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An extraordinary cave animal found in Eastern Turkmenistan
(Pensoft Publishers) A remote cave in Eastern Turkmenistan was found to shelter a marvelous cave-adapted inhabitant that turned out to represent a species and genus new to science. This new troglodyte is the first of its order from Central Asia and the first strictly subterranean terrestrial creature recorded in the country. The study is published in the open-access journal Subterranean Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ancient human DNA in sub-Saharan Africa lifts veil on prehistory
(Harvard Medical School) The first large-scale study of ancient human DNA from sub-Saharan Africa opens a long-awaited window into the identity of prehistoric populations in the region and how they moved around and replaced one another over the past 8,000 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Big herbivorous dinosaurs ate crustaceans as a side dish, says CU Boulder study
(University of Colorado at Boulder) Some big plant-eating dinosaurs roaming present-day Utah some 75 million years ago were slurping up crustaceans on the side, a behavior that may have been tied to reproductive activities, says a new University of Colorado Boulder study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Going diving in the tropics? Don't eat the reef fish!
(University of British Columbia) Reducing tourist consumption of reef fish is critical for Palau's ocean sustainability, finds a new UBC study that suggests other small island nations might also consider adopting this strategy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers set time limit for ultrafast perovskite solar cells
(St John's College, University of Cambridge) Researchers have quantified the astonishingly high speeds at which future solar cells would have to operate in order to stretch what are presently seen as natural limits on their energy conversion efficiency. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lightning-fast trappers
(University of Freiburg) New findings on the biomechanics and evolution of suction traps in carnivorous bladderworts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CWRU researcher wins $5.5 million federal grant to develop bio-inspired materials
(Case Western Reserve University) With a new $5.5 million, five-year federal grant, a Case Western Reserve University researcher is leading an international team to develop functional materials inspired by some of the most desirable substances found in nature. The bioinspired materials produced in the project will be tested in soft-sided robots, but are expected to have a wide range of practical uses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UMN researchers find recipe for forest restoration
(University of Minnesota) A new study led by graduate student Leland Werden and associate professor Jennifer Powers of the University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences has uncovered some valuable information on ways to maximize the success of replanting efforts, bringing new hope for restoring these threatened ecosystems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Changing of the guard -- research sheds light on how plants breathe
(John Innes Centre) New research is set to change the textbook understanding of how plants breathe. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover new cattle disease and prevent it from spreading
(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) Following genetic studies of deformed calves research conducted at the University of Copenhagen is able to uncover a hitherto unknown disease found among Holstein cattle. The breeding bull from which the mutation and thus the deformation originate has now been put down to prevent the disease from spreading further. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists and farmers work together to wipe out African lovegrass
(Queensland University of Technology) A partnership between QUT, the NSW Government and farmers could lead to the eventual eradication of the highly invasive African lovegrass threatening pastures and native grasslands Australia-wide.What they discovered is that local knowledge is the key to a successful management approach. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Surprising discovery -- how the African tsetse fly really drinks your blood
(University of Bristol) Researchers at the University of Bristol have been taking a close-up look at the biting mouthparts of the African tsetse fly as part of ongoing work on the animal diseases it carries. Using the new high-powered scanning electron microscope in the University's Life Sciences Building, researchers from the Trypanosome Research Group were able to see the rows of sharp teeth and rasps that the fly uses to chew through the skin when it bites. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hope to discover sure signs of life on Mars? New research says look for the element vanadium
(University of Kansas) A new paper in the journal Astrobiology suggests NASA and others hunting for proof of Martian biology in the form of 'microfossils' could use the element vanadium in combination with Raman spectroscopy to confirm traces of extraterrestrial life. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Dino-killing asteroid's impact on bird evolution
(Cornell University) Human activities could change the pace of evolution, similar to what occurred 66 million years ago when a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, leaving modern birds as their only descendants. That's one conclusion drawn by the authors of a new study published in Systematic Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover unique property of critical methane-producing enzyme
(Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) An unexpected discovery has given a group of University of Illinois scientists a greater understanding of an important methane-producing enzyme called methyl-coenzyme M reductase, or MCR. Their findings overturn what was previously believed to be true in the field: that a set of unique modifications present in MCR were essential to how the enzyme functions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

$2.375 million federal award to study epigenetic control systems, inform drug discovery
(Van Andel Research Institute) Van Andel Research Institute scientist Scott Rothbart, Ph.D., has been awarded a five-year, $2.375 million Maximizing Investigators' Research Award from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health that will fuel in-depth, multidisciplinary studies into the epigenetic control mechanisms that regulate the genetic code. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Animal acoustic activity decline shows forest fire pollution wreaks havoc on wildlife
(University of Kent) Forest fires in Southeast Asia during the El Ni ñ o droughts of 2015 caused considerable disruption to the biodiversity of the region due to the smoke-induced 'haze' they created, according to new research led by Benjamin Lee at the University of Kent and the National Parks Board in Singapore. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Dinosaur evolution: Lumbering giants had agile ancestors
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) The best known sauropod dinosaurs were huge herbivorous creatures, whose brain structures were markedly different from those of their evolutionary predecessors, for the earliest representatives of the group were small, lithe carnivores. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

In search of a greener cleaner
(University of Pittsburgh) With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering are developing machine learning procedures to discover new chelating agents that are both effective and degradable. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Plants combine color and fragrance to procure pollinators
(Cornell University) Who knew that it's possible to predict the fragrance of a flower by looking at its color?This is true for many of the 41 insect-pollinated plant species growing in a Phrygana scrubland habitat on the Greek island of Lesbos. An international research team   published their findings Sept. 4 in Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Wave Glider surfs across stormy Drake Passage in Antarctica
(University of Washington) A hardy ocean drone made a first-ever attempt to surf across Antarctica's stormy Drake Passage gathering data about ocean mixing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fly away home? Ice age may have clipped bird migration
(University of Nebraska-Lincoln) The onset of the last ice age may have forced some bird species to abandon their northerly migrations for thousands of years, says new research led by a University of Nebraska-Lincoln ornithologist. Published Sept. 20 in the journal Science Advances, the study challenges a long-held presumption that birds merely shortened their migratory flights when glaciers advanced south to cover much of North America and northern Europe about 21,000 years ago. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Protected waters foster resurgence of West Coast rockfish
(NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region) West Coast rockfish species in deep collapse only 20 years ago have multiplied rapidly in large marine protected areas off Southern California, likely seeding surrounding waters with enough offspring to offer promise of renewed fishing, a new study has found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers stumped by plants with multiple chromosomes set January meeting to collaborate
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) Some of the world's most beloved plants -- coffee, bananas, potatoes, chrysanthemums and roses, to name a few -- could be made even better, but the complexity of their chromosomes either stumps or stifles scientists who study them.With a $47,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture, about 40 researchers will convene in San Diego Jan. 11-12 to begin collaborating on polyploid studies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Convergent evolution of mimetic butterflies confounds classification
(City College of New York) David Lohman, associate professor of biology at The City College of New York's Division of Science, is co-author of a landmark paper on butterflies 'An illustrated checklist of the genus Elymnias H ü bner, 1818 (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).' Lohman and his colleagues from Taiwan and Indonesia revise the taxonomy of Asian palmflies in the genus Elymnias in light of a forthcoming study on the butterflies' evolutionary history. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Discovery helps improve accuracy of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing
(University of California - Berkeley) Detailed study of how domains within the Cas9 protein move when the molecule binds to DNA has allowed UC Berkeley, Harvard and Massachusettes General Hospital scientists to locate the protein that monitors the fidelity of binding between the Cas9 single-guide RNA and its DNA target. The researchers then tweaked this domain to boost specificity, creating the highest fidelity Cas9 protein to date. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lipid vesicles replace blood in new bacteria test
(American Chemical Society) As schools around the U.S. start back up, so do trips to the doctor's office. But is that raw sore throat due to bacteria, which can be fought off with antibiotics, or a virus? Getting a definitive diagnosis of bacterial infections like Strep throat can take days. Now, one group reports in ACS Sensors that they have developed a new test that will provide results in just hours. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ensuring broccoli sprouts retain their cancer-fighting compounds
(American Chemical Society) Raw broccoli sprouts, a rich source of potential cancer-fighting compounds, have become a popular health food in recent years. But conventional heat treatment used to kill bacteria on produce can reduce levels of the broccoli sprouts' helpful phytochemicals. Now researchers report in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that high pressure processing could wipe out harmful bacteria while maintaining high concentrations of its health-promoting ingredients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cell phone data coupled with sewage testing show drug use patterns
(American Chemical Society) The drugs people inhale, inject or ingest ultimately end up in some form down the toilet. So scientists have started monitoring drug use through sewage-based epidemiology. But this approach hasn't taken into account the variation in number of people who add to wastewater in a given area at a given time. Now one team reports in ACS' Environmental Science& Technology a way to account for commutes and vacations: by tracking cell phone signals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Getting to the heart of the matter: Nanogels for heart attack patients
(American Chemical Society) Heart disease and heart-related illnesses are a leading cause of death around the world, but treatment options are limited. Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that encapsulating stem cells in a nanogel could help repair damage to the heart. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fish may use different behaviors to protect against parasites
(Wiley) New research indicates that fish may adapt their behavior to defend against parasite infection. The findings are published in the Journal of Zoology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How do human impacts on wetlands affect animals?
(Wiley) A new Biological Reviews study provides a comprehensive assessment of how changes to wetlands affect animals, and the authors use their findings to provide recommendations for managing wetlands to maximise their biodiversity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

$20M NSF award to fund research into the role of microorganisms in plant, soil, water
(University of Kansas) The University of Kansas will partner with Kansas State University, Wichita State University, Fort Hays State University and Haskell Indian Nations University to better understand how tiny microorganisms, collectively known as microbiomes, influence environmental changes and the resulting economic implications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Emerging disease further jeopardizes North American frogs
(US Geological Survey) A deadly amphibian disease called severe Perkinsea infections, or SPI, is the cause of many large-scale frog die-offs in the United States, according to a new study by the US Geological Survey. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Pulling, not pushing, silk could revolutionize how greener materials are manufactured
(University of Sheffield) New insights into how animals spin silk could lead to new, greener ways of producing synthetic fibres, according to academics at the University of Sheffield. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CUHK sets out to reveal impact of Arctic amplification on East Asian winter climate
(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) An ongoing research project aims to identify and explain teleconnections and future changes in the East Asian Winter Monsoon under Arctic Amplification. This integral study would be beneficial for policymakers in evaluating the risk of cold extremes in East Asia, and will be of great importance for the socioeconomic development of this densely populated region. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists from Russia and Germany implement a closed cycle algae processing mechanism
(Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University) A unique cycle of processing algae into valuable materials and its residual biomass into sorbents for water purification with biogas generation was proposed by scientists of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) in collaboration with the Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH). The project is to be implemented within 3 years' time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fabric made from VTT's recycled fiber feels half way between cotton and viscose
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) The method develop at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland involves dissolving worn and discarded cotton and using it as a raw material for new fiber. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Black Sea water temperatures may buck global trend
(European Commission Joint Research Centre) Using a model developed at the JRC, scientists have successfully simulated the Black Sea's long term currents, salt water content and temperature for the first time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF issues new EPSCoR awards, investing in science and engineering across nation
(National Science Foundation)The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded five jurisdictions nearly $20 million each through the Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR), which builds research and development capacity in states that demonstrate a commitment to research but have thus far lacked the levels of investment seen in other parts of the country. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Running roaches, flapping moths create a new physics of organisms
(Georgia Institute of Technology) Sand-swimming lizards, slithering robotic snakes, dusk-flying moths and running roaches all have one thing in common: They're increasingly being studied by physicists interested in understanding the shared strategies these creatures have developed to overcome the challenges of moving though their environments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

HHMI selects 15 Hanna Gray Fellows to support diversity in science
(Howard Hughes Medical Institute) HHMI announces the selection of 15 exceptional early career scientists as the first group of HHMI Hanna Gray Fellows. The 2018 Hanna Gray Fellows competition is now open, with applications due on January 10, 2018. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Changes in non-extreme precipitation may have not-so-subtle consequences
(National Science Foundation) Extreme floods and droughts receive a lot of attention. But what happens when precipitation -- or lack thereof -- occurs in a more measured way? (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What web browsers and proteins have in common
(Ohio State University) The discovery of a previously overlooked site on protein molecules may solve a mystery about how proteins are able to carry out specialized functions in living cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Groundbreaking investigative effort identifies gonorrhea vaccine candidates
(Oregon State University) Researchers at have identified a pair of proteins that show promise as the basis for a gonorrhea vaccine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What's the latest on gut microbiota?
(Concordia University) How many undergraduate classes in microbiology -- or any scientific field, for that matter -- can say they're published in a peer-reviewed journal? 'Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease' is a review of the primary literature and latest discoveries on the interactions between gut microbiota and the human host. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes promote melanoma progression & resistance to therapy
(The Wistar Institute) In a multi-institutional collaborative study, scientists at The Wistar Institute and the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, have identified the role of tumor-infiltrating or tumor-associated B-cells ('TABs') in melanoma progression and resistance to targeted therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A study switches from genetic to metabolic analysis to reconstitute evolutionary process
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) A new method for analyzing a living being chemical compositions is tested in Andean plants and attest the genesis of species by means of geographic isolation. Scientific article published August 2017 by Brazilian researchers is based on the analysis of chemical compounds which express specific biogeographic trends at the evolutionary process, validating a Smithsonian hypothesis on the evolution of the genus Espeletia in the process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Method to estimate abundance, trends in North Atlantic right whales confirms decline
(NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center) NOAA Fisheries researchers and colleagues at the New England Aquarium have developed a new model to improve estimates of abundance and population trends of endangered North Atlantic right whales, which have declined in numbers and productivity in recent years. Between 1990 and 2010 abundance increased to 482 animals, but since 2010 the numbers have declined to 458 in 2015, with 14 known deaths this year. The findings were published in the journal Ecology and Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Science denial not limited to political right
(University of Illinois at Chicago) A new study from social psychologists at the University of Illinois at Chicago suggests people of all political backgrounds can be motivated to participate in science denial. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news