Hybrid cardiac PET/MR: the value of multiparametric assessment in cardiac sarcoidosis
ConclusionHybrid cardiac PET/MR is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. Moreover, as it offers activity and tissue characterisation, it can be used to tailor and monitor treatment. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET/MRI for neuroendocrine tumors: a match made in heaven or just another hype?
ConclusionThe current literature reports successful technical feasibility of PET/MRI for imaging of NETs. While whole-body PET/CT in conjunction with an abdominal MRI may serve as a comprehensive approach for baseline staging, follow-up with PET/MRI may be preferred for those with liver-only disease. Another possible role for PET/MRI is to provide a multiparametric approach to follow-up of response to treatment. With further advances in MRI imaging acquisitions and post-processing techniques, PET/MRI may become more applicable to a broader group of patients with NETs, and possibly the imaging modality of choice for this pa...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced approaches to imaging primary breast cancer: an update
ConclusionConventional BC-imaging modalities have both advantages and limitations. When utilized in combination, they are often complementary. For example, a limitation of mammography is low sensitivity in dense breasts. The addition of DBT lessens this limitation by providing three-dimensional (3D) images of the breast that minimizes the effect of overlying breast tissue. Additionally, US added to mammography in dense breasts increases screening sensitivity and has the advantages of accessibility and lack of ionizing radiation. MRI is currently the most sensitive method used for detecting BC. When MRI is not suitable for ...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

68 Ga-DOTA-peptides PET/MRI in pancreatico-duodenal neuroendocrine tumours: a flash pictorial essay on assets and lacks
Conclusion68Ga-DOTATOC PET/MRI combines the high sensitivity and specificity of68Ga-DOTATOC PET tracer and MR high-quality imaging, especially for the liver. The clinical setting of GEP-NETs represents an interesting setting of application of this imaging technique, although the pros and cons should be taken into account until further methodological improvements will occur, especially for the characterization of lung findings. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy plus somatostatin analogues for a neuroendocrine tumour combined and maintenance treatment
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - September 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy and 18 F-FDG PET/CT: standardised procedures are needed
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Investigations of possible links between Alzheimer ’s disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by positron emission tomography: a systematic review
ConclusionThe relationships between DM and AD identified by PET appear to be independent of amyloid deposition and predominantly highlighted by reduced glucose metabolism, as suggested by four of the five glucose metabolism studies. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The eye of nuclear medicine
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Targeting prostate cancer with the anti-PSMA scFvD2B: a theranostic promise for nuclear medicine
ConclusionscFvD2B seems to be a promising fragment as a molecular vector in NM applications. Nevertheless, further investigations, especially with radiometal-labeled scFvD2B, are necessary to better characterize and optimize the unique properties of this fragment, providing the basis for a rapid translation into the clinic. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

FDG-PET/CT as a diagnostic tool in vascular graft infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsAccording to this systematic review and meta-analysis, FDG-PET/CT performs well especially when using focal versus diffuse FDG uptake to diagnose VGI. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral –oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: standards, new technical procedures, and clinical advances
ConclusionNumerous studies have demonstrated that SNB can be proposed for accurate histopathological staging of the neck and the guidelines support the introduction of SNB as an alternative to END in T1/T2 N0 OSCC patients. New hybrid imaging techniques, which are offering new possibilities to assist clinicians and surgeons in localizing the site of uptake in sentinel node detection, need to be confirmed in ongoing and future clinical trials. In the future, the integration of new PET tracers could continue along the route mapped out in SNB. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The value of yttrium-90 PET/CT after hepatic radioembolization: a pictorial essay
ConclusionPET/CT is an excellent modality for post-treatment imaging of90Y-microspheres and could lead to improved dose planning and more personalized treatment. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET imaging of vulnerable coronary artery plaques
ConclusionsMolecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool for imaging different components of vulnerable coronary artery plaques and, potentially, for selecting patients at high-risk of myocardial infarction for personalized treatments. However, the results of large clinical trials on asymptomatic patients to link coronary plaque activity to patient outcome are strongly required. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A look ahead: future directions of SSR-directed imaging and therapy in meningioma
AbstractBackgroundMeningiomas, which are the most common of CNS tumours in adults, show a high expression of the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSR). Visualization of these receptors with specific PET ligands augments contrast-enhanced MRI and CT of the brain in resolving several clinical issues related to differential diagnosis, evaluation of meningioma extent, and therapy planning or follow-up. Moreover, SSR-directed radioligands labeled with beta-emitters serve for radiopeptide therapy (RPT) in patients with recurrent or refractory meningioma. In the light of recent developments in radiochemistry, neuropathology/molec...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - July 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET biomarkers and probes for treatment response assessment in glioblastoma: a work in progress
ConclusionWhereas it appears that the use of old and new PET radiopharmaceuticals can advance the non-invasive assessment of treatment response in GBM, the optimal match of biomarker –probe pairs although highly needed is still being sought in particular with the active development of new highly specific treatments characterized by novel antitumoral targeting strategies. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 27, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detection rate of radiolabelled choline PET or PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsRadiolabelled choline PET/CT demonstrated good ability in detecting HCC. The DR increased when dual-tracer PET/CT was performed. Large multicenter studies and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predictive value of pre-treatment FDG PET in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with radioimmunotherapy: a systematic review
ConclusionsAlthough it is still not possible to specifically define the best PET-based predictor (i.e. SUVmax, TLG, MTV), FDG-PET is a promising tool for a more accurate and individualized selection of NHL patients candidates to RIT. The availability of FDG  PET examinations in homogenous group of patients included in already completed clinical trials might be used in the next future also to specifically assess the prognostic value of baseline FDG PET in patients treated with RIT based on the study design. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current status of SSR-directed imaging and therapy in meningioma
ConclusionMolecular imaging with SSR-directed radioligands contributes to the diagnostic work-up of meningioma patients by providing information that is absent from structural MR or CT imaging. Targeted SSR RPT offers well-tolerated treatment options in patients with refractory or recurrent meningioma. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Combined 68 Ga-DOTA-peptides and 18 F-FDG PET in the diagnostic work-up of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN)
ConclusionsThere is still very limited evidence supporting the role of a routine use of combined68Ga DOTA-peptide and18F-FDG PETs in the diagnostic work-up of NEN. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - June 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Recent developments of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-specific radiopharmaceuticals for precise imaging and therapy of prostate cancer: an overview
AbstractDespite significant research activities and subsequent progress made in the fight against cancer over the last few decades, prostate cancer remains a major health-related problem and there is no effective option available for the treatment of advanced metastatic prostate cancer as yet. There is a high clinical demand for the development of new and efficacious tumor-targeting agents together with more efficient treatment methods that could improve the prostate patient outcome. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in all types of prostate carcinomas, making PSMA a potential molecular target f...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of thyroglobulin in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer
ConclusionsSerum Tg is a useful biomarker for risk stratification and decision-making in the management of DTC. It is expected to be used more widely in NM practice. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy after NETTER-1 clinical trial: what should not be left behind
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: The role of molecular imaging in the frame of the revised dementia with Lewy body criteria
In the article mentioned above all authors were assigned affiliation 14, which is wrong. Affiliation 14 belongs only to author Agostino Chiaravalloti. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - May 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

18 F-FDG in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsies: a pictorial essay
AbstractAmong the therapeutic options of drug-resistant focal epilepsies, surgical treatment is the most effective treatment, provided that the location of the epileptogenic area is identified. Among the imaging modalities, MRI represents the fundamental method for the identification of structural lesions. However, despite the continuous technical progress of the equipment, a significant proportion of patients do not present recognizable alterations with MRI. PET with18F-FDG is a method of investigation of cerebral metabolism and can be useful to identify the epileptogenic area and the extension of the epileptogenic networ...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of molecular imaging in the frame of the revised dementia with Lewy body criteria
DiscussionDLB Consortium clearly states that clinical diagnosis in clinical routine is suboptimal and gives more weight to molecular imaging biomarkers to offer a more objective information. Along with DaT, mIBG and FDG techniques, brain PET with more specific radiotracers could open a new scenario for an accurate evaluation of biomarkers involved in DLB. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fluorescent imaging of bacterial infections and recent advances made with multimodal radiopharmaceuticals
ConclusionIn our view, the highest translational potential lies with compounds that are based on targeting vectors that are specific for bacteria: e.g., fluorescently labelled UBI29 –41, polymyxin B, vancomycin, ZnDPA and aM. tuberculosis-specific β-lactamase-cleavable linker CNIP800. Multimodal concepts using dually labelled UBI29 –41, vancomycin, and ZnDPA help connect optical imaging to the more traditional use of radiopharmaceuticals in infectious diseases. Multimodal bacterial imaging is a promising strategy not only to diagnose bacterial infections but also to evaluate the effectivity of surgical tre...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - April 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

14th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN)
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Integration of imaging biomarkers into systems biomedicine: a renaissance for medical imaging
AbstractSystems biomedicine consists in the integration of biosciences, medicine and computer sciences. Systems biomedicine is supposed to allow a holistic approach to the human subject and its disease states. This paper outlines the basic concepts and open issues in this field and provides an outlook for the integration of medical imaging procedures in the growing area of systems biomedicine. The terms “Systems biomedicine”, “Systems medicine” were used for bibliographic search in Pubmed and Web of sciences. Most relevant papers were selected for inclusion in this paper; a synthesis of the papers i...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Head-to-head comparison between 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MRI in breast cancer
ConclusionsPET/MRI has some advantages in breast cancer, being able to detect more primary and skeletal/non-skeletal distant metastases, as compared to PET/CT, thanks to the advantages from the combined MRI. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - March 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The new opportunities for high time resolution clinical TOF PET
AbstractTime-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) traces its origins to the beginning of PET itself. A brief historical review will be followed by a discussion of the recent development in silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), which has generated a quality leap in TOF performance. The principles of TOF PET physics and a discussion of the technical and clinical advantages of TOF PET compared to conventional PET will be presented: the concept of time resolution and its effect on TOF gain in signal-to-noise ratio, together with other properties such as reconstruction robustness to inconsistent data, convergence, and ...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An update on radiotracer development for molecular imaging of bacterial infections
ConclusionThis review summarises updates in tracer development for specific (pre-clinical and clinical) imaging of bacterial infections. We propsed some promising tracers that are likely to become innovative standards in the clinical setting in the near feature. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evidence-based indications for the planning of PET or PET/CT capacities are needed
ConclusionsThe piloting of PET capacity planning using evidence-based information is a first of its kind in the published literature. On one hand, the high number of PET scans that could not be ascribed to any of the categories identified limits to the instructive power of the study to use evidence-based indication lists as the basis for a needs-assessment investment planning. On the other hand, this study reveals how there is a need to improve indication coding for enhanced capacity planning of medical services. Overall recommendations identified can serve as needs-based and evidence-based decision support for PET/PET &nd...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Towards consensus in acquisition and image analysis of PET and SPECT in the assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation: a mini-review
AbstractIn the rapidly evolving field of nuclear medicine, imaging cardiac sympathetic innervation using both conventional nuclear medicine and PET tracers is a small but growing field of interest. Recent larger clinical trials have underlined the importance of imaging cardiac sympathetic innervation as well as the consequences of low regional tracer accumulation for patient outcomes. New developments have resulted in the introduction of novel PET tracers with high clinical potential, especially for imaging centers without an on-site cyclotron. Despite the generated guidelines, especially on MIBG scintigraphy, widespread c...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

HTA in nuclear medicine: [ 68 Ga]PSMA PET/CT for patients with prostate cancer
AbstractThe [68Ga]PSMA PET/CT has been an option on clinical research tools to stage and to restage prostate cancer patients, although, with promising results, this radiopharmaceutical cannot be commercialized yet. Hence, up to date, [68Ga]PSMA has been used in a clinical research context. Once regulatory body approved it for marketing, health systems are responsible for the reimbursement decision. Health Technology Assessments (HTA) tools should be considered to base and to help decision-makers to spread or not this new technology. Regarding [68Ga]PSMA, under HTA framework, the present study searched for secondary studies...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical and translational imaging keeps growing: thanks to its board members, authors and readership
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Nuclear medicine and immunotherapy: many questions but not many answers yet
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Open letter to journal editors on: International Consensus Radiochemistry Nomenclature Guidelines
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac amyloidosis
ConclusionsAdvances in cardiac biomarkers assessment, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance and nuclear molecular imaging have improved the ability of cardiologists in the recognition and prognostic stratification of this not so rare, not so untreatable cardiac disease. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - January 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) in prostate cancer
AbstractDespite significant advances in detection and treatment, prostate cancer (PC) remains the most common malignancy and a major cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Imaging is critically important for the diagnosis, staging, and management of men with prostate cancer (PC). The conventional imaging modalities have been employed for local and metastatic staging with limited performance. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) using prostate membrane antigen-based tracers is the most widely used in research and clinical applications in this scenario. However, other ways to image PC are available. Here, we review...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - December 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

PET in brain tumors
ConclusionsThe complexity of illustrated cases demonstrates the need for a multidisciplinary board evaluation to reach a more accurate diagnosis. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - December 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of myocardial 123 I-mIBG innervation imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases
AbstractNeurodegenerative diseases occur when neurons in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems lose function over time and ultimately die. They are characterized by common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation, categorising each type of disease. Therefore, the definitive diagnosis is at post-mortem, based on pathology. However, the development of various molecular imaging techniques has enabled pathological changes to be inferred in vivo. Decreased myocardial123I-mIBG uptake has been reported in some patients with neurodegenerative diseases. This review is aime...
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of immunotherapy response in non-small cell lung cancer: challenges and perspectives
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of functional imaging in lung cancer
AbstractOver the past decade, functional imaging by means of18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has improved tumor staging and treatment planning leading to somewhat higher survival rates, in particular in NSCLC patients. This review focuses on the recent insight gained and at current challenges encountered while pursuing improved outcome in patients suffering from NSCLC or SCLC. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - November 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tau PET imaging evidence in patients with cognitive impairment: preparing for clinical use
ConclusionPost-mortem validations of in vivo data in large cohorts and studies investigating the clinical added value of this biomarker in comparison with others will be required before routine clinical use of this new modality. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiopharmacology and molecular imaging of PD-L1 expression in cancer
ConclusionsAll reported radiopharmaceuticals had high sensitivity and specificity to identify tumours with PD-L1 expression in animal model. Clinical experiments appear to be now justifiable. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A fresh breeze sweeps through nuclear medicine 2018
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics: is it time to compose the puzzle?
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Standardisation of PSMA images interpretation: why do we need it?
(Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity analysis of 18 F-FDG PET imaging in oncology: clinical indications and perspectives
ConclusionPET radiomics show their potential to non-invasively improve tumoral characterisation and identification of aggressive pattern complementary to other omics. To be implemented in clinic, these promising results nevertheless need further validation, which must go through a standardisation of their extraction conditions. Machine learning, especially deep learning, could allow the empowerment of the selection of features and the creation of powerful prognostic models including clinical, pathological and iconographic parameters. (Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging)
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - August 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research