Increasing seal population will not harm largest fish stocks in the Baltic
(Stockholm University) Seals feeding on fish does not decrease fish stocks of Baltic cod, herring and sprat the most -- climate change, nutrient load and fisheries do, shows a new study from Stockholm University. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

When scientists push people to their tipping point
(Ohio State University) You probably overestimate just how far someone can push you before you reach your tipping point, new research suggests. A new study tilted people backwards in a device and asked them at what point they thought they would fall if they weren't supported. Most people would have fallen long before they thought they would. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How fruit flies ended up in our fruit bowls
(Lund University) Fruit flies can be a scourge in our homes, but to date no-one has known how they became our uninvited lodgers. For decades, researchers have searched for their origins and now a Swedish-American research team has succeeded. They have also discovered that fruit flies in the wild are far more picky than their domesticated counterparts, a factor that long ago probably prompted the flies to move in with people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Molecular insights into spider silk
(University of W ü rzburg) Spider silk belongs to the toughest fibres in nature and has astounding properties. Scientists from the University of W ü rzburg discovered new molecular details of self-assembly of a spider silk fibre protein. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Double the stress slows down evolution
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics more slowly if they also have to defend themselves against predators. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

One out of 3 rivers in the Iberian Peninsula is affected by salinization
(University of Barcelona) One out of three rivers in the Iberian Peninsula has salinization mainly due the impact of agricultural activity and territory urbanization. This environmental problem will affect hydric ecosystems due global warming, the growing use of water and the exploitation of soil natural resources. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

DDT in Alaska meltwater poses cancer risk for people who eat lots of fish
(University of Maine) Children in Alaska whose diet includes a lot of fish from rivers fed by the Eastern Alaska Mountain Range may have a long-term elevated risk for cancer because of insecticides -- including DDT -- in the meltwater. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study: Damning evidence of dam's impacts on rainforest birds
(Wildlife Conservation Society) A study by an international team of conservation scientists found that a dam built in Thailand 31 years ago has caused the local bird population to collapse. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

LSU researchers present at world's largest earth and space sciences conference
(Louisiana State University) LSU faculty and students will present more than 80 research talks, posters, press conferences and events at the largest Earth and space sciences conference in the world, the American Geophysical Union, or AGU. From Dec. 10-14, more than 20,000 scientists will convene in Washington, D.C., for the centennial AGU Fall Meeting. Researchers from multiple disciplines across LSU will present their research spanning the physical and life sciences that increases our understanding of Earth, sea and space. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Vitamin C may reduce harm to infants' lungs caused by smoking during pregnancy
(American Thoracic Society) Vitamin C may reduce the harm done to lungs in infants born to mothers who smoke during their pregnancy, according to a randomized, controlled trial published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Two-dimensional materials skip the energy barrier by growing one row at a time
(DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) A new study published in the journal Science, could provide engineers new design rules for creating microelectronics, membranes, and tissues, and open up better production methods for new materials. At the same time, the research helps uphold a scientific theory that has remained unproven for over a century. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Glutamate receptor affects the development of brain cells after birth
(Ruhr-University Bochum) It had been previously assumed that this protein is only relevant in adults. But this is not the case. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fighting smog supports solar power
(ETH Zurich) Model calculations by ETH researchers show that if China fought smog more aggressively, it could massively increase solar power production. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists to produce anti-cancer drugs in yeast
(Technical University of Denmark) New UN rules avert the production of therapeutic drugs formulated on naturally occurring plant molecules. A new research project will rescue the production by producing natural drugs sustainably in baker's yeast. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Parrot genome analysis reveals insights into longevity, cognition
(Carnegie Mellon University) Parrots are famously talkative, and a blue-fronted Amazon parrot named Moises -- or at least its genome -- is telling scientists volumes about the longevity and highly developed cognitive abilities that give parrots so much in common with humans. Perhaps someday, it will also provide clues about how parrots learn to vocalize so well. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Why Antarctic fish don't freeze to death (video)
(American Chemical Society) The notothenioid fishes that inhabit the Antarctic Ocean have evolved an unusual adaptation to living in icy waters. Their blood contains antifreeze proteins that prevent ice from growing within the fishes' bodies and actually lower the freezing temperature of their tissues. In this video, Reactions meets these bizarre animals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists found new giant dinosaur
(AKSON Russian Science Communication Association) Paleontologists from Russia have described a new dinosaur, the Volgatitan. Seven of its vertebrae, which had remained in the ground for about 130 million years, were found on the banks of the Volga, not far from the village of Slantsevy Rudnik, five kilometers from Ulyanovsk. The study has been published in the latest issue of Biological Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Yin and yang: Opposites in nature, fluoride and lithium, compete for higher energy batteries
(Purdue University) The same fluoride in your toothpaste might soon compete with lithium for longer-lasting batteries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Elevated hormone flags liver problems in mice with methylmalonic acidemia
(NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute) NHGRI researchers have discovered a hormone in a mouse study that can be used immediately to can help doctors predict how severely patients with the rare disease methylmalonic acidemia are affected and when to refer them for liver transplants. The findings, published December 6 in JCI Insight, also might shed light on more common disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity and diabetes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Parrot genome analysis reveals mutations favoring longevity and cognition
(Cell Press) A genome analysis of traits in parrots and 26 other bird species revealed that parrots and other long-lived birds share high rates of conserved mutations in genes responsible for supporting an abnormally long lifespan for a small animal. For example, the expected lifespan for a bird of a similar size as a parrot would be in the range of 15-20 years, whereas the blue-fronted Amazon parrot can live up to 66 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Could algae that are 'poor-providers' help corals come back after bleaching?
(Carnegie Institution for Science) How much of a reef's ability to withstand stressful conditions is influenced by the type of symbiotic algae that the corals hosts? New work investigates how the nutrients algae share with their coral hosts varies between species and what this could mean for a coral's ability to survive in a changing climate. They determined that in the wake of a bleaching event, even an algal tenant that's poor provider may be better than no provider. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UK consortium to combat serious threat to plant health
(John Innes Centre) The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Right Honourable Lord Henley, has announced funding for a major bacterial plant diseases research program supported by UK Research and Innovation's Strategic Priorities Fund. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

WSU researchers create 3D-printed glucose biosensors
(Washington State University) A 3D-printed glucose biosensor for use in wearable monitors has been created by Washington State University researchers. The work could lead to improved glucose monitors for millions of people who suffer from diabetes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New book from CSHLPress: RNA Worlds: New Tools for Deep Exploration
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) This new edition of the highly successful RNA Worlds series, from CSHLPress, focuses on emerging tools for analysis of RNA biology and how these tools are driving our understanding of RNA structure and function. The contributors review new approaches for imaging RNA molecules in cells, techniques for analyzing the behavior of single RNA molecules in vitro and in vivo, transcriptome-wide analyses, and novel methods for determining the structure of RNA and RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target?
(CNRS) Researchers from the CNRS, the University of Orl é ans, and the company Artimmune, in collaboration with Turkish clinicians from Atat ü rk University, have identified a key mechanism of lung inflammation induced by silica exposure, which leads to silicosis, an incurable disease. Their study in mice and patients, published in Nature Communications, shows that this inflammation can be prevented by extracellular DNA degradation, suggesting a new therapeutic target. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Simple steps to climate-proof farms have big potential upside for tropical farmers
(International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)) Climate-smart agriculture boosts yields, mitigates extreme weather impact and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. A study by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture in Central America, Africa and Asia points to profitable opportunities for farmers and the environment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Three quarters of a Quebec population fall short of healthy eating guidelines
(Elsevier) In a web-based study reported in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, more than three quarters of French-speaking adults in Quebec, Canada, fall short of meeting current dietary guidelines regarding consumption of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, sodium, and saturated fats. The authors recommend stronger, more impactful actions to support everyone in adopting healthier dietary habits to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Food system organizations must strengthen their operations to safeguard against potential threats
(Elsevier) Food systems face growing threats as extreme weather events become more common and more extreme due to climate change. A new study from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, highlights characteristics of organizations involved in the food system that may lead them to be more prepared to respond to such disasters, and opportunities for local, state, and federal organizations to improve resilience across the urban food system. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Protecting cell powerhouse paves way to better treatment of acute kidney injury
(Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University) For the first time, scientists have described the body's natural mechanism for temporarily protecting the powerhouses of kidney cells when injury or disease means they aren't getting enough blood or oxygen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

30 years of experimental evolution results in a new sex chromosome
(University of Konstanz) On Dec. 3, 2018, the laboratory of Professor Axel Meyer, University of Konstanz published new findings of an experimental evolutionary project that ran for 30 years on the genomic mechanisms of sex determination in swordtail fish in the journal Nature Communications. Dr Paolo Franchini, evolutionary biologist and Junior Research Group Leader at the University of Konstanz is the lead author of this collaboration with the laboratory of Professor Manfred Schartl of the University of W ü rzburg (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Belgian team secures million-dollar funding from Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
(VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology)) Today, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI), the philanthropic endeavor led by Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg and his partner Priscilla Chan, announced the launch of its Neurodegeneration Challenge Network. This new network brings together experimental scientists from diverse biomedical research fields, as well as computational biologists and physicians, to understand the underlying causes of neurodegenerative disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

229 new species described by the California Academy of Sciences in 2018
(California Academy of Sciences) In 2018, researchers at the California Academy of Sciences added 229 new plant and animal species to our family tree, enriching our understanding of Earth's complex web of life and strengthening our ability to make informed conservation decisions. The new species include 120 wasps, 34 sea slugs, 28 ants, 19 fish, seven flowering plants, seven spiders, four eels, three sharks, two water bears, one frog, one snake, one seahorse, one moss, and one liverwort plant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New insights in rust resistance in wheat
(Aarhus University) Approximately 88 percent of wheat production is susceptible to yellow rust. Researchers have new results regarding the fungus, which evolves quickly to produce new, virulent strains. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study: Tuberculosis survives by using host system against itself
(University of Notre Dame) In a new study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, scientists at the University of Notre Dame have discovered that the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) releases RNA into infected cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Wind power vulnerable to climate change in India
(Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences) The warming of the Indian Ocean, caused by global climate change, may be causing a slow decline in wind power potential in India, according to a new study from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Harvard China Project. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fine-tuning renewables could help Texas balance energy resources
(Rice University) A Rice University study analyzes Texas' mix of wind and solar energy resources, and how to achieve better balance between them going forward. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Analysis estimates mortality from fungal infections of ash trees
(Wiley) The ash dieback epidemic, caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, has swept across Europe over the past 20 years and caused widespread damage and death in ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior) populations. A recent analysis of surveys of ash dieback across Europe, published in Plants, People, Planet, reveals mortality rates as high as 85 percent in plantations and 70 percent in woodlands. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Can rice filter water from ag fields?
(American Society of Agronomy) While it's an important part of our diets, new research shows that rice plants can be used in a different way, too: to clean runoff from farms before it gets into rivers, lakes, and streams. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

People and plants: Working together for the planet
(New Phytologist) Plants, People, Planet, a cross-disciplinary Open Access journal, launches today with its first issue. Plants, People, Planet will publish peer-reviewed articles, opinion and review that focuses on the connections between plant science and society. The new journal aims to celebrate everything new, innovative and exciting in plant sciences that is relevant to society and peoples' daily lives. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study solves puzzle of snail and slug feeding preferences
(University of Plymouth) A study led by the University of Plymouth suggests the reason some seedlings are more commonly eaten by slugs and snails may be down to the smells produced by young seedlings in the early stages of their development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A toxin that travels from stomach to brain may trigger Parkinsonism
(Penn State) Combining low doses of a toxic herbicide with sugar-binding proteins called lectins may trigger Parkinsonism -- symptoms typical of Parkinson's disease like body tremors and slowing of body motions -- after the toxin travels from the stomach to the brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Natural selection in the womb can explain health problems in adulthood
(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Conditions encountered in the womb can have life-long impact on health. Scientists previously assumed this is because embryos respond to adverse conditions by programming their gene expression. Now scientists report a radically different alternative. Rather than being programmed by the environment, random differences in gene expression may provide some embryos with a survival advantage. The researchers found that a specific part of the DNA methylation pattern was missing among famine-exposed individuals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Microscopic 'sunflowers' for better solar panels
(Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard) Scientists from Harvard's Wyss Institute have harnessed magnetic fields to control the molecular structure of liquid crystal elastomers and create microscopic three-dimensional polymer shapes that can be programmed to move in any direction in three-dimensional space in response to multiple types of stimuli, including light and heat. The applications of this technology include message encryption, responsive solar panels, and smart buildings. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Team converts wet biological waste to diesel-compatible fuel
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) In a step toward producing renewable engine fuels that are compatible with existing diesel fuel infrastructure, researchers report they can convert wet biowaste, such as swine manure and food scraps, into a fuel that can be blended with diesel and that shares diesel's combustion efficiency and emissions profile. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Novel approach improves understanding of the formation of new neurons in the mammalian adult brain
(Baylor College of Medicine) A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, the Texas Heart Institute and Texas Children's Hospital has developed a powerful new approach to understand the formation of new neurons in the mammalian adult brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New cancer immunotherapy approach turns immune cells into tiny anti-tumor drug factories
(University of California - San Diego) In lab and mouse experiments, UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers developed a method to leverage B cells to manufacture and secrete tumor-suppressing microRNAs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Promising research shows blood vessel growth key to healthy fat tissue
(York University) research led by York University's Faculty of Health shows that inhibiting a protein within blood vessels stimulates new blood vessel growth, resulting in healthier fat tissue (adipose) and lower blood sugar levels. The findings provide key insight into how improving blood vessel growth could help to mitigate serious health problems that arise with obesity, such as diabetes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Gut microbiome differs among ethnicities, researchers find
(Vanderbilt University) Changing the gut microbiome to beat illness really does hold great potential, said Vanderbilt University biologist Seth Bordenstein, but first scientists must answer what constitutes a healthy gut microbiome and in whom. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biologists show inner workings of cellular 'undertaker'
(Scripps Research Institute) One of a cell's most important responsibilities is to break down and recycle proteins that are no longer needed or endanger the cell. This task is carried out by a cellular nanomachine called the proteasome. Scientists from Scripps Research deciphered how the proteasome converts energy into mechanical motion that untangles and unfolds proteins for destruction. The findings, published in Science, could help us understand how proteasomes keep diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's at bay (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Human actions impact wild salmon's ability to evolve
(University of California - Davis) Once spring-run chinook salmon disappear, they are not likely to re-emerge, indicates genetic analysis of the revered wild fish in a study led by the University of California, Davis. Prompt conservation action could preserve spring-run chinook, as well as their evolutionary potential. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news