Microbial manufacturing: Genetic engineering breakthrough for urban farming
(Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART)) Researchers at DiSTAP, SMART, MIT's research enterprise in Singapore, and National University of Singapore (NUS) have developed a new technology that revolutionises the creation of genetic material, enabling drastically accelerated genetic engineering of microbes that can be used to manufacture chemicals used for urban farming. The new Guanine/Thymine (GT) DNA assembly technology will accelerate the creation of microbial factories, which are key to producing nutrients and natural pesticides for urban farming. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Revolutionary method could bring us much closer to the description of hyperdiverse faunas
(Pensoft Publishers) Largely relying on DNA barcoding, rather than traditional practices, a simplified diagnostics method for species description could be the key to revealing Earth's biodiversity before much of it goes extinct. Proposed by a US-Canadian research team in a new publication in the open-access journal Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, the approach is demonstrated in practice with the description of 18 new to science species of parasitic wasps, recently discovered from the Á rea de Conservaci ó n Guanacaste, Costa Rica. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fracking likely to result in high emissions
(Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies e.V. (IASS)) Natural gas releases fewer greenhouse gases than other fossil fuels. That's why it is often seen as a bridge technology to a low-carbon future. A study by the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) has estimated emissions from shale gas production through fracking in Germany and the UK. It shows that CO2-eq. emissions would exceed the estimated current emissions from conventional gas production in Germany. The potential risks make strict adherence to environmental standards vital. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Molecular biophysics -- the ABC of ribosome recycling
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) Ribosomes, the essential machinery used for protein synthesis is recycled after each one round of translation. An enzyme called ABCE1 is responsible for this process and turns out to be remarkably plastic as Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich biophysicists report. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Paleontology -- new light on cichlid evolution in Africa
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) A collaborative research project carried out under the auspices of the GeoBio-Center at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich has developed an integrative approach to the classification of fossil cichlids,and identified the oldest known member of the tribe Oreochromini. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Physics of life: Motor proteins and membrane dynamics
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) Motility is an essential property of many cell types, and is driven by molecular motors. A Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU)in M has now discovered that the motor protein myosin VI contributes directly to the deformation of the cell membrane, as required for locomotion or endocytosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Bacteria enhance coral resilience to climate change effects
(University of Konstanz) An international group of researchers led by Professor Christian Voolstra, biologist at the University of Konstanz, investigated the interplay between corals and bacteria under changing environmental conditions. Their research results were published in the current issue of the journal Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Transforming biology to design next-generation computers, using a surprise ingredient
(Purdue University) A Purdue University group has found ways of transforming structures that occur naturally in cell membranes to create other architectures, like parallel 1nm-wide line segments, more applicable to computing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Worm pheromones protect major crops
(Boyce Thompson Institute) Protecting crops from pests and pathogens without using toxic pesticides has been a longtime goal of farmers. Researchers at Boyce Thompson Institute have found that compounds from an unlikely source - microscopic soil roundworms - could achieve this aim. As described in research published in Journal of Phytopathology, these compounds helped protect major crops from various pathogens, and thus have potential to save billions of dollars and increase agricultural sustainability around the world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Strange bacteria hint at ancient origin of photosynthesis
(Imperial College London) Structures inside rare bacteria are similar to those that power photosynthesis in plants today, suggesting the process is older than assumed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Molecule reduces accumulation of toxic protein in Parkinson's disease model
(Thomas Jefferson University) The discovery supports GM1 ganglioside as a potential target for Parkinson's therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists complete first assessment of blood abnormalities in Antarctic penguin colony
(University of Plymouth) Through blood tests conducted on 19 adult Ad é lie penguins breeding at Edmonson Point in Antarctica, researchers found quantities of cell types associated with future cell death, genomic instability or cancer development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How nature builds hydrogen-producing enzymes
(Ruhr-University Bochum) A team from Ruhr-Universit ä t Bochum and the University of Oxford has discovered how hydrogen-producing enzymes, called hydrogenases, are activated during their biosynthesis. They showed how the cofactor -- part of the active centre and also the heart of the enzyme -- is introduced inside. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Light pollution may be increasing West Nile virus spillover from wild birds
(University of South Florida (USF Innovation)) House sparrows infected with West Nile virus (WNV) that live in light polluted conditions remain infectious for two days longer than those who do not, increasing the potential for a WNV outbreak by about 41%. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

University of Rhode Island leads $3M collaborative research project on 'Rules of Life'
(University of Rhode Island) The University of Rhode Island is leading a team that has been awarded a $3 million 5-year collaborative research grant from the National Science Foundation as part of its investment in 10 Big Ideas to serve the nation's future. Funded through NSF's Understanding the Rules of Life: Epigenetics program, researchers will work to better understand how changes in nutrition and energy through symbiosis can influence epigenetic changes in corals, and what it may mean for coral ecology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Is deadly Candida auris a product of global warming?
(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) A drug-resistant fungus species called Candida auris, which was first identified 10 years ago and has since caused hundreds of deadly outbreaks in hospitals around the world, may have become a human pathogen in part due to global warming, according to three scientists led by a researcher at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists pinpoint new mechanism that impacts HIV infection
(Texas Biomedical Research Institute) A team of scientists led by Texas Biomed's Assistant Professor Smita Kulkarni, Ph.D. and Mary Carrington, Ph.D., at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, published results of a study that pinpointed a long noncoding RNA molecule which influences a key receptor involved in HIV infection and progression of the disease. This newly-identified mechanism could open up a new avenue for control of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Picky pathogens help non-native tree species invade
(Ecological Society of America) Trees have many natural enemies, including pathogens that have evolved to attack certain tree species. Invasive tree species -- even ones that are very closely related to native trees -- are often not attacked by these pathogens and can thrive. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Penn engineers' 'LADL' uses light to serve up on-demand genome folding
(University of Pennsylvania) The way in which that linear sequence of genes are packed into the nucleus determines which genes come into physical contact with each other, which in turn influences gene expression. Penn Engineers have now demonstrated a new technique for quickly creating specific folding patterns on demand, using light as a trigger. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What do dragonflies teach us about missile defense?
(DOE/Sandia National Laboratories) Research at Sandia National Laboratories is examining whether dragonfly-inspired computing could improve missile defense systems, which have the similar task of intercepting an object in flight, by making on-board computers smaller without sacrificing speed or accuracy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

BU researchers say special “ mapping ” brain cells could inspire smarter self-driving vehicles
(Boston University) BU neuroscientists say special 'mapping' brain cells could inspire the design of smarter self-driving vehicles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Rising CO2 levels could boost wheat yield but slightly reduce nutritional quality
(American Chemical Society) Levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are rising, which experts predict could produce more droughts and hotter temperatures. Although these weather changes would negatively impact many plants' growth, the increased CO2 availability might actually be advantageous because plants use the greenhouse gas to make food by photosynthesis. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry say that a much higher CO2 level could increase wheat yield but slightly reduce its nutritional quality. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Putting the brakes on lateral root development
(Washington University in St. Louis) Biologists have discovered a cellular transporter that links two of the most powerful hormones in plant development -- auxin and cytokinin -- and shows how they regulate root initiation and progression. Understanding why and how plants make different types of root architectures can help develop plants that better cope with distinct soil conditions and environments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How to restore a coral reef
(Penn State) New guidelines drafted by a consortium of concerned experts could enable corals to adapt to changing environments and help restore declining populations in the Caribbean. The guidelines provide a definitive plan for collecting, raising, and replanting corals that maximizes their potential for adaptation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Privatization of public goods can cause population decline, research shows
(University of Exeter) Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the way microbes adopt a 'co-operative' approach to securing the nutrients they need to thrive. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too
(ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies) Fussy fish seeking refuge from climate change on deeper reefs can still keep their specialised diets. The corals they prey upon change their own diets to survive the different environment at depth. This ensures their fussy predators are still well-fed! (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

PSU, UTMB researchers awarded $1 million grant to investigate unique virus' structure
(Portland State University) Researchers from Portland State University and the University of Texas Medical Branch have been awarded a $1 million grant from the National Science Foundation to generate a clearer and more detailed structure of Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1, a virus that thrives in high-temperature acidic volcanic hot springs and may resemble HIV. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Monsoon rains have become more intense in the southwest in recent decades
(US Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service) Monsoon rain storms have become more intense in the southwestern United States in recent decades, according to a study recently published by Agricultural Research Service scientists.Monsoon rains -- highly localized bursts of rain -- have become stronger since the 1970s, meaning the same amount of rain falls in a shorter amount of time--by 6 to 11 percent. In addition, the number of rainfall events per year increased on average 15 percent during the 1961-2017 period. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ozone threat from climate change
(University of Delaware) We know the recent extreme heat is something that we can expect more of as a result of increasing temperatures due to climate change. But a new study from the University of Delaware warns that there's another impact -- worsened air quality due to an increase in the number and intensity of 'ozone alert' days. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Global warming will accelerate water cycle over global land monsoon regions
(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) A new study provides a broader understanding on the redistribution of freshwater resources across the globe induced by future changes in the monsoon system. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ASBMB honors 12 scientists for scientific and community contributions
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology today announced the winners of its annual awards. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Restoring the American chestnut by researching its genome
(Virginia Tech) Now, a $500,000 grant from the National Institute of Food and Agriculture will help Associate Professor Jason Holliday research methods to utilize the genetic diversity of remaining trees as part of broader efforts to introduce disease-resistant American chestnuts to US forests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Marine census
(University of California - Santa Barbara) Marine scientists to monitor the health and biodiversity of marine protected areas along the California coast. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hidden world of stream biodiversity revealed through water sampling for environmental DNA
(Oregon State University) For the first time, researchers have used a novel genomics-based method to detect the simultaneous presence of hundreds of organisms in a stream. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

University of Guelph researchers unlock access to pain relief potential of cannabis
(University of Guelph) University of Guelph researchers have uncovered how the cannabis plant creates pain-relieving molecules that are 30 times more powerful at reducing inflammation than Aspirin.The discovery unlocks the potential to create a naturally derived pain treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Folic acid reduces risk of neural tube defects linked to HIV drug dolutegravir
(Baylor College of Medicine) HIV drug doluteglavir interferes with the binding of folate to its receptor, thus promoting neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation can mitigate the risk of the medication in an animal model. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Zhang group identifies gene that may make TNBC cells vulnerable to existing
(University of Notre Dame) A new study by University of Notre Dame researcher Siyuan Zhang and collaborators, published in Nature Communications, shows that an existing, FDA-approved drug that treats other types of breast cancer may work for TNBC. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study: Fat cells play key role in dangerous transformation of melanoma
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv University reseachers have found that fat cells play a key role in the dangerous transformation of melanoma. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Algae living inside fungi: How land plants first evolved
(Michigan State University) New research from Michigan State University, and published in the journal eLife, presents evidence that algae could have piggybacked on fungi to leave the water and to colonize the land, over 500 million years ago. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Water solutions without a grain of salt
(Monash University) Monash University researchers have developed technology that can deliver clean water to thousands of communities worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Harnessing the power of microbes for mining in space
(NASA/Johnson Space Center) A new investigation on the International Space Station represents the first study of how microbes grow on and alter planetary rocks in microgravity and simulated Martian gravity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study identifies cells required for the development of a healthy uterus
(Massachusetts General Hospital) A team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital has uncovered insights on a type of a critical cell that to the formation of a functioning uterus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers map protein-gene interactions involved in Alzheimer's disease
(University of California - San Diego) UC San Diego researchers have used the transcriptome -- the sum of all messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules expressed from genes -- to map protein-gene interactions involved in Alzheimer's disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ELSI scientists discover new chemistry that may help explain the origins of cellular life
(Tokyo Institute of Technology) All life is cellular, but the origins of cellularity remain unknown. Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute have discovered that simple organic compounds like glycolic and lactic acid polymerize and self-assemble into cell-sized droplets when dried and rewetted, as might have happened along primitive beaches and drying puddles. These cell-like compartments can trap and concentrate biomolecules, and can merge and separate, forming versatile and heterogeneous cell-like containers possibly critical for the origin of life. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Multidrug-resistant malaria spreading in Asia
(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) Genomic surveillance has revealed that malaria resistance to two first-line antimalarial drugs has spread rapidly from Cambodia to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Researchers discovered that descendants of one multi-drug resistant malaria strain are replacing the local parasites in Vietnam, Laos and northeastern Thailand, and are picking up additional new genetic changes which could further enhance resistance. The study in The Lancet Infectious Diseases reveals the importance of ongoing genomic surveillance in malaria control strategies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cosmic pearls: Fossil clams in Florida contain evidence of ancient meteorite
(Florida Museum of Natural History) Researchers picking through the contents of fossil clams from a Sarasota County quarry found dozens of tiny glass beads, likely the calling cards of an ancient meteorite. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Illinois professor validates antimicrobial properties of Illinois company's cutting boards
(University of Illinois College of Engineering) University of Illinois researcher Nenad Miljkovic and his research group have collaborated with John Boos& Co. to validate the antimicrobial efficacy of the company's proprietary cutting boards and companion board oil and cream. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A torque on conventional magnetic wisdom
(University of Illinois College of Engineering) Physicists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have observed a magnetic phenomenon called the 'anomalous spin-orbit torque' (ASOT) for the first time. Professor Virginia Lorenz and graduate student Wenrui Wang, now graduated and employed as an industry scientist, made this observation, demonstrating that there exists competition between what is known as spin-orbit coupling and the alignment of an electron spin to the magnetization. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Vampire algae killer's genetic diversity poses threat to biofuels
(DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory) New DNA analysis has revealed surprising genetic diversity in a bacterium that poses a persistent threat to the algae biofuels industry. With the evocative name Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, the predatory pest sucks out the contents of the algae cells (thus the vampire reference) and reduces a productive, thriving, green algae pond to a vat of rotting sludge. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

August's SLAS technology cover article announced
(SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)) The August edition of SLAS Technology features the cover article, 'Technologies for the Directed Evolution of Cell Therapies,' a review featured in the journal's March 2019 edition. The research, led by Dino Di Carlo, Ph.D., (University of California Los Angeles) highlights how the next generation of therapies are moving beyond the use of small molecules and proteins to using whole cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news