Molecularly thin interface between polymers -- for efficient CO2 capture membrane
(Kyushu University, I2CNER) Composite membranes for CO2 separation contain different functional layers in their structure (e.g. porous mechanical support, selective layer etc.). We found that when selective layer in composite membrane is made ultimately thin - it forms specific interface with supporting gutter polymer, and this structure shows unexpectedly high selectivity towards CO2 over nitrogen. This new finding provides the way to develop better membranes for CO2 capture. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Space to grow, or grow in space -- how vertical farms could be ready to take-off
(John Innes Centre) Vertical farms with their soil-free, computer-controlled environments may sound like sci-fi. But there is a growing environmental and economic case for them, according to new research laying out radical ways of putting food on our plates. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Predation by Caspian terns on young steelhead means fewer return as adults
(Oregon State University) Caspian terns feeding on young fish have a significant impact on runs of steelhead in the Columbia River, new research suggests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study shows how our brains remain active during familiar, repetitive tasks
(University of Cambridge) New research, based on earlier results in mice, suggests that our brains are never at rest, even when we are not learning anything about the world around us. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Green is more than skin-deep for hundreds of frog species
(Duke University) The through-and-through greenness of hundreds of frog species that can be found deep in their lymphatic fluid, soft tissues and even bones, comes from a clever biochemical workaround that combines a normally virus-fighting type of protein with a toxic byproduct of blood breakdown. The camouflage innovation has happened at least 40 times across 11 families of frog and toad. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Burrowing crabs reshaping salt marshes, with climate change to blame
(Brown University) Given higher sea levels and softer soil in the wake of a shifting climate, Sesarma crabs, which have already decimated salt marshes in the Northeast, are now rising to prominence in southeastern marshes, a new study finds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists discover key element of strong antibody response to COVID-19
(Scripps Research Institute) A team led by scientists at Scripps Research has discovered a common molecular feature found in many of the human antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Engineered llama antibodies neutralize COVID-19 virus
(The Rosalind Franklin Institute) Antibodies derived from llamas have been shown to neutralise the SARS-CoV-2 virus in lab tests, UK researchers announced today. The team involves researchers from the Rosalind Franklin Institute, Oxford University, Diamond Light Source and Public Health England. They hope the antibodies - known as nanobodies due to their small size - could eventually be developed as a treatment for patients with severe COVID-19. The peer reviewed findings are published in Nature Structural& Molecular Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Altimmune COVID-19 vaccine candidate tested at UAB shows positive preclinical results
(University of Alabama at Birmingham) Altimmune, Inc., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, has announced positive results from the preclinical studies conducted in mice at the University of Alabama at Birmingham of its intranasal COVID-19 vaccine candidate, AdCOVID. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New bioink for cell bioprinting in 3D
(Link ö ping University) A research group led by Daniel Aili, associate professor at Link ö ping University, has developed a bioink to print tissue-mimicking material in 3D printers. The scientists have developed a method and a material that allow cells to survive and thrive. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hypoglycemic mechanism of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide in type 2 diabetic rats
(Science China Press) This research aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic mechanism for CP. It was found that CP markedly attenuated the symptoms of diabetes, and inhibited the protein expression of Bax, improved the expression of Bcl-2 in pancreas of diabetic rats, normalized hormones secretion and controlled the inflammation which contributed to the regeneration of pancreaticβ-cell and insulin resistance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Electron cryo-microscopy: Using inexpensive technology to produce high-resolution images
(Martin-Luther-Universit ä t Halle-Wittenberg) Biochemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have used a standard electron cryo-microscope to achieve surprisingly good images that are on par with those taken by far more sophisticated equipment. They have succeeded in determining the structure of ferritin almost at the atomic level. Their results were published in the journal " PLOS ONE " . (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Research: Crop plants are taking up microplastics
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) Scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) recently found that microplastics are indeed contaminating edible plants, including vegetables we eat. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The colorful history of plastids
(Molecular Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press)) Emerging genome data provides new insight into plastid evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Antibiotic resistance and the need for personalized treatments
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) Scientists have discovered that the microbiota of each individual determines the maintenance of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the gut: whereas in some individuals resistant bacteria are quickly eliminated, in others they are not. The study now published in Nature Ecology and Evolution highlights the need to implement more personalized therapies and brings new perspectives to the paradigm of the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the gut. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change will cause more extreme wet and dry seasons, researchers find
(Clemson University) The world can expect more rainfall as the climate changes, but it can also expect more water to evaporate, complicating efforts to manage reservoirs and irrigate crops in a growing world, according to a Clemson researcher whose latest work has been published in the journal Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

When calling loudly, echolocation is costly for small bats
(Forschungsverbund Berlin) Calling in the ultrasonic range enables small bats to orient themselves in the dark and track down insects. Louder calls travel farther, improving a bat's ability to detect their prey. It was long assumed that echolocation does not contribute much to energy expenditure in flight because individuals couple their calls with the beat of their wings. Scientists at the Leibniz-IZW in Berlin have now shown that high intensity echolocation calls substantially contribute to energy expenditure. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UTEP awarded $1.3 million to research how neural circuits regulate specific cognitive functions
(University of Texas at El Paso) The University of Texas at El Paso was awarded $1.3 million from the National Institutes of Health to shed light on how the combined function of neural circuits impacts specific behaviors in humans. The study will seek to identify and characterize glycinergic neurons in the basal ganglia, a brain area that participates in initiation of voluntary movements and cognitive functions such as emotion, vision and some forms of memory. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Pickled capers activate proteins important for human brain and heart health
(University of California - Irvine) A compound commonly found in pickled capers has been shown to activate proteins required for normal human brain and heart activity, and may even lead to future therapies for the treatment of epilepsy and abnormal heart rhythms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Autoclaving, alcohol not the best options for disinfecting, reusing face masks
(University of Cincinnati) Two widely available sterilization methods to clean disposable surgical masks and N95 respirators may not be the best options for hospitals needing to extend the life of personal protective equipment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists evaluated the perspectives of zinc intake for COVID-19 prevention
(Sechenov University) Researchers from Sechenov University in collaboration with colleagues from Germany, Greece and Russia reviewed scientific articles on the role of zinc in the prevention and treatment of viral infections and pneumonia, with projections on those caused by SARS-CoV-2. The results were published in the International Journal of Molecular Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Uncovering the architecture of natural photosynthetic machinery
(University of Liverpool) Researchers at the University of Liverpool have uncovered the molecular architecture and organisational landscape of thylakoid membranes from a model cyanobacterium in unprecedented detail. The study, which is published in Nature Plants, could help researchers find new and improved artificial photosynthetic technologies for energy production. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Jurassic fossils from northeastern China reveal morphological stasis in the catkin-yew
(Science China Press) Dong and colleagues studied well-preserved plant fossils from the Middle-Late Jurassic Daohugou Bed in eastern Inner Mongolia, northeastern China. These fossils closely resemble the extant catkin-yews Amentotaxus. They provide unequivocal evidence that the catkin-yews have undergone little morphological change over at least ~160 million years. Like ginkgo, the catkin-yews are living fossils that provide an important new example of evolutionary stasis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How Venus flytraps snap
(University of Zurich) Venus flytraps catch spiders and insects by snapping their trap leaves. This mechanism is activated when unsuspecting prey touch highly sensitive trigger hairs twice within 30 seconds. A study led by researchers at the University of Zurich has now shown that a single slow touch also triggers trap closure - probably to catch slow-moving larvae and snails. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Invention: " Nanocage " tool untangles (molecular) spaghetti
(University of Vermont) A team of scientists at the University of Vermont have invented a new tool--they call it a " nanocage " --that can catch and straighten out molecule-sized tangles of polymers --whether made of protein or plastic. This tool--that works a bit like pulling a wad of thread through a needle hole--opens a new way to create custom materials that have never been made before. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CSU and partners create mine tailings nexus to improve education, industry best practices
(Colorado State University) Colorado State University's Civil and Environmental Engineering Department has entered two new partnerships to prevent mine waste disasters. CSU, Colorado School of Mines, and the University of Arizona will form the Tailings Center of Excellence to develop best practices for sustainable mine waste management and provide the education to uphold them. CSU will collaborate with Georgia Tech, UC Berkeley and the University of Illinois on the Tailings and Industrial Waste Engineering Center (TAILENG) to research safer waste storage systems and offer technical training. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Like humans, beluga whales form social networks beyond family ties
(Florida Atlantic University) A groundbreaking study is the first to analyze the relationship between group behaviors, group type, group dynamics, and kinship of beluga whales in 10 locations across the Arctic. Results show that not only do beluga whales regularly interact with close kin, including close maternal kin, they also frequently associate with more distantly related and unrelated individuals. Findings will improve the understanding of why some species are social, how individuals learn from group members and how animal cultures emerge. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Discovery of a novel drug candidate to develop effective treatments for brain disorders
(Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT) Researchers at IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia discovered a novel chemical compound, which has the potential to became a new drug for the treatment of core symptoms of brain disorders like Down syndrome and autism. Results are obtained in preclinical models where the new compound ameliorated difficulties in cognitive tasks, social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Researchers aim to create a start-up company in order to further develop this compound and make it a treatment for patients (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fat cell hormone boosts potential of stem cell therapy
(Osaka University) Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in the treatment of conditions ranging from liver cirrhosis to retinal damage, but results can be variable. Using a mouse heart failure model, researchers led by Osaka University found that levels of a fat cell-derived hormone called adiponectin in the host significantly affect the efficacy of MSC therapy. Administration of a drug that increases adiponectin in combination with MSCs is therefore likely to significantly improve the clinical outcome. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study finds fatty acid that kills cancer cells
(Washington State University) Researchers have demonstrated that a fatty acid called dihomogamma-linolenic acid, or DGLA, can induce ferroptosis, an iron-dependent type of cell death, in an animal model and in human cancer cells. The discovery has many implications, including a step toward a potential treatment for cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mom and baby share 'good bacteria' through breast milk
(University of British Columbia) A new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia and the University of Manitoba has found that bacteria are shared and possibly transferred from a mother's milk to her infant's gut, and that breastfeeding directly at the breast best supports this process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Day in, day out: Targeting the daily magnesium " rhythm " can optimize crop yield
(Okayama University) Many processes of photosynthesis, including the intake of magnesium, follow a pattern of variation over 24 hours. In a new study, scientists from Okayama University, Japan and Fujian A& F University, China, tested the effect of this variation on the efficiency of photosynthesis in rice plants. Their findings suggest potential candidates for modification for increasing the yield of rice crops, thereby offering a potential solution to the global food shortage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Microscopy technique reveals nanoscale detail of coatings as they dry
(Lehigh University) Thin film coatings do more than add color to walls. For example, they can be used as pharmaceutical devices. How these coatings dry can change their properties, which is especially important for films used in drug delivery. Lehigh University engineering researchers studying the in situ drying behavior of thin film coatings are visualizing particle interactions with groundbreaking precision. Their findings could impact the development of drug delivery technology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Montana State research on plant chemistry published in Global Change Biology
(Montana State University) Jack Brookshire's work examines the climate and ecological causes of increased plant productivity in the Northern Great Plains. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A balancing act between immunity and longevity
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Changes in the immune system can promote healthy ageing (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study finds less impact from wildfire smoke on climate
(DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory) New research revealed that tiny, sunlight-absorbing particles in wildfire smoke may have less impact on climate than widely hypothesized because reactions as the plume mixes with clean air reduce its absorbing power and climate-warming effect. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Revealing winners & losers in projected future climates
(Flinders University) New research reveals how winners& losers from climate change can be identified based on their ability to adapt to rising future temperatures.In the first study of its kind published in PNAS, Flinders University evolutionary biologists have shown that resilience or vulnerability to future climates is influenced by the thermal conditions of the climatic regions where species evolved. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Temple scientists identify key factor regulating abnormal heart growth
(Temple University Health System) In new work, researchers at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University cast fresh light on a key molecular regulator in the heart known as FoxO1. In a paper published online July 9 in the journal Circulation, the Temple scientists are the first to show that FoxO1 attaches to and activates a wide array of genes in heart cells, leading to widespread increases in growth signaling, specifically within the heart. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Extreme rainfall events cause top-heavy aquatic food webs
(University of British Columbia) In research recently outlined in Nature, scientists across seven different sites throughout Central and South America replicated the extreme rainfall events predicted by climate change science. Using the insect larvae that live in the water trapped by bromeliad plants as a model ecosystem, they found that food webs became top-heavy with predators when there were large day-to-day variations in rainfall. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Gall fly outmaneuvers host plant in game of " Spy vs. Spy "
(Penn State) Over time goldenrod plants and the gall flies that feed on them have been one-upping each other in an ongoing competition for survival. Now, a team of researchers has discovered that by detecting the plants' chemical defenses, the insects may have taken the lead. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study reveals how bacteria build essential carbon-fixing machinery
(University of Liverpool) Scientists from the University of Liverpool have revealed new insight into how cyanobacteria construct the organelles that are essential for their ability to photosynthesise. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Stress testing 'coral in a box'
(University of Konstanz) Save the corals: Mobile rapid test to assess coral thermotolerance developed in an international collaboration with the University of Konstanz (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers uncover a critical early step of the visual process
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) The key components of electrical connections between light receptors in the eye and the impact of these connections on the early steps of visual signal processing have been identified for the first time, according to research published today in Science Advances by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

First Alaskan juvenile predator fossil adds insight to dino migration
(Southern Methodist University) The discovery of the first juvenile dromaeosaurid lower jaw bone on the North Slope of Alaska supports a growing theory that some Cretaceous Arctic dinosaurs did not migrate with the seasons but were year-round residents, according to new research by SMU paleontologist Anthony Fiorillo. The research was published today in PLOS ONE. Prior to this find, only tiny dromaeosaurid teeth have been discovered in this region. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Helping drug-delivering particles squeeze through a syringe
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT engineers are using computing modeling to prevent microparticles from clogging during injections. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Abnormal cells in early-stage embryos might not preclude IVF success
(Johns Hopkins University) The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in the genetic profile of early-stage embryos may be far more common - and potentially less threatening - during normal human development than is currently appreciated, according to new research from Johns Hopkins University biologists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study to evaluate app that automates calorie counting
(Pennington Biomedical Research Center) A new smartphone app promises to make it easier for consumers to stick to their weight-management plans by automatically gauging calorie consumption. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How are misfolded membrane proteins cleared from cells by " reubiquitinase " ?
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) Chinese researchers recently discovered a protein quality control mechanism called " reubiquitination " , which could promote the elimination of misfolded membrane proteins, minimize their dwell time in cells, and thereby reduce their probability to form toxic aggregates in human body. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

HKU study reveals the hidden fight within corals
(The University of Hong Kong) Researchers from the School of Biological Sciences and Swire Institute of Marine Science at the University of Hong Kong are working to understand how the coral symbiosis may respond to global warming through changes in their microbiome, specifically their symbiotic algae. Using a newly developed method they revealed , which may be a determining factor in the sucthe metabolic function of algae changes in response to competition with other speciescess or failure of certain host-symbiont combinations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Technique fishes valuable nutrients out of shrimp processing water
(American Chemical Society) The seafood industry requires large amounts of water for food processing. Before used water is discharged, some organic matter, including protein, is typically removed. This sludge is usually landfilled or converted into biogas, which results in the valuable nutrients it contains being lost from the food chain. Now researchers report inACS Sustainable Chemistry& Engineering a method to recover these nutrients from shrimp processing water so they can be incorporated in food or feed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news