of impact on preclinical and clinical PET imaging
ConclusionsCMRF has significantly expanded the chemical space that is accessible to fluorine-18 radiolabeling with production methods that can meet the regulatory requirements for use in Nuclear Medicine. Furthermore, it has enabled novel and improved syntheses of radiopharmaceuticals and facilitated subsequent PET imaging studies. The rapid adoption of CMRF will undoubtedly continue to simplify the production of imaging agents and inspire the development of new radiofluorination methodologies. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Molecular imaging of cardiovascular inflammation and infection in people living with HIV infection
ConclusionThis review aimed to present an update on the evidence supporting the role of molecular imaging modalities with radionuclide techniques for imaging of cardiovascular inflammation and infection focusing on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis in PLHIV. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current role of 18F-FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of the main forms of dementia
ConclusionThe large experience accumulated using FDG-PET for the differential diagnosis of the main conditions with dementia has been translated into more formal evidence to support its clinical use. Although FDG-PET form currently part of the clinical practice in many countries, there is still a lack of studies using standardized analysis that confirm specific patterns at individual level. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of 18 F-FDG PET for COVID-19 infection: myth versus reality
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Typical lung carcinoids: review of classification, radiological signs and nuclear imaging findings
ConclusionsTCs of lung are rare lung tumours placed within a defined classification system. MDCT morphological features combined with functional nuclear medicine imaging are an important tool for the detection of these rare neoplasms and contribute to their characterisation and staging. Therefore, MDCT and nuclear medicine parameters could give a preliminary orientation before the pathological examination, on the biological behaviour and the prognostic outcome of TCs. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: 18 F-FMISO PET imaging: insights over MRI in patients with glioma
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The sequence of all author names were incorrect. The correct names are: Riccardo Laudicella, Natale Quartuccio, Pierpaolo Alongi, Domenico Albano, Maria Gazzilli, Rexhep Durmo, Francesco Bertagna, Sergio Baldari. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research