New screening method could lead to microbe-based replacements for chemical pesticides
(Tokyo University of Science) Some nonpathogenic microorganisms can stimulate plant immune responses without damaging the plants, which allows them to act like plant vaccines, but screening microorganisms for such properties has traditionally been time-consuming and expensive. Now, a team of scientists from Tokyo University of Science has developed a screening method based on cultured plant cells that makes such testing easier. This may lead to microorganism-based crop protection methods that reduce the need for chemical pesticides. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Freiberg University Forum: Technologies for climate protection
(University of Freiberg / TU Bergakademie Freiberg) Industry, science and society are facing the great challenge of developing climate and environmentally friendly technologies that will secure the future of life on earth. With its diverse research into raw material extraction, material production and energy generation, the Technische Universit ä t Bergakademie Freiberg contributes to important innovations in this field. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Few realistic scenarios left to limit global warming to 1.5 ° C
(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)) Of the over 400 climate scenarios assessed in the 1.5 ° C report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), only around 50 scenarios avoid significantly overshooting 1.5 ° C. Of those only around 20 make realistic assumptions on mitigation options, for instance the rate and scale of carbon removal from the atmosphere or extent of tree planting, a new study shows. All 20 scenarios need to pull at least one mitigation lever at " challenging " rather than " reasonable " levels. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

First test of tropical seaweed farming for biofuels production begins off Puerto Rico
(Marine Biological Laboratory) A team of researchers led by Loretta Roberson of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, has installed the first seaweed farm in Puerto Rico and U.S. tropical waters. The research array furthers the design and development of a system for offshore cultivation of tropical seaweeds to support large-scale production of biomass for biofuels and other valuable bioproducts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ion transporters in chloroplasts affect the efficacy of photosynthesis
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) A study led by LMU plant biologist Hans-Henning Kunz uncovers a new role for ion transporters: they participate in gene regulation in chloroplasts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sensors developed at URI can identify threats at the molecular level
(University of Rhode Island) New sensors developed by Professor Otto Gregory, of the College of Engineering at the University of Rhode Island, and chemical engineering doctoral student Peter Ricci, are so powerful that they can detect threats at the molecular level. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New cyanobacteria species spotlights early life
(Boyce Thompson Institute) Cyanobacteria first evolved to perform photosynthesis about 2.4 billion years ago, pumping tons of oxygen into the atmosphere - a period known as the Great Oxygenation Event - which enabled the evolution of multicellular life forms. Led by BTI faculty member Fay-Wei Li, researchers have discovered a new species of cyanobacteria, Anthocerotibacter panamensis, which could help illuminate how photosynthesis evolved to create the world as we know it. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

U-M researchers trace path of light in photosynthesis
(University of Michigan) Three billion years ago, light first zipped through chlorophyll within tiny reaction centers, the first step plants and photosynthetic bacteria take to convert light into food. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New technology enables rapid sequencing of entire genomes of plant pathogens
(American Phytopathological Society) Next-generation sequencing technology has made it easier than ever for quick diagnosis of plant diseases. " It's really exciting to see how sequencing technologies have evolved and how this new technology facilitates sequencing of entire genomes in such a short amount of time, " said Yazm í n Rivera, a plant pathologist with the United States Department of Agriculture's Plant Protection and Quarantine program, who recently published a research paper on the efficacy of Oxford Nanopore Technologies protocols. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Terpen-tales: The mystery behind the unique fragrance of the lovely lavender
(Nanjing Agricultural University The Academy of Science) Scientists from China have sequenced and analyzed the genome of lavender to provide insights into what causes its distinct aroma. Their findings shed light into the evolution of this uniquely fragrant plant, which could pave the way for creating improved lavender varieties besides adding to existing knowledge on the evolution, phytochemistry, and ecology of Lamiaceae, the plant family to which lavender belongs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How moths find their flame - genetics of mate attraction discovered
(Tufts University) Biologists have revealed for the first time the genetics linking pheromone signals produced by female moths and the neuronal response driving male attraction to females. The ability to predict mate choice will help in understanding how species diverge, and how to control agricultural pests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers develop 3D-printed jelly
(North Carolina State University) 3D-printable gels with improved and highly controlled properties can be created by merging micro- and nano-sized networks of the same materials harnessed from seaweed. The findings could have applications in biomedical materials - think of biological scaffolds for growing cells - and soft robotics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Above the noise
(Osaka University) Osaka University researchers employed machine learning to remove the noise from experimental data without the need for " clean " examples. As a result, the team was better able to monitor the motion of spheres through tiny nanopores. This work may lead to advances in the fast detection of even very small concentrations of pathogens in patient samples. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Herbivores developed powerful jaws to digest tougher plants after the mass extinctions
(University of Bristol) The evolution of herbivores is linked to the plants that survived and adapted after the 'great dying', when over 90% of the world's species were wiped out 252 million years ago. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Eating more fruit and vegetables linked to less stress - study
(Edith Cowan University) Eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is associated with less stress, according to new research from Edith Cowan University (ECU). The findings revealed people who ate at least 470 grams of fruit and vegetables daily had 10 per cent lower stress levels than those who consumed less than 230 grams. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Snakes alive? We're totally fine with them -- just not at our house
(Arizona State University) The first study to analyze snake removals in a social-ecological context was recently published by an Arizona State University conservation biologist working with a local rattlesnake removal company. " I think one of the surprises was that people don't hate snakes, " said researcher Heather Bateman of the College of Integrative Sciences and Arts. " A lot of them responded that the snakes are important to the desert ecosystem and the snake belongs in the desert, just not in my garage. " (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Novel nanotech improves cystic fibrosis antibiotic by 100,000-fold
(University of South Australia) World-first nanotechnology developed by the University of South Australia could change the lives of thousands of people living with cystic fibrosis (CF) as groundbreaking research shows it can improve the effectiveness of the CF antibiotic Tobramycin, increasing its efficacy by up to 100,000-fold. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A new polarized fluorescent probe for revealing architectural dynamics of living cells
(Tokyo Medical and Dental University) Researchers from TMDU, collaborating with scientists from MBL and RIKEN, developed a new probe, POLArIS, for real-time live-cell imaging that reveals the orientation of molecules and is expected to be applicable to a wide range of cell types and specimens. They tested POLArIS in starfish early embryos and discovered the existence of a new F-actin cellular architecture, FLARE, extending alongside the astral microtubules to the cell cortex. This may provide answers to some of the most fundamental questions regarding cell division. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

IOP Publishing hosts inaugural Environmental Research conference
(IOP Publishing) IOP Publishing (IOPP) is launching Environmental Research 2021 as a free-to-attend virtual conference for global stakeholders that will bring leading environmental experts together to share knowledge and address important challenges relating to the environment and sustainability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Urban traffic noise causes song learning deficits in birds
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Zebra finches also suffer from a suppressed immune function due to the chronic stress. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How widespread is lemur and fossa meat consumption?
(Wildlife Conservation Society) A new WCS study looks at the prevalence of human consumption of lemur and fossa (Madagascar's largest predator) in villages within and around Makira Natural Park, northeastern Madagascar, providing up-to-date estimates of the percentage of households who eat meat from these protected species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Protecting moving targets
(University of Tennessee at Knoxville) With the NSF Dynamics of Integrated Socio-Environmental Systems program project, " Species Conservation and Collaborative Governance in an Era of Global Change, " researchers will zoom in on the central and southern Appalachian Mountains as a test-case landscape for the development of a more dynamic vision of conservation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Species losses on isolated Panamanian island show importance of habitat connectivity
(Oregon State University) Free from human disturbance for a century, an inland island in Central America has nevertheless lost more than 25% of its native bird species since its creation as part of the Panama Canal's construction, and scientists say the losses continue. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

High genomic diversity is good news for California condor
(University of California - Berkeley) The wild California condor population dropped to 22 before rescue and captive breeding allowed reintroduction into the wild. A new assembly of the complete genome of the bird reveals some inbreeding as a result, but overall high genomic diversity attesting to large populations of condors in the past, likely in the tens of thousands. Comparison to Andean condor and turkey vulture genomes reveals declines in their populations also, and lower genomic diversity than California condor. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Evolutionary biologists discover mechanism that enables lizards to breathe underwater
(University of Toronto) A team of evolutionary biologists has shown that Anolis lizards, or anoles, are able to breathe underwater with the aid of a bubble clinging to their snouts. Some anoles are stream specialists, and these semi-aquatic species frequently dive underwater to avoid predators, where they can remain submerged for as long as 18 minutes. The researchers termed the process 'rebreathing' after the scuba-diving technology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UChicago study finds lasofoxifene a promising treatment for resistant breast cancer
(University of Chicago Medical Center) In a study carried out in mice at the University of Chicago, researchers found that lasofoxifene outperformed fulvestrant, the current gold-standard drug, in reducing or preventing primary tumor growth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists find molecular patterns that may help identify extraterrestrial life
(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Scientists have begun the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System in earnest, but such life may be subtly or profoundly different from Earth-life, and methods based on detecting particular molecules as biosignatures may not work with life with a different evolutionary history. A new study by a joint Japan/US-based team has developed a machine learning technique that assesses complex organic mixtures using mass spectrometry to reliably classify them as biological or abiological. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Kefir packs less of a probiotic punch than labels claim
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) Gut health is having a moment, with sales of fermented foods such as kefir, kombucha, and kimchi steadily on the rise. The benefits of " good bacteria " in fermented foods and supplements go well beyond the gut, moderating immune responses, heart health, weight, and even mood. But do products hold up to the claims on their labels? (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Brain research gets a boost from mosquitos
(Weizmann Institute of Science) Prof. Ofer Yizhar and his team in the Weizmann Institute of Science's Neurobiology Department took a light-sensitive protein derived from mosquitos and used it to devise an improved method for investigating the messages that are passed from neuron to neuron in the brains of mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Only 17 percent of free-flowing rivers are protected, new research shows
(Northern Arizona University) The research, published in special issue of Sustainability that was co-edited by NAU researchers, demonstrates that biodiversity commitments will be key to global freshwater protection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lemon trees showed less response to citrus greening disease pathogen than orange trees
(American Phytopathological Society) Citrus greening disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. Since then, production of oranges in the United States for processing has declined by 72 percent between the 2007-2008 growing season and the 2017-2018 growing season, primarily in Florida. The disease was discovered in California in 2012, and now the state is beginning to see a rapid increase of citrus greening disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Symbiotic bacteria in root cells may be key to producing better crops, Rutgers study finds
(Rutgers University) A Rutgers study finds that symbiotic bacteria that colonize root cells may be managed to produce hardier crops that need less fertilizer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study finds ghost forest 'tree farts' contribute to greenhouse gas emissions
(North Carolina State University) While standing dead trees in ghost forests did not release as much greenhouse gas emissions as the soils, they did increase GHG emissions of the overall ecosystem by about 25 percent. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How smartphones can help detect ecological change
(German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig) Mobile apps like Flora Incognita that allow automated identification of wild plants cannot only identify plant species, but also uncover large-scale ecological patterns. This opens up new perspectives for rapid detection of biodiversity changes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Engineered bacteria show promise for sustainable biofuel industry, researchers say
(Hiroshima University) Acetone, a volatile solvent used for everything from removing nail polish and cleaning textiles to manufacturing plastics, could get a sustainability boost from a new strain of bacteria engineered by a research team based in Japan. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Polypharmakos and CABI to develop new antimicrobial products from CABI Culture Collection
(CABI) Polypharmakos Limited, a spin-out company from the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and University of Cambridge, and international not-for-profit organisation CABI have signed a research collaboration and licensing agreement to develop novel products from CABI's Culture Collection.CABI's Culture Collection consists of 30,000 strains of optimally preserved fungi and bacteria isolated from diverse ecosystems from around the world - a reflection of CABI's work and mission to improve lives by solving problems in agriculture and the environment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Eco-friendly device developed at UL, Ireland detects real-time pipe damage
(University of Limerick) Eco-friendly device developed at University of Limerick in Ireland detects real-time pipe damage and could help to save water. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Giant sea lizard fossil shows diversity of life before asteroid hit
(University of Bath) Scientists have identified the fossil of a giant mosasaur in Morocco that grew up to 8 metres long. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Efficiently smuggling drugs into cells
(Technische Universit ä t Dresden) A new, patented method called Progressive Mechanoporation makes it possible to mechanically disrupt the membranes of cells for a short time period and let drugs or genes inside cells. In this way, researchers can test new therapies more easily than before. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

An enzyme system for the hydrogen industry
(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) An enzyme could make a dream come true for the energy industry: It can efficiently produce hydrogen using electricity and can also generate electricity from hydrogen. The enzyme is protected by embedding it in a polymer. An international research team with significant participation of scientists from Technical University of Munich (TUM) has presented the system in the renowned science journal Nature Catalysis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Xerocrassa montserratensis, an endemic and threatened snail in Catalonia
(University of Barcelona) A study published in the journal Scientific Reports reveals the genetic structure of the land snail Xerocrassa montserratensis and it provides new scientific tools for the improvement of the conservation of this endemic and threatened species in Catalonia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

20 days later -- The short story about muscles regeneration
(Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences) Skeletal muscles make a tremendous variety of actions stabilizing the body in different positions. Despite their endurance during daily activities, they can undergo several mild injuries caused by sport, accidental overstretching, or sudden overtwisting. Luckily mild injuries can be quickly healed; however, when a large part of muscles is damaged or resected surgically, the full recovery can be impossible. Muscle regeneration is challenging, but the development of innovative biocompatible materials tackles that problem. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Research team investigates causes of tuberous sclerosis
(University of M ü nster) A team of biochemists from the Faculties of Chemistry/Pharmacy and Medicine at the University of M ü nster has discovered a mechanism which regulates cell division and cell growth. The results can help to understand how Tuberous Sclerosis, a genetic disease, arises. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Prehistoric horses, bison shared diet
(University of Cincinnati) University of Cincinnati researchers found that a broader diversity of plants in the Arctic 40,000 years ago supported both more -- and more diverse -- big animals like horses, bison and ground sloths. The research could inform conservation of wood bison in Alaska. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

COVID-19: Discovery of the mechanisms of short- and long-term anosmia
(Institut Pasteur) Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm, Universit é de Paris and the Paris Public Hospital Network (AP-HP) determined the mechanisms involved in the loss of smell in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at different stages of the disease. They discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infects sensory neurons and causes persistent epithelial and olfactory nervous system inflammation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Peptide could allow medical marijuana to relieve pain without side effects
(American Chemical Society) Many people live with chronic pain, and in some cases, cannabis can provide relief. But the drug also can significantly impact memory and other cognitive functions. Now, researchers reporting in ACS'Journal of Medicinal Chemistry have developed a peptide that, in mice, allowedΔ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main component ofCannabis sativa, to fight pain without the side effects. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and other microorganisms in dental aerosols
(International& American Associations for Dental Research) COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 and given an incomplete understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at that time, the ADA recommended that dental offices refrain from providing non-emergency services. The study " Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Microorganisms in Dental Aerosols, " published in the Journal of Dental Research (JDR), sought to inform infection-control science by identifying the source of bacteria and viruses in aerosol generating dental procedures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New computer software to advance genome design capabilities
(Five Heads Strategic Communications) A new GP-write CAD platform for whole genome design is being launched by Genome Project-write and Twist Bioscience (NASDAQ: TWST). The technology is expected to open new frontiers in genome research to advance development of therapeutics and solutions for environmental health. The platform will allow scientists to scale to other species with larger genomes, provide user design feedback and automate workflows enabling collaboration critical for scale-up from designing plasmids to whole chromosomes across entire genomes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ancient gut microbiomes may offer clues to modern diseases
(Joslin Diabetes Center) Joslin Diabetes Center scientists have found dramatic differences between gut microbiomes from ancient North American peoples and modern microbiomes, offering new evidence on how these microbes may evolve with different diets. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Obese girls face heightened risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood
Conclusion was drawn from a study that involved 92 adolescents aged 11-18. The findings underscore the importance of considering differences between the sexes when treatment is planned. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news