Clip-on device offers protection against mosquitoes that transmit Zika
(Entomological Society of America) A product called the OFF!® Clip-On™ repellent device could be an effective tool for preventing bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito -- the primary vector of Zika, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever -- according to an article in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 2, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What you need to know about Zika virus
Follow me at @JohnRossMD Last week, the government of El Salvador gave what might be the strangest public health advice of all time: don’t get pregnant for the next two years. Officials in Colombia, Ecuador, and Jamaica have also warned women to avoid pregnancy, although only for the next several months. The reason for these unusual recommendations? An outbreak of Zika virus, currently raging in 21 countries in the Americas and the Caribbean, as well as the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Samoa, and Cape Verde. Until recently, Zika was an obscure virus, confined to equatorial Africa and Asia, an...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - February 1, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: John Ross, MD, FIDSA Tags: Children's Health Family Planning and Pregnancy Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Source Type: news

WHO calls on countries of the Region to take steps to prevent Zika virus
Cairo, 31 January 2016 As the Zika virus outbreak continues to spread reaching 24 countries in the Americas (as of 27 January),  WHO’s Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean Dr Ala Alwan is calling on governments to work together to keep the Region protected.   “Zika virus is spread by the Aedes mosquito, the same type of mosquito that transmits dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya,” says Dr Ala Alwan.  “No cases of the virus have been reported so far in this Region, but this type of mosquito exists in several countries here, so it is essential that government leaders take s...
Source: WHO EMRO News - February 1, 2016 Category: Middle East Health Source Type: news

Surveillance and Control of Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus in the United States
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 01/25/2016This resource provides guidance for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito surveillance and control in response to the risk of introduction of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever viruses in the United States and its territories. It is intended for state and local public health officials and vector control specialists. Topics include Prevention and Control, Vector Surveillance and Control Recommendations, Specimen Collection and Types of Traps, Mosquito-Based Surveillance Indicators, and Vector Control. (Text) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disast...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - January 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Updated Diagnostic Testing for Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses in U.S. Public Health Laboratories
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 01/13/2016This four-page memorandum provides information about diagnostic testing for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses in U.S. public health laboratories. Laboratory evidence of recent chikungunya, dengue, or Zika virus infection is generally accomplished by testing serum to detect viral nucleic acid or virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and neutralizing antibodies. The document discusses laboratory assays for acute and convalescent specimens, laboratory safety, and options for obtaining/conducting Zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus diagnostic testing. It includes a tiere...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - January 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

The Latest On Zika: One Mother's Story
As Zika virus, which is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, continues to dominate the headlines, personal stories are coming to the forefront. One mother whose son was born with microcephaly, the birth defect believed to be linked to the Zika virus, describes the difficulty of facing her son's future without certainty that he'll ever be able to walk or talk. With the high volume of news about the Zika virus, it's tough to stay up-to-date. Check out our full coverage here -- or read our daily recaps here. Here's the latest information you should know: 1. Brazilian mother of baby born with microcep...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - January 30, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Revised Diagnostic Testing for Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses in U.S. Public Health Laboratories
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 02/07/2016This six-page memorandum provides revised information about diagnostic testing for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses in U.S. public health laboratories. This test algorithm now includes a recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women with a history of travel to areas with local transmission of Zika virus or are living in an area with ongoing transmission. Laboratory evidence of recent chikungunya, dengue, or Zika virus infection is generally accomplished by testing serum to detect viral nucleic acid or virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M ...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - January 29, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Zika virus infection – United States of America - United States Virgin Islands
On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the United States of America notified PAHO/WHO of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus infection in St. Croix, one of the three main islands in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). The USVI Department of Health received laboratory confirmation of the case on 22 January. The patient is a non-pregnant woman from USVI who reported the onset of fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia on 1 January. She had not travelled in the three weeks that preceded the onset of symptoms. A serum sample obtained from the patient on 8 January tested IgM positive at the...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - January 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: pesticide [subject], insecticides, fungicides, risk factor [subject], risk, health risks, water [subject], safe water, wastewater, greywater, clean water, Disease outbreak news [doctype], Region of the Americas [region], United States of America [country] Source Type: news

The Latest On Zika: World Leaders Weigh In
As Zika virus, which is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, continues to dominate the headlines, world leaders and health organizations warned the public about the virus' spread and offered up resources to fight the disease, which is likely linked to a wave of birth defects in Brazil over the past few months.  With the high volume of news about the Zika virus -- check out our full coverage here -- it's tough to stay up-to-date on the most recent developments. Here's the latest information you should know: 1. World Health Organization says Zika is "spreading explosively" in the Americas Four ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - January 29, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

All the Way Humans Try to Kill Mosquitos—and Why We’re Still Losing
For such a tiny creature, mosquitoes have caused humans untold misery for millennia. The insect, which measures no more than a few millimeters in length, has killed tens of millions of human beings by spreading deadly diseases like malaria and dengue fever with its bite. The Zika virus, which scientists believe may be causing severe birth defects in newborn children whose mothers had been infected, is the latest mosquito-borne illness to strike fear in the public as it explodes through Latin America and threatens the U.S. Read More: U.S. Launches ‘Full-Court Press’ on Zika Vaccine But if mosquitoes have been ki...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - January 28, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Justin Worland Tags: Uncategorized crispr gene editing genetic modification Infectious Disease mosquitos Zika Zika mosquitos Zika transmission Source Type: news

All the Ways Humans Try to Kill Mosquitos—and Why We’re Still Losing
MoreCDC Says 31 Americans Diagnosed with ZikaWhy the Zika Outbreak Marks a New Normal for Infectious DiseaseCDC Confirms Zika Virus Infection in Minnesota Woman For such a tiny creature, mosquitoes have caused humans untold misery for millennia. The insect, which measures no more than a few millimeters in length, has killed tens of millions of human beings by spreading deadly diseases like malaria and dengue fever with its bite. The Zika virus, which scientists believe may be causing severe birth defects in newborn children whose mothers had been infected, is the latest mosquito-borne illness to strike fear in the public a...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - January 28, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Justin Worland Tags: Uncategorized crispr gene editing genetic modification Infectious Disease mosquitos Zika Zika mosquitos Zika transmission Source Type: news

Zika Virus Health Information Resources from NLM’s Outreach and Specific Populations Branch
We have all been hearing more about the mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, Zika Virus. The National Library of Medicine has gathered together these resources to assist public health departments, health care providers, librarians, and others seeking authoritative information on the virus. General Information Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Zika Virus – http://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html World Health Organization (WHO) Zika virus disease – http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/en/ Zika Virus Fact sheet...
Source: Dragonfly - January 27, 2016 Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Emily Glenn Tags: News from NLM Public Health Source Type: news

International entomologists to collaborate on controlling Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue in Brazil
(Entomological Society of America) On March 13, 2016, in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil, the Entomological Society of America (ESA) and the Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil (SEB) will host a gathering of the world's entomological societies to discuss collaborative control options to combat one of the world's most deadly animal species -- Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that transmits Zika virus, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 27, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Zika Virus (ZIKV) Surveillance in the Americas: Interim Guidance for Laboratory Detection and Diagnosis
World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization. 06/29/2015This four-page document provides an algorithm that is addressed to reference laboratories with established capacity (molecular/antigenic and serological) to detect dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika (ZIKV) viruses. There are different protocols (primers and probes) for detecting ZIKV by RT-PCR (both conventional and real time). Because of their sensitivity, the tools used by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are recommended. (PDF) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - January 24, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

U.S. Launches ‘Full-court Press’ for a Zika Vaccine
The United States is pushing to develop a vaccine for the Zika virus, a top health official said Thursday, as doctors warn that the mosquito-borne disease, which causes birth defects in infants and is typically found abroad, has become a growing threat in the U.S. “I’ve made it clear that we want to put a full-court press.” Dr. Anthony Fauci, who heads the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said in an interview. “I’m saying, ‘Folks, this is it, all hands on deck for Zika, this is really important.’ We are rapidly pushing.” In addition to vaccine developmen...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - January 21, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alexandra Sifferlin Tags: Uncategorized birth defects Infectious Disease NIH public health vaccine Zika Zika virus Source Type: news

How Can We Slow The Epidemic Of Zika Infections?
Zika infections are exploding in the Americas and require new tools to slow the epidemic. Given that Zika seems the likely cause of a serious birth defect, microcephaly, the CDC has just cautioned pregnant women to avoid travel to affected areas. The travel warnings are likely to decimate tourism, particularly to hardest hit Brazil, already burdened with dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks. How can we best respond to these threats? (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - January 19, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Judy Stone Source Type: news

Zika Warning Spotlights Latin America’s Fight Against Mosquito-Borne Diseases
The C.D.C. advisory for pregnant women to avoid more than a dozen Latin American countries comes only a few months before the start of the Olympic Games in Brazil. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - January 17, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: SIMON ROMERO Tags: Dengue Fever Travel Warnings Zika Mosquitoes Brazil Latin America Chikungunya Virus Guillain-Barre Syndrome Olympic Games (2016) Source Type: news

We Need To Take Action Against Zika Virus Now, U.S. Experts Say
By: Mindy Weisberger Published: 01/15/2016 02:34 AM EST on LiveScience The rapid spread of a disease called Zika virus urgently requires attention, two leading researchers say. Zika virus is the most recent in a list of viruses that were formerly confined to remote niches of the world but are now expanding their reach into the Northern Hemisphere. Much about these viruses is still poorly understood, wrote Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and Dr. David Morens, senior scientific advisor for the NIAID, in an article published in the New England Journal of M...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - January 15, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

From Aedes to Zika: Mosquito-borne Viruses a Growing ConcernFrom Aedes to Zika: Mosquito-borne Viruses a Growing Concern
Chikungunya, dengue, and now Zika viruses pose significant risks to travelers' health, with little defense except mosquito-control measures. Medscape Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Internal Medicine Headlines)
Source: Medscape Internal Medicine Headlines - January 12, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Infectious Diseases Commentary Source Type: news

4 Things To Know About Zika's Potential Spread To The U.S.
A mosquito-borne virus that may have caused serious birth defects for thousands of babies in Brazil made its way to Puerto Rico by the end of last year, and experts are grappling with what this means -- if anything -- for North America. Zika has been characterized in the past as an annoying but generally harmless sickness, with symptoms like rash, fever, joint-pain and red eyes. In fact, about one in four who get infected with disease probably don't even notice they have it. But when the virus became widespread in Brazil in 2015, with an estimated 500,000 to 1.5 million residents contracting Zika, health officials noticed ...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: news

4 Things To Know About Zika's Potential Spread To The U.S.
A mosquito-borne virus that may have caused serious birth defects for thousands of babies in Brazil made its way to Puerto Rico by the end of last year, and experts are grappling with what this means -- if anything -- for North America. Zika has been characterized in the past as an annoying but generally harmless sickness, with symptoms like rash, fever, joint-pain and red eyes. In fact, about one in four who get infected with disease probably don't even notice they have it. But when the virus became widespread in Brazil in 2015, with an estimated 500,000 to 1.5 million residents contracting Zika, health officials noticed ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - January 11, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Q&A: Zika virus in mothers linked with microcephaly in babies in Brazil
You may have heard the news: Brazil is facing a startling outbreak of microcephaly, a rare condition in which an infant is born with a head much smaller than it should be. Microcephaly almost always causes significant brain damage and can be life threatening. The epidemic has been linked to a simultaneous influx of the mosquito-borne virus Zika. Thriving spoke with Dr. Ganeshwaran Mochida, a pediatric neurologist at Boston Children’s Hospital who specializes in microcephaly, and Dr. Asim Ahmed, an infectious disease researcher at Boston Children’s who specializes in mosquito-borne illnesses, to find out mo...
Source: Thrive, Children's Hospital Boston - January 11, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Erin Horan Tags: Ask the Expert Diseases & Conditions Health Headlines In the News dr. asim ahmed dr. ganesh mochida http://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/cytomegalovirus/overview infectious diseases microcephaly mosquitoe Source Type: news

Evolution and Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus that is spreading worldwide in the tropical areas and that has a 11.8 kb RNA genome. The most relevant vectors belong to the genus Aedes and contribute to the diffusion of the three different genotypes of the virus from the original site of first identification in East Africa. Recently, an additional site of origin has been identified in Asia. The epidemiology of Chikungunya has been extensively evaluated from 2004 when the virus initiated its travel eastbound from the coast of Africa to the Indian Ocean. It is noteworthy that this diffusion has been mainly sustained by Ae. albopi...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Molecular Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus by Sequencing
Molecular surveillance of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is important as it provides data on the circulating CHIKV genotypes in endemic countries and enabling activation of measures to be taken in the event of a pending outbreak. Molecular surveillance is carried out by first detecting CHIKV in susceptible humans or among field-caught mosquitoes. This is followed by sequencing a selected region of the virus which will provide evidence on the source of the virus and possible association of the virus to increased cases of Chikungunya infections. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Advanced Genetic Methodologies in Tracking Evolution and Spread of Chikungunya Virus
Recent advances in genetic methodologies have substantially expanded our ability to track evolution and spatio-temporal distribution of rapidly evolving pathogens. The information gathered from such analyses can be used to decipher host adaptations that shape disease epidemiology. In this chapter, we demonstrate the utilization of freely available resources to track the evolution and spread of Chikungunya virus. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Synthetic Peptide-Based Antibody Detection for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Infection with and without Neurological Complications
Synthetic peptide-based diagnosis of Chikungunya can be an efficient and more accessible approach in immunodiagnostics. Here, we describe the identification of Chikungunya-specific 40 kD protein for development of synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in the patient’s sample. The total sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profile of the patient’s sample can be done to identify specific protein bands. The identified proteins can be subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for ...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Expression and Purification of E2 Glycoprotein from Insect Cells (Sf9) for Use in Serology
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus which poses a major threat to global public health. Definitive CHIKV diagnosis is crucial, especially in distinguishing the disease from dengue virus, which co-circulates in endemic areas and shares the same mosquito vectors. Laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serological or molecular approaches. The E2 glycoprotein is a good candidate for serological diagnosis since it is the immunodominant antigen during the course of infection, and reacts with seropositive CHIKV sera. In this chapter, we describe the generation of stable clone Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Diagnostic Methods for CHIKV Based on Serological Tools
This chapter presents the most commonly used serological methods for the diagnosis of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in humans. CHIKV is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. CHIKV infection in human causes acute febrile illness frequently accompanied by severe joint pain. Most of the infected patients may develop chronic arthralgia that may persist for several months or years. Laboratory diagnosis of CHIKV infection is mainly based on molecular and serological tests. The serological tests represent a valuable tool for diagnosis and epidemi...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Detection and Quantification of Chikungunya Virus by Real-Time RT-PCR Assay
Real-time PCR assay has many advantages over conventional PCR methods, including rapidity, quantitative measurement, low risk of contamination, high sensitivity, high specificity, and ease of standardization (Mackay et al., Nucleic Acids Res 30:1292–1305, 2002). The real-time PCR system relies upon the measurement of a fluorescent reporter during PCR, in which the amount of emitted fluorescence is directly proportional to the amount of the PCR product in a reaction (Gibsons et al., Genome Res 6:995–1001, 1996). Here, we describe the use of SYBR Green I-based and TaqMan® real-time reverse transcription polym...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes
In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal
Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host. (Source: Springer protocols fee...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Chikungunya Virus Growth and Fluorescent Labeling: Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Immunofluorescence Assay
Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a highly versatile and sensitive assay for detection and titration of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The IFA technique requires virus-infected cells (viral antigen) and antibodies specific to the viral antigens for detection. Suitable antibodies for detection include monoclonal antibodies specific to CHIKV structural and nonstructural proteins, polyclonal antibodies, and convalescent serum samples. Here, the details of virus antigen preparation, detection by IFA method, and applications are described. The described IFA method is potentially useful in a wide range of studies including virus gro...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Virus Isolation and Preparation of Sucrose-Banded Chikungunya Virus Samples for Transmission Electron Microscopy
Virus isolation and purification is an invaluable technique in virology to detect and characterize viruses. This chapter describes a large-scale Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) propagation and purification methods by using discontinuous sucrose gradient, and sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy. Sucrose-banding yields large quantities of high-titer (1010 pfu/ml) CHIKV stocks. Such stocks are stable for years when stored at −70 °C. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Viral–Host Protein Interaction Studies Using Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening Method
Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay is one of the earliest methods developed to study protein–protein interactions. In the proteomics era, Y2H has created a niche of its own by providing protein interaction maps for various organisms. Owing to limited coding capacities of their genomes, viruses are dependent on their host cellular machinery for successful infection. Identification of the key players orchestrating the survival of virus in their host is essential for understanding viral life cycle and devising strategies to prevent interactions resulting in pathogenesis. In this chapter, Y2H assay will be explained in detail ...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis
Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tande...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Bioinformatics Based Approaches to Study Virus–Host Interactions During Chikungunya Virus Infection
The limitations of high-throughput genomic methods used for studying virus–host interactions make it difficult to directly obtain insights on virus pathogenesis. In this chapter, the central steps of a protein structure similarity based computational approach used to predict the host interactors of Chikungunya virus are explained by highlighting the important aspects that need to be considered. Identification of such conserved set of putative interactions that allow the virus to take control of the host has the potential to deepen our understanding of the virus-specific remodeling processes of the host cell and illum...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

T-Cell Epitope Prediction of Chikungunya Virus
There has been a growing demand for vaccines against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and epitope-based vaccine is a promising solution. Identification of CHIKV T-cell epitopes is critical to ensure successful trigger of immune response for epitope-based vaccine design. Bioinformatics tools are able to significantly reduce time and effort in this process by systematically scanning for immunogenic peptides in CHIKV proteins. This chapter provides the steps in utilizing machine learning algorithms to train on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding data and build prediction models for the classification of b...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Propagation of Chikungunya Virus Using Mosquito Cells
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that transmits in between a mosquito host vector to a primate host and then back to the mosquito host vector to complete its life cycle. Hence, CHIKV must be able to replicate in both host cellular systems that are genetically and biochemically distinct. The ability to grow and propagate the virus in high titers in the laboratory is fundamentally crucial in order to understand virus replication in different host cellular systems and many other CHIKV research areas. Here, we describe a method on CHIKV propagation using C6/36, a mosquito cell line derived from Aedes al...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus—Virus Plaque Assay
The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Mouse Models of Chikungunya Virus
The majority of medical advances have been made using animals. Studies using mouse models of chikungunya-induced disease have proven invaluable for dissecting the intricate nature of the immune response to this viral infection and identifying potential targets for the development of treatment strategies. Herein we describe the common mouse models used to research the pathobiology of chikungunya virus infection to date. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Generation of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Chikungunya Virus Using ClonaCell-HY Hybridoma Cloning Kit
Monoclonal antibodies offer high specificity and this makes it an important tool for molecular biology, biochemistry and medicine. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are generated by fusing mouse spleen cells that have been immunized with the desired antigen with myeloma cells to create immortalized hybridomas. Here, we describe the generation of monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Chikungunya virus using ClonaCell-HY system. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Immunohistochemical Detection of Chikungunya Virus Antigens in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues
Immunohistochemistry is a histological technique that allows detection of one or more proteins of interest within a cell using specific antibody binding, followed by microscopic visualization of a chromogenic substrate catalyzed by peroxidase and/or alkaline phosphatase. Here, we describe a method to localize Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) antigens in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded infected mouse brain. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Antiviral Strategies Against Chikungunya Virus
In the last few decades the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has evolved from a geographically isolated pathogen to a virus that is widespread in many parts of Africa, Asia and recently also in Central- and South-America. Although CHIKV infections are rarely fatal, the disease can evolve into a chronic stage, which is characterized by persisting polyarthralgia and joint stiffness. This chronic CHIKV infection can severely incapacitate patients for weeks up to several years after the initial infection. Despite the burden of CHIKV infections, no vaccine or antivirals are available yet. The current therapy is therefore only symptoma...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

A Real-Time Cell Analyzing Assay for Identification of Novel Antiviral Compounds against Chikungunya Virus
Screening of viral inhibitors through induction of cytopathic effects (CPE) by conventional method has been applied for various viruses including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a significant arbovirus. However, it does not provide the information about cytopathic effect from the beginning and throughout the course of virus replication. Conventionally, most of the approaches are constructed on laborious end-point assays which are not capable for detecting minute and rapid changes in cellular morphology. Therefore, we developed a label-free and dynamical method for monitoring the cellular features that comprises cell attachment,...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Using Bicistronic Baculovirus Expression Vector System to Screen the Compounds That Interfere with the Infection of Chikungunya Virus
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the etiologic agent of Chikungunya fever and has emerged in many countries over the past decade. There are no effective drugs for controlling the disease. A bicistronic baculovirus expression system was utilized to co-express CHIKV structural proteins C (capsid), E2 and E1 and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells (Sf21). The EGFP-positive Sf21 cells fused with each other and with uninfected cells to form a syncytium is mediated by the CHIKV E1 allowing it to identify chemicals that can prevent syncytium formation. The compounds characterized by th...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test
Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIK...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Viral & ndash;Host Protein Interaction Studies Using Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening Method
Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay is one of the earliest methods developed to study protein & ndash;protein interactions. In the proteomics era, Y2H has created a niche of its own by providing protein interaction maps for various organisms. Owing to limited coding capacities of their genomes, viruses are dependent on their host cellular machinery for successful infection. Identification of the key players orchestrating the survival of virus in their host is essential for understanding viral life cycle and devising strategies to prevent interactions resulting in pathogenesis. In this chapter, Y2H assay will be explained in d...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Bioinformatics Based Approaches to Study Virus & ndash;Host Interactions During Chikungunya Virus Infection
The limitations of high-throughput genomic methods used for studying virus & ndash;host interactions make it difficult to directly obtain insights on virus pathogenesis. In this chapter, the central steps of a protein structure similarity based computational approach used to predict the host interactors of Chikungunya virus are explained by highlighting the important aspects that need to be considered. Identification of such conserved set of putative interactions that allow the virus to take control of the host has the potential to deepen our understanding of the virus-specific remodeling processes of the host cell and...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus & mdash;Virus Plaque Assay
The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news