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Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war
(Rice University) Researchers from Rice University, UCLA, Michigan State and the University of New Mexico have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen. The research appears this week in Science Advances. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Inner clock: Biologists research the mechanism of an auxiliary clock
(Bielefeld University) In December, the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology will be awarded for the identification of genes that control the inner clock. The honored academics examined fruit flies to determine the biorhythm. Biochemist Professor Dr. Dorothee Staiger of Bielefeld University has been researching the inner clock of plants for 20 years. Her team has now published a new study in the research journal Genome Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

eDNA tool detects invasive clams before they become a nuisance
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) When seeking a cure for a disease, early detection is often the key. The same is true for eliminating invasive species. Identifying their presence in a lake before they are abundant is vital. A recent University of Illinois study successfully used environmental DNA to detect invasive clams in California and Nevada lakes. Researchers believe this tool can help identify pests before they become a problem. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientific advances can make it easier to recycle plastics
(University of Houston) Researchers report new approaches could dramatically increase the amount of plastic waste that can be successfully recycled. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Research shows drones could help crop management take off
(University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture) Initial results of an ongoing study show that aerial imagery produced by multi-spectral sensors as well as less-expensive digital cameras may improve accuracy and efficiency of plant stand assessment in cotton. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mathematician's study of 'swarmalators' could direct future science
(Cornell University) How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of noted mathematician Steven Strogatz? As it turns out, quite prominently. Cornell researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploration of 'swarmalators' -- their term for systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New theory rewrites opening moments of Chernobyl disaster
(Taylor& Francis Group) A brand-new theory of the opening moments during the Chernobyl disaster, the most severe nuclear accident in history, based on additional analysis is presented for the first time in the journal Nuclear Technology, an official journal of the American Nuclear Society. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The future of cell culture: A new continuous bioprocess developed
(Newcastle University) Scientists at Newcastle University, UK have developed a revolutionary technique to allow the continuous production and collection of cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists capture colliding organic nanoparticles on video for first time
(Northwestern University) A Northwestern University research team is the first to capture on video organic nanoparticles colliding and fusing together. This unprecedented view of 'chemistry in motion' will aid Northwestern nanoscientists developing new drug delivery methods as well as demonstrate to researchers around the globe how an emerging imaging technique opens a new window on a very tiny world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Surrey develops new 'supercatalyst' to recycle carbon dioxide and methane
(University of Surrey) The University of Surrey has developed a new and cost-effective catalyst to recycle two of the main causes behind climate change -- carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
(German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig) Leipzig. Forests fulfil numerous important functions, and do so particularly well if they are rich in different species of trees. In addition, forest managers do not have to decide on the provision of solely one function, such as wood production or nature conservation: several services provided by forest ecosystems can be improved at the same time. These are the results of two studies led by scientists from Leipzig University and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), and published in Ecology Letters. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Seagrass is a key fishing ground globally
(Stockholm University) New research demonstrates that seagrass meadows are important fishing grounds all around the globe. The work highlights that there is an urgent need to start appreciating and understanding this role to be able to build more sustainable fisheries. A study led by Dr. Lina Mtwana Nordlund at Stockholm University, published in the scientific journal Fish& Fisheries, examines the global extent to which these underwater meadows support fishing activity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What grosses out a chimpanzee?
(Kyoto University) Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The tragedy of the seagrass commons
(Swansea University) Urgent action is required to stem the loss of the world's seagrass meadows to protect their associated fisheries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Plant respiration could become a bigger feedback on climate than expected
(Centre for Ecology& Hydrology) New research suggests that plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warns that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

No more deer in the headlight: Study finds large mammals do use road crossing structures
(Frontiers) A pilot study finds that large mammals are more likely to use wildlife crossing structures than move past a random location in the surrounding habitat. Animal movement also varied between crossing structures in different locations, suggesting that location might be more important than design. These findings are a first step towards a better understanding of the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

University of Guelph professor identifies protein key to cancer cells ability to spread
(University of Guelph) U of G scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues.The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it decreased the adhesion and invasion rate of breast and brain cancer cells by up to 90 percent. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

BfR supports EFSA and ECHA with the development of European guidelines for the health assessment of endocrine disruptors
(BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment) On behalf of the European Food Safety Authority, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment hosted a hearing of experts on the practicability of hormone measurements in toxicological studies in Berlin on Oct. 18-19, 2017. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Warmer water signals change for Scotland's shags
(Centre for Ecology& Hydrology) An increasingly catholic diet among European shags at one of Scotland's best-studied breeding colonies has been linked to long-term climate change and may have important implications for Scotland's seabirds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Evaluation of novel hybrid membranes for carbon capture
(Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) Hybrid materials known as mixed matrix membranes are considered a promising approach to capture carbon dioxide and mitigate against global warming. These materials are derived from a polymer combined with porous nanoparticles. We show that materials prepared using porous organic polymers are resilient to the acidic impurities present in industrial gas streams, whereas other hybrid materials fail. This means that they can be effective in carbon capture applications where these impurities are present. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Using eDNA to identify the breeding habitat of endangered species
(Kobe University) Using wide-ranging eDNA analysis combined with traditional collection survey methods, Japanese researchers have identified the breeding site of critically endangered fish species Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan. The findings were published on November 14 in the online edition of The Science of Nature - Naturwissenschaften. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists win UN data prize for monitoring threats to South African biodiversity hotspot
(University at Buffalo) The team created a digital tool that maps and analyzes vegetation in the fynbos, a belt of ecologically important shrubland in the Cape Floristic Region. The system can detect abnormal changes in fynbos plant life. Similar tools could be useful for monitoring ecosystems such as those in the Mediterranean Basin, California or South Western Australia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NIFA invests in programs to increase productivity, profitability, stewardship of 3 crops
(National Institute of Food and Agriculture) The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) today announced support for research to increase the productivity, profitability, and natural resources stewardship of canola, potato, and alfalfa production systems. The grants are funded through three NIFA programs: Alfalfa and Forage Research, Supplemental and Alternative Crops, and Potato Breeding Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fossil that fills missing evolutionary link named after UChicago professors
(University of Chicago) Scientists recently announced the discovery of a missing evolutionary link--a fossil of the first known member of the modern bryozoans to grow up into a structure. Called Jablonskipora kidwellae, it is named after UChicago geophysical scientists David Jablonski and Susan Kidwell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

American Water Works Association and Wiley confirm new publishing partnership
(Wiley) John Wiley and Sons Inc., (NYSE:JW-A) (NYSE:JW-B) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) announced today that they have agreed to become publishing partners for the AWWA periodicals, Journal -- American Water Works Association (JAWWA) and Opflow. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF makes new awards to advance Science of Learning
(National Science Foundation) The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded $8.2 million through its Science of Learning program to fund 24 new projects that will advance theoretical insights and fundamental knowledge of learning principles, processes, environments and constraints. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New method analyzes corn kernel characteristics
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) An ear of corn averages about 800 kernels. A traditional field method to estimate the number of kernels on the ear is to manually count the number of rows and multiply by the number of kernels in one length of the ear. With the help of a new imaging machine developed at the University of Illinois breeders can learn the number of kernels per ear, plus a lot more information than can be manually observed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF-supported scientists present research
(National Science Foundation) Find related stories on NSF's Critical Zone Observatories. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Veni vidi vici: How natural killer cells conquer the superbug Klebsiella
(University of Vienna) Multidrug resistance of microbes poses a serious global threat to human health. Resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly reduce therapeutic options for the treatment of potentially fatal pneumonia or sepsis. Pavel Kovarik and his team now report new insights into how immune cells communicate at the site of infection and join forces in the fight against Klebsiella infections. Their results might be used for the development of alternatives to ineffective anti-microbial drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Grand Challenges Explorations grant for Strathclyde
(University of Strathclyde) The University of Strathclyde has announced that it is a Grand Challenges Explorations winner, an initiative funded by the Bill& Melinda Gates Foundation. Professor Patricia Connolly, of Strathclyde's Department of Biomedical Engineering, will pursue an innovative global health and development research project, which offers a way to monitor premature and at-risk babies without the need for blood samples. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change impacts already locked in -- but the worst can still be avoided
(University of Exeter) Some impacts of global warming -- such as sea level rise and coastal flooding -- are already locked in and unavoidable, according to a major research project. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Species in the north are more vulnerable to climate change
(Lund University) For the first time, researchers have proposed the hypothesis that animals that live in climate zones at a safe distance from both the poles as well as the tropics have the most to gain from acclimating to changes in climate. The findings contradict previous research in the field. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Andalusian experts discover new procedures for DNA stability
(University of Seville) In eukaryotic cells the proximity of the genes to the nuclear pores, which are found in the nuclear membrane, contributes to maintaining the integrity of the genome. This is due to the fact that the anchoring of DNA to the pore during transcription avoids the formation of DNA-RNA hybrids, which are a natural source of DNA breaks and genome instability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NUS researchers develop smart, ultra-thin microfibre sensor for real-time healthcare monitoring and
(National University of Singapore) A research team from National University of Singapore has developed a soft, flexible and stretchable microfibre sensor for real-time healthcare monitoring and diagnosis. The novel sensor is highly sensitive and ultra-thin with a diameter of a strand of human hair. It is also simple and cost-effective to mass produce. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ceria nanoparticles: It is the surface that matters
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) Exhaust gas cleaning of passenger cars, power generation from sunlight, or water splitting: In the future, these and other applications may profit from new findings relating to ceria. At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), scientists have studied ceria nanoparticles with the help of probe molecules and a complex ultrahigh vacuum-infrared measurement system and obtained partly surprising new insights into their surface structure and chemical activity. Work is reported in three articles published in the journal Angewandte Chemie (applied chemistry). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Groundwater recharge in the American west under climate change
(University of Arizona) Groundwater recharge in the Western US will change as the climate warms -- the dry southern regions will have less and the northern regions will have more, according to new research. The new study covers the entire US West, from the High Plains states to the Pacific coast, and provides the first detailed look at how groundwater recharge may change as the climate changes. Groundwater is an important source of freshwater, particularly in the West. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How Snapdragons keep their colour: Signposting trick reveals evolutionary mechanism
(John Innes Centre) A study of the colour patterns among wild flowers in a mountain valley has yielded a clue about how nature controls fundamental evolutionary change in all species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Secrets of succulents' water-wise ways revealed
(University of Liverpool) Plant scientists at the University of Liverpool have revealed new insights into the mechanisms that allow certain plants to conserve water and tolerate drought.The research, which is published in The Plant Cell, could be used to help produce new crops that can thrive in previously inhospitable, hot and dry regions across the world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

To trim away a protein
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Scientists present a novel method to directly and rapidly destroy any protein in any kind of cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Gene discovery may halt worldwide wheat epidemic
(University of California - Davis) University of California, Davis, researchers have identified a gene that enables resistance to a new devastating strain of stem rust, a fungal disease that is hampering wheat production throughout Africa and Asia and threatening food security worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Production timings could stem illegal wildlife laundering
(University of Kent) Production timings for artificially propagated plants and animals could help flag items offered for sale before they should legally be available. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lehigh engineering professor Yaling Liu named ASME fellow
(Lehigh University) Yaling Liu has been named a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, one of the top honors in his field. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New imaging technique peers inside living cells
(Northwestern University) Called Ultrasound Bioprobe, the non-invasive approach developed at Northwestern University allows researchers to view sub-cellular structures and their mechanical behavior at nanoscale resolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Micro-spectroscopy opens new routes for diagnostics
(Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics) In recent years, optics and photonics, and in particular the microspectroscopic techniques, have demonstrated their effectiveness for the materials analysis. The work 'Non-contact mechanical and chemical analysis of single living cells by micro-spectroscopic techniques' which will appear in the journalNature-Light: Science& Applications (LSA), introduces the use of a new spectrometer capable of analysing living cells in situ, in non-invasive manner and with sub-micrometric spatial resolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UTEP team advances in developing vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis
(The University of Texas at El Paso) A research team at The University of Texas at El Paso is one step closer to developing an effective human vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis. During the team's more than four years of research at UTEP's Border Biomedical Research Center, they discovered a vaccine formulation that resulted in a 96 percent decrease in the lesions caused by the illness and showed an 86 percent protection rate from the disease in mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Kent State exercise science/physiology faculty gets grant to study probiotics and exercise
(Kent State University) Kent State University's Exercise Science/Physiology Program was awarded a $248,000 grant by i-Health Inc. to conduct a study relating to the use of probiotics and physical exercise. Kent State faculty and students are interested in combating heat-caused complications during exercise, such as heat stroke and heat exhaustion. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Amazon's recovery from forest losses limited by climate change
(University of Edinburgh) Deforested areas of the Amazon Basin have a limited ability to grow new trees because of changes in climate, according to a study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Wine 'legs' and minibot motors (video)
(American Chemical Society) As any wine enthusiast knows, the 'legs' that run down a glass after a gentle swirl of vino can yield clues about alcohol content. Interestingly, the physical phenomenon that helps create these legs can be harnessed to propel tiny motors to carry out tasks on the surface of water. Scientists demonstrate the motors in a report in ACS' journal Langmuir. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

After cooking, biofortified corn and eggs retain nutrient needed to prevent blindness
(American Chemical Society) Fortified and biofortified foods are at the forefront of efforts to combat vitamin A deficiency worldwide. But little is known about what influence processing may have on the retention of vitamin A precursors in these foods. Now in a study appearing in ACS Omega, scientists report that a high percentage of these healthful substances -- in some cases, almost all -- can survive cooking, depending on the preparation method.   (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Serious health risks associated with energy drinks
(Frontiers) A review of the advertised benefits, nutritional content and public health effects of energy drinks finds their advertised short-term benefits can be outweighed by serious health risks. The study also highlights the worrying trend of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should regulate sales and marketing towards children and adolescents and set upper limits on caffeine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news