Molecular Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus by Sequencing
Molecular surveillance of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is important as it provides data on the circulating CHIKV genotypes in endemic countries and enabling activation of measures to be taken in the event of a pending outbreak. Molecular surveillance is carried out by first detecting CHIKV in susceptible humans or among field-caught mosquitoes. This is followed by sequencing a selected region of the virus which will provide evidence on the source of the virus and possible association of the virus to increased cases of Chikungunya infections. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Advanced Genetic Methodologies in Tracking Evolution and Spread of Chikungunya Virus
Recent advances in genetic methodologies have substantially expanded our ability to track evolution and spatio-temporal distribution of rapidly evolving pathogens. The information gathered from such analyses can be used to decipher host adaptations that shape disease epidemiology. In this chapter, we demonstrate the utilization of freely available resources to track the evolution and spread of Chikungunya virus. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Synthetic Peptide-Based Antibody Detection for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Infection with and without Neurological Complications
Synthetic peptide-based diagnosis of Chikungunya can be an efficient and more accessible approach in immunodiagnostics. Here, we describe the identification of Chikungunya-specific 40 kD protein for development of synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in the patient’s sample. The total sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profile of the patient’s sample can be done to identify specific protein bands. The identified proteins can be subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for ...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Expression and Purification of E2 Glycoprotein from Insect Cells (Sf9) for Use in Serology
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus which poses a major threat to global public health. Definitive CHIKV diagnosis is crucial, especially in distinguishing the disease from dengue virus, which co-circulates in endemic areas and shares the same mosquito vectors. Laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serological or molecular approaches. The E2 glycoprotein is a good candidate for serological diagnosis since it is the immunodominant antigen during the course of infection, and reacts with seropositive CHIKV sera. In this chapter, we describe the generation of stable clone Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Diagnostic Methods for CHIKV Based on Serological Tools
This chapter presents the most commonly used serological methods for the diagnosis of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in humans. CHIKV is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. CHIKV infection in human causes acute febrile illness frequently accompanied by severe joint pain. Most of the infected patients may develop chronic arthralgia that may persist for several months or years. Laboratory diagnosis of CHIKV infection is mainly based on molecular and serological tests. The serological tests represent a valuable tool for diagnosis and epidemi...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Detection and Quantification of Chikungunya Virus by Real-Time RT-PCR Assay
Real-time PCR assay has many advantages over conventional PCR methods, including rapidity, quantitative measurement, low risk of contamination, high sensitivity, high specificity, and ease of standardization (Mackay et al., Nucleic Acids Res 30:1292–1305, 2002). The real-time PCR system relies upon the measurement of a fluorescent reporter during PCR, in which the amount of emitted fluorescence is directly proportional to the amount of the PCR product in a reaction (Gibsons et al., Genome Res 6:995–1001, 1996). Here, we describe the use of SYBR Green I-based and TaqMan® real-time reverse transcription polym...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes
In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal
Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host. (Source: Springer protocols fee...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Chikungunya Virus Growth and Fluorescent Labeling: Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Immunofluorescence Assay
Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a highly versatile and sensitive assay for detection and titration of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The IFA technique requires virus-infected cells (viral antigen) and antibodies specific to the viral antigens for detection. Suitable antibodies for detection include monoclonal antibodies specific to CHIKV structural and nonstructural proteins, polyclonal antibodies, and convalescent serum samples. Here, the details of virus antigen preparation, detection by IFA method, and applications are described. The described IFA method is potentially useful in a wide range of studies including virus gro...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Virus Isolation and Preparation of Sucrose-Banded Chikungunya Virus Samples for Transmission Electron Microscopy
Virus isolation and purification is an invaluable technique in virology to detect and characterize viruses. This chapter describes a large-scale Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) propagation and purification methods by using discontinuous sucrose gradient, and sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy. Sucrose-banding yields large quantities of high-titer (1010 pfu/ml) CHIKV stocks. Such stocks are stable for years when stored at −70 °C. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Viral–Host Protein Interaction Studies Using Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening Method
Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay is one of the earliest methods developed to study protein–protein interactions. In the proteomics era, Y2H has created a niche of its own by providing protein interaction maps for various organisms. Owing to limited coding capacities of their genomes, viruses are dependent on their host cellular machinery for successful infection. Identification of the key players orchestrating the survival of virus in their host is essential for understanding viral life cycle and devising strategies to prevent interactions resulting in pathogenesis. In this chapter, Y2H assay will be explained in detail ...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Application of GelC-MS/MS to Proteomic Profiling of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Preparation of Peptides for Analysis
Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) is a labor intensive, but relatively straightforward methodology that generates high proteome coverage which can be applied to the proteome analysis of a range of starting materials such as cells or patient specimens. Sample proteins are resolved electrophoretically in one dimension through a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel after which the lanes are sliced into sections. The sections are further diced and the gel cubes generated are subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion. The resultant peptides can then be analyzed by tande...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Bioinformatics Based Approaches to Study Virus–Host Interactions During Chikungunya Virus Infection
The limitations of high-throughput genomic methods used for studying virus–host interactions make it difficult to directly obtain insights on virus pathogenesis. In this chapter, the central steps of a protein structure similarity based computational approach used to predict the host interactors of Chikungunya virus are explained by highlighting the important aspects that need to be considered. Identification of such conserved set of putative interactions that allow the virus to take control of the host has the potential to deepen our understanding of the virus-specific remodeling processes of the host cell and illum...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

T-Cell Epitope Prediction of Chikungunya Virus
There has been a growing demand for vaccines against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and epitope-based vaccine is a promising solution. Identification of CHIKV T-cell epitopes is critical to ensure successful trigger of immune response for epitope-based vaccine design. Bioinformatics tools are able to significantly reduce time and effort in this process by systematically scanning for immunogenic peptides in CHIKV proteins. This chapter provides the steps in utilizing machine learning algorithms to train on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding data and build prediction models for the classification of b...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Propagation of Chikungunya Virus Using Mosquito Cells
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that transmits in between a mosquito host vector to a primate host and then back to the mosquito host vector to complete its life cycle. Hence, CHIKV must be able to replicate in both host cellular systems that are genetically and biochemically distinct. The ability to grow and propagate the virus in high titers in the laboratory is fundamentally crucial in order to understand virus replication in different host cellular systems and many other CHIKV research areas. Here, we describe a method on CHIKV propagation using C6/36, a mosquito cell line derived from Aedes al...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus—Virus Plaque Assay
The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Mouse Models of Chikungunya Virus
The majority of medical advances have been made using animals. Studies using mouse models of chikungunya-induced disease have proven invaluable for dissecting the intricate nature of the immune response to this viral infection and identifying potential targets for the development of treatment strategies. Herein we describe the common mouse models used to research the pathobiology of chikungunya virus infection to date. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Generation of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Chikungunya Virus Using ClonaCell-HY Hybridoma Cloning Kit
Monoclonal antibodies offer high specificity and this makes it an important tool for molecular biology, biochemistry and medicine. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are generated by fusing mouse spleen cells that have been immunized with the desired antigen with myeloma cells to create immortalized hybridomas. Here, we describe the generation of monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Chikungunya virus using ClonaCell-HY system. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Immunohistochemical Detection of Chikungunya Virus Antigens in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues
Immunohistochemistry is a histological technique that allows detection of one or more proteins of interest within a cell using specific antibody binding, followed by microscopic visualization of a chromogenic substrate catalyzed by peroxidase and/or alkaline phosphatase. Here, we describe a method to localize Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) antigens in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded infected mouse brain. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Antiviral Strategies Against Chikungunya Virus
In the last few decades the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has evolved from a geographically isolated pathogen to a virus that is widespread in many parts of Africa, Asia and recently also in Central- and South-America. Although CHIKV infections are rarely fatal, the disease can evolve into a chronic stage, which is characterized by persisting polyarthralgia and joint stiffness. This chronic CHIKV infection can severely incapacitate patients for weeks up to several years after the initial infection. Despite the burden of CHIKV infections, no vaccine or antivirals are available yet. The current therapy is therefore only symptoma...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

A Real-Time Cell Analyzing Assay for Identification of Novel Antiviral Compounds against Chikungunya Virus
Screening of viral inhibitors through induction of cytopathic effects (CPE) by conventional method has been applied for various viruses including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a significant arbovirus. However, it does not provide the information about cytopathic effect from the beginning and throughout the course of virus replication. Conventionally, most of the approaches are constructed on laborious end-point assays which are not capable for detecting minute and rapid changes in cellular morphology. Therefore, we developed a label-free and dynamical method for monitoring the cellular features that comprises cell attachment,...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Using Bicistronic Baculovirus Expression Vector System to Screen the Compounds That Interfere with the Infection of Chikungunya Virus
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the etiologic agent of Chikungunya fever and has emerged in many countries over the past decade. There are no effective drugs for controlling the disease. A bicistronic baculovirus expression system was utilized to co-express CHIKV structural proteins C (capsid), E2 and E1 and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells (Sf21). The EGFP-positive Sf21 cells fused with each other and with uninfected cells to form a syncytium is mediated by the CHIKV E1 allowing it to identify chemicals that can prevent syncytium formation. The compounds characterized by th...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test
Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIK...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Viral & ndash;Host Protein Interaction Studies Using Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening Method
Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay is one of the earliest methods developed to study protein & ndash;protein interactions. In the proteomics era, Y2H has created a niche of its own by providing protein interaction maps for various organisms. Owing to limited coding capacities of their genomes, viruses are dependent on their host cellular machinery for successful infection. Identification of the key players orchestrating the survival of virus in their host is essential for understanding viral life cycle and devising strategies to prevent interactions resulting in pathogenesis. In this chapter, Y2H assay will be explained in d...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Bioinformatics Based Approaches to Study Virus & ndash;Host Interactions During Chikungunya Virus Infection
The limitations of high-throughput genomic methods used for studying virus & ndash;host interactions make it difficult to directly obtain insights on virus pathogenesis. In this chapter, the central steps of a protein structure similarity based computational approach used to predict the host interactors of Chikungunya virus are explained by highlighting the important aspects that need to be considered. Identification of such conserved set of putative interactions that allow the virus to take control of the host has the potential to deepen our understanding of the virus-specific remodeling processes of the host cell and...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus & mdash;Virus Plaque Assay
The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

What is chikungunya fever, and should I be worried?
(Source: MayoClinic.com - Ask a Specialist)
Source: MayoClinic.com - Ask a Specialist - December 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Global Health: Zika Virus, a Mosquito-Borne Infection, May Threaten Brazil’s Newborns
An increase in the number of infants born in Brazil with a form of brain damage has been blamed on the Zika virus. (Source: NYT)
Source: NYT - December 29, 2015 Category: American Health Authors: DONALD G. McNEIL Jr. Tags: Viruses Dengue Fever Mosquitoes Brazil Pregnancy and Childbirth Chikungunya Virus Source Type: news

Global Health: Zika Virus, a Mosquito-Borne Infection, May Threaten Brazil’s Newborns
An increase in the number of infants born in Brazil with a form of brain damage has been blamed on the Zika virus. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - December 28, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: DONALD G. McNEIL Jr. Tags: Viruses Dengue Fever Mosquitoes Brazil Pregnancy and Childbirth Chikungunya Virus Source Type: news

All I Want for Christmas Is Mosquito Repellent: Avoid Becoming a Victim of Chikungunya Virus
As thousands of Americans flock to the sun, sand and warm waters of the southern states of America, the Caribbean and South and Central America, almost everyone is aware that protection from the sun can be easily achieved applying lotions with a high SPF rating. Of course, many will choose a dark tan over their skin's health, but at least they're making a decision knowing the consequences. Unfortunately, the vast majority of travelers to southern destinations do not know that unless they apply an effective mosquito repellent from dawn to dusk -- and use other repellents and protections throughout the day and night -- they ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - December 24, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Scientists identify effective and novel mechanisms to block chikungunya virus
Scientists looking at the antiviral mechanisms of two previously identified human monoclonal antibodies have found they potently inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) at multiple stages of infection. These antibodies prevent CHIKV from both entering and exiting cells, an important finding that could lead to new approaches in therapeutics and vaccines to fight infectious diseases. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - December 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Scientists identify effective and novel mechanisms to block chikungunya virus
(Blood Systems) Blood Systems Research Institute scientists looking at the antiviral mechanisms of two previously identified human monoclonal antibodies have found they potently inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) at multiple stages of infection. These antibodies prevent CHIKV from both entering and exiting cells, an important finding that could lead to new approaches in therapeutics and vaccines to fight infectious diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Zika Virus: Transmission & Prevention, Symptoms & Treatment
Information regarding Zika Virus, a disease similar to chikungunya and dengue viruses spread by the same type of mosquitoes (Source: Disabled World)
Source: Disabled World - December 8, 2015 Category: Disability Tags: Health and Disability Source Type: news

Zika virus infection – Panama
On 2 December 2015, the National IHR Focal Point (NFP) of Panama notified PAHO/WHO of the first 3 laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease. On 27 November, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Panama was informed of 68 patients with fever and exanthema in Ustupu island, Alligandi district, Guna Yala province. Serum samples were taken from 43 patients, 30 of whom were symptomatic, and sent for testing to the Commemorative Gorgas Institute for Health Studies. All samples, which were analyzed using the algorithm proposed by PAHO/WHO (see related links), resulted negative for dengue and chikungunya. Out of the samples taken...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - December 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: dengue [subject], dengue haemhorragic fever, dengue fever, dengue virus, health services [subject], Disease outbreak news [doctype], Panama [country], Region of the Americas [region] Source Type: news

Zika virus infection – Paraguay
On 27 November 2015, the National IHR Focal Point of Paraguay notified PAHO/WHO of 6 laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases of Zika virus infection in the city of Pedro Caballero, which is located in the northeast of the country and shares borders with Brazil. The diagnoses were made by the national reference laboratory, the Central Public Health Laboratory of the Ministry of Health, through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Cases were identified from clusters of febrile patients whose samples tested negative for dengue and chikungunya. They presented with fever, headache, myalgia, arth...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - December 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: dengue [subject], dengue haemhorragic fever, dengue fever, dengue virus, headache [subject], headache, migraine, chronic headache, health services [subject], Disease outbreak news [doctype], Paraguay [country], Region of the Americas [region] Source Type: news

Mosquito-borne chikungunya may cause fatal brain infection
Stephen FellerWASHINGTON, Nov. 30 (UPI) -- The chikungunya virus, spread by mosquitoes, can cause encephalitis far more often than doctors previously thought, according to a study. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - December 1, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

What are the Most Common Arbovirus in Children in the US?
Discussion Arboviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods (primarily mosquitos and ticks) to humans. Most infections are asymptomatic. Many others have mild symptoms such as an influenza-like illnesses. But for some patients they can cause neuroinvasive disease with meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Some patients also unfortunately die. Diagnosis is by serum or cerebrospinal fluid IgM antibody to the specific virus. Treatment is supportive only as there is no specific treatment and currently there are no vaccines for prevention. Mosquito bite and tick bite prevention are the best options for families and c...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - November 30, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

What are the Most Common Arboviruses in Children in the US?
Discussion Arboviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods (primarily mosquitos and ticks) to humans. Most infections are asymptomatic. Many others have mild symptoms such as an influenza-like illnesses. But for some patients they can cause neuroinvasive disease with meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Some patients also unfortunately die. Diagnosis is by serum or cerebrospinal fluid IgM antibody to the specific virus. Treatment is supportive only as there is no specific treatment and currently there are no vaccines for prevention. Mosquito bite and tick bite prevention are the best options for families and c...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - November 30, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Encephalitis Observed in Patients with Chikungunya Virus (FREE)
By Kelly Young Edited by Susan Sadoughi, MD, and André Sofair, MD, MPH The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus can be "a significant cause" of neurologic disease … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)
Source: Physician's First Watch current issue - November 30, 2015 Category: Primary Care Source Type: news

Mosquito-born virus may cause brain swelling, death
Experts warn travelers should be aware of the potentially deadly chikungunya virus, for which there is no vaccine (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - November 28, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Mosquito-borne virus may cause brain swelling, death
Experts warn travelers should be aware of the potentially deadly chikungunya virus, for which there is no vaccine (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - November 28, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus causes severe brain inflammation
Mosquito-borne virus chikungunya can cause encephalitis, leading to disability and death, especially in infants and over 65. One locally transmitted case has occurred in the US. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - November 26, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses Source Type: news

Chikungunya Virus Can Cause Fatal Encephalitis Chikungunya Virus Can Cause Fatal Encephalitis
The mosquito-borne virus chikungunya can lead to severe encephalitis and even death, especially in young babies and older adults, a new study has found. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines)
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - November 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news

Mosquito-Borne Virus May Cause Fatal Brain Infection
Chikungunya outbreak on Reunion Island finds encephalitis more common than previously believed Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Encephalitis, Traveler's Health, Viral Infections (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - November 25, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Mosquito-borne virus may lead to severe brain infection
(American Academy of Neurology) The mosquito-borne virus chikungunya may lead to severe brain infection and even death in infants and people over 65, according to a new study that reviewed a chikungunya outbreak on Reunion Island off the coast of Madagascar in 2005-2006. The study is published in the Nov. 25, 2015, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - November 25, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

NIH-sponsored clinical trial of chikungunya vaccine opens
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) An experimental vaccine to protect against the mosquito-borne illness chikungunya is being tested in a Phase 2 trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. Results from an initial trial of the vaccine were reported in 2014. In that study, all 25 vaccine recipients developed robust immune responses and no safety concerns were noted. The new trial is will enroll 400 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 60 years old at six sites in the Caribbean. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Research points to development of single vaccine for Chikungunya, related viruses
What if a single vaccine could protect people from infection by many different viruses? That concept is a step closer to reality. Researchers have identified 'broadly neutralizing' antibodies that protect against infection by multiple, distantly related alphaviruses -- including Chikungunya virus -- that cause fever and debilitating joint pain. The discovery, in mice, lays the groundwork for a single vaccine or antibody-based treatment against many different alphaviruses. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Research points to development of single vaccine for Chikungunya, related viruses
(Washington University School of Medicine) What if a single vaccine could protect people from infection by many different viruses? That concept is a step closer to reality. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louishave identified 'broadly neutralizing' antibodies that protect against infection by multiple, distantly related alphaviruses -- including Chikungunya virus -- that cause fever and debilitating joint pain. The discovery, in mice, lays the groundwork for a single vaccine or antibody-based treatment against many different alphaviruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 10, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

Global Health: To Prevent Malaria in Humans, Scientists Try Protecting Pigs
An experimental mosquito-killer for livestock may help prevent the transmission of the disease to humans. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - November 2, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: DONALD G. McNEIL Jr. Tags: Chaccour, Carlos Malaria Pigs American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Agriculture and Farming Livestock Chikungunya Virus Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Cattle Worms Source Type: news