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How do marine mammals avoid the bends?
(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) Deep-diving whales and other marine mammals can get the bends -- the same painful and potentially life-threatening decompression sickness that strikes scuba divers who surface too quickly. A new study offers a hypothesis of how marine mammals generally avoid getting the bends and how they can succumb under stressful conditions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Consuming protein supplements with meals may work better for weight control
(Oxford University Press USA) A new systematic review of available evidence appearing in Nutrition Reviews indicates that consuming protein supplements with meals may be more effective at promoting weight control than consuming supplements between meals in adults following a resistance training regimen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Corn with straw mulch builds yield, soil carbon
(American Society of Agronomy) How do you boost soil water content and soil health without irrigating? Best cover it with a layer of straw, a new study concludes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New uses for existing antiviral drugs
(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs work against a range of viral diseases, but developing them can be costly and time consuming. Testing existing anti-viral drugs for their ability to combat multiple viral infections can help. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cheaper and easier way found to make plastic semiconductors
(University of Waterloo) Cheap, flexible and sustainable plastic semiconductors will soon be a reality thanks to a breakthrough by chemists at the University of Waterloo. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Drinking baking soda could be an inexpensive, safe way to combat autoimmune disease
(Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University) A daily dose of baking soda may help reduce the destructive inflammation of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, scientists say.They have some of the first evidence of how the cheap, over-the-counter antacid can encourage our spleen to promote instead an anti-inflammatory environment that could be therapeutic in the face of inflammatory disease, Medical College of Georgia scientists report in The Journal of Immunology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New model could help build communities of climate change-defying trees
(eLife) Researchers in Australia have developed a model to help build plant communities that are more resilient to climate change. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Airborne dust threatens human health in Southwest
(Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences) Researchers from Harvard Unviersity and the George Washington University have found that in the coming decades, increased dust emissions from severe and prolonged droughts in the American Southwest could result in significant increases in hospital admissions and premature deaths. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Killer whale genetics raise inbreeding questions
(NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region) A new genetic analysis of Southern Resident killer whales found that two male whales fathered more than half of the calves born since 1990 that scientists have samples from, a sign of inbreeding in the small killer whale population that frequents Washington's Salish Sea and Puget Sound. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Electrode shape improves neurostimulation for small targets
(Purdue University) A cross-like shape helps the electrodes of implantable neurostimulation devices to deliver more charge to specific areas of the nervous system, possibly prolonging device life span, says research published in March in Nature Scientific Reports. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Genetic transcription 'pause' is focus of NASA grant
(Cornell University) DNA is a blueprint for cells to make proteins that allow those cells to function properly. To create the proteins, enzymes copy genetic codes from DNA strands and then transfer the instructions onto RNA in a process called transcription.Charles Danko, assistant professor of genetics and molecular biology at the Cornell University Baker Institute for Animal Health, will investigate that question with a three-year, $790,000 grant from NASA's Exobiology program. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Frontier of science: Planet's smallest microbes examined at nation's largest aquarium
(Georgia Aquarium) Georgia Aquarium and Georgia Tech collaborated to advance a new scientific frontier -- study of the aquarium microbiome -- to better understand the millions of marine microorganisms living in the water and what role they play in keeping the ecosystem healthy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mammary stem cells challenge costly bovine disease
(Cornell University) Bovine mastitis is typically treated with antibiotics, but with the potential threat of antimicrobial resistance and the disease's long-term harm to the animal's teat, researchers at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine are laying the foundation for alternative therapies derived from stem cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Blinded by the light: Climate change, the sun, and Lake Superior
(S.J.& Jessie E. Quinney College of Natural Resources, Utah State University) Lakes tend to emit carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, making them important players in the planet's natural regulation of its climate. However, the direction of the flow of CO2 between lakes and the atmosphere can be influenced by humans or by natural factors such as rainfall or air temperature. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New studies show dark chocolate consumption reduces stress and inflammation
(Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center) Findings from two Loma Linda University Health studies being presented today at the Experimental Biology 2018 annual meeting in San Diego show dark chocolate consumption reduces stress and inflammation, while improving memory, immunity and mood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Collapse of the Atlantic Ocean heat transport might lead to hot European summers
(Stockholm University) Severe winters combined with heat waves and droughts during summer in Europe. Those were the consequences as the Atlantic Ocean heat transport nearly collapsed 12,000 years ago. The same situation might occur today, according to a new study published in Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biophysics -- lighting up DNA-based nanostructures
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) Biophysicists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have used a new variant of super-resolution microscopy to visualize all the strands of a DNA-based nanostructure for the first time. The method promises to optimize the design of such structures for specific applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study: Silk-based devices with antisense-miRNA therapeutics may enhance bone regeneration
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Researchers have incorporated therapeutic microRNAs (miRNAs) into bioresorbable, silk-based medical devices such as screws and plates to achieve local delivery of factors that can improve bone growth and mineralization at the site of bone repair. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mining the data
(University of Pittsburgh) Funded by the Pennsylvania DEP and the US Department of the Interior, a team of researchers led by the University of Pittsburgh has begun the fifth report on 'The Effects of Subsidence Resulting from Underground Bituminous Coal Mining on Surface Structures and Features and on Water Resources: Fifth Act 54 Five-year Report.' The $794,205 contract includes a comprehensive review of the built and natural environments impacted by long- wall, room-and-pillar, and retreat mining methods. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Carbon consumers
(Harvard University) A team of researchers, led by Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Peter Girguis and Suni Shah Walter, then a post-doctoral fellow in Girguis' lab, has shown that underground aquifers along the mid-ocean ridge act like natural biological reactors, pulling in cold, oxygenated seawater, and allowing microbes to break down more -- perhaps much more -- refractory carbon than scientists ever believed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The dispute about the origins of terahertz photoresponse in graphene results in a draw
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Physicists at MIPT and their British and Russian colleagues revealed the mechanisms leading to photocurrent in graphene under terahertz radiation. The paper published in Applied Physics Letters not only puts a period to a long-lasting debate about the origins of direct current in graphene illuminated by high-frequency radiation but also sets the stage for the development of high-sensitivity terahertz detectors. Such detectors are highly demanded in medical diagnostics, wireless communications and security systems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fruit fly study identifies new gene linked to aortic aneurysms
(Baylor College of Medicine) An interdisciplinary team of researchers has identified a new gene linked to human aortic aneurysms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Novel pathway identified in development of acute myeloid leukemia with poor prognosis
(National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine) NUS researchers have discovered a new pathway by which a severe form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) develops. The main player in the pathway, a protein called SHARP1, promotes leukemia development and maintenance, both on its own and through its actions on other genes. The discovery could lead to the development of novel SHARP1-specific treatments for this difficult-to-treat form of AML. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Evolving cooperation
(Harvard University) A new study shows that in repeated interactions winning strategies are either partners or rivals, but only partners allow for cooperation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

High immune function tied to stunted growth
(University of Oregon) Elevated immune function during childhood results in as much as 49 percent growth reduction in Ecuador's indigenous Shuar population, researchers reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UNC-Chapel Hill and partners awarded $58.1 million to accelerate research discoveries
(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Office of Research Communication) The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been awarded $58.1 million from the National Institutes of Health to renew its five-year Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program to help improve the health of North Carolinians. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Leading genetics study method may need reconsideration, significant distortions discovered
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Many conclusions drawn from a common approach to the study of human genetics could be distorted because of a previously overlooked phenomenon, according to researchers at the Department of Genetics and Genomics Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and collaborators from Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad Institute. Their conclusions and a unique method they developed to help correct for this distortion were recently published in Nature Genetics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

In Huntington's disease, heart problems reflect broader effects of abnormal protein
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Researchers investigating a key signaling protein in Huntington's disease describe deleterious effects on heart function, going beyond the disease's devastating neurological impact. By adjusting protein levels affecting an important biological pathway, the researchers improved heart function in experimental animals, shedding light on the biology of this fatal disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Land use and pollution shift female-to-male ratios in snapping turtles
(Virginia Tech) Current research shows that increasing global temperatures as a result of climate change are expected to produce more female turtles since their offspring are influenced by the nest's temperature. But now, a team of Virginia Tech biologists has found that the nesting environment of turtles in agricultural habitats, which can ultimately lower nesting temperatures, can actually produce more males. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Why freeloader baby-eating ants are welcomed to the colony
(Ohio State University) It might seem surprising that a colony of ants would tolerate the type of guests that gobble both their grub and their babies. But new research shows there's likely a useful tradeoff to calmly accepting these parasite ants into the fold: They have weaponry that's effective against their host ants and a more menacing intruder ant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UTHealth receives funding to study stem cell therapy for traumatic injury
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) has received funding through a public/private partnership for the first-ever clinical trial investigating a stem cell therapy for early treatment and prevention of complications after severe traumatic injury. The proposed Phase 2 trial is underwritten with $2 million from the Medical Technology Consortium (MTEC) and $1.5 million from Memorial Hermann Foundation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled
(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have succeeded in observing the behavior of epidermal cells for the regeneration of smooth skin without remaining scar tissue using their model animal, the zebrafish. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

VTT prepares development paths towards 2050 climate goals
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) According to VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland's calculations, if used to produce and export high value products, Finnish forest and agricultural sectors could double their value-added by 2050. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Odd one out: Protein goes against the family to prevent cancer donate
(Walter and Eliza Hall Institute) Melbourne researchers have made the surprise discovery that the 'odd one out' in a family of proteins known to drive cancer development is instead critical for preventing stomach cancers.The research team showed switching off a gene called NF-κB1 caused spontaneous development of stomach cancers, driven by chronic inflammation. The study also revealed that immunotherapy may prove to be a significant tool for treating stomach cancers that are driven by runaway inflammation, warranting further investigation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Translating elephant seal data into a symphony provides surprising insights
(King Abdullah University of Science& Technology (KAUST)) Sonification of 10 years of oceanic migration of these seals reveals coordinated swimming. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists identify genetic catalysts that speed up evolution of antibiotic resistance
(University of Oxford) Researchers at Oxford University have shown that it is possible to identify genetic catalysts that accelerate the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria -- and that this knowledge could be used to design treatments to stifle the development of resistance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

£ 1 million toolkit to calculate economic value of urban greenspace
(University of Exeter) £ 1 million is being invested in an online toolkit designed to empower cities and developers to accurately assess the multiple benefits of green infrastructure, so as to make informed policy and business decisions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Just one more ash dieback spore could push European ash trees to the brink
(Earlham Institute) Europe's ash dieback epidemic could well have been caused by just one or two mushroom-like fruiting bodies of a fungal pathogen from Asia, according to a comprehensive genome sequencing effort published in Nature Ecology& Evolution. This leaves even the most resistant ash trees at threat from the introduction of just one more spore from East Asia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How to hijack degrading complexes to put cancer cells asleep
(EMBO) Palbociclib is a drug used for the treatment of advanced estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Researchers at the Universities of Dundee and Newcastle and their colleagues investigated the drug's mode of action in more detail and uncovered the proteasome, a cellular degradation machinery vital for the control of cell proliferation, as its yet unknown target. Their discovery could potentially help expand palbociclib-based breast cancer treatments and identify patients that would profit most from this medication. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Five new blanket-hermit crab species described 130 years later from the Pacific
(Pensoft Publishers) Unlike most hermit crabs, the blanket-hermit crab does not use empty shells for protection, and instead lives symbiotically with a sea anemone. The crab uses the anemone to cover its soft abdomen, and can pull the anemone's tissue over its head to protect itself whenever necessary. Since 1888, this crab had been considered a unique species until a research team recently described five new ones and a new genus in the open access journal ZooKeys. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers use 'environmental DNA' to identify killer whales in Puget Sound
(Oregon State University) When endangered killer whales swim through the sheltered waters of Puget Sound, they leave behind traces of 'environmental DNA' that researchers can detect as much as two hours later has found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy makes a window into the nanoscale
(Michigan Technological University) From energy materials to disease diagnostics, new microscopy techniques can provide more nuanced insight. Researchers first need to understand the effects of radiation on samples, which is possible with a new device developed for holding tightly sealed liquid cell samples for transmission electron microscopy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

City College-bred fruit flies, parasites, in space odyssey
(City College of New York) Hurtling around Earth, at 17,500 mph some 248 miles in space, is a small swarm of City College of New York-bred fruit flies and their parasitic wasps. The insects, from biologist Shubha Govind's lab, are part of an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) whose outcome could be beneficial to astronauts on exploration missions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Harvard's Wyss Institute launches NuProbe to facilitate global precision medicine
(Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard) NuProbe Global will commercialize the Wyss Institute's DNA nanotechnology-based variant-detecting method as a fast, low-cost and multiplexed molecular diagnostic for different disease areas, including cancer and infectious diseases. The announcement follows a worldwide licensing agreement between Harvard's Office of Technology Development (OTD) and globally-operating NuProbe that will leverage the technology to develop clinical assays capable of simultaneously detecting multiple rare disease-related DNA variants in bodily fluids. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

First genetic evidence of ongoing mating between 2 distinct species of guenon monkeys
(Florida Atlantic University) A new study of guenon monkeys in Gombe National Park is the first to provide genetic evidence of ongoing mating between two distinct species. These monkeys have successfully been producing hybrid offspring for hundreds maybe even thousands of years. Prior studies have suggested that the different physical characteristics of these monkeys keeps them from interbreeding. So, if their faces don't match, they shouldn't be mating, right? Wrong, according to this latest evidence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Audit finds biodiversity data aggregators 'lose and confuse' data
(Pensoft Publishers) Both online repositories the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) were found to 'lose and confuse' portions of the data provided to them, according to an independent audit of ca. 800,000 records from three Australasian museums. Genus and species names were found to have been changed in up to 1 in 5 records, and programming errors caused up to 100 percent data loss in some data categories. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Trichomonosis discovered amongst myna birds in Pakistan
(University of East Anglia) A strain of the disease responsible for killing nearly two thirds of the UK's greenfinch population has spread to myna birds in Pakistan.In 2011, the disease was discovered to have reached European finch populations. Now it has been found in an entirely separate songbird species -- the common myna, native to India and one of the world's most invasive species.Although it is not generally fatal to them, they may pass it on to other species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 22, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Seven-day antibiotic course delivers similar outcomes to 14-days for Gram-negative bacteraemia
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) A seven-day course of antibiotic treatment for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a serious infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream, was shown to offer similar patient outcomes as a 14-day course, according to research presented at the 28th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Avoid piperacillin-tazobactam when treating BSI cause by ceftriaxone-resistant pathogens
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) The antibiotic combination treatment piperacillin-tazobactam was significantly less effective than meropenem when treating potentially fatal bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and should be avoided when treating these organisms, according to research presented at the 28th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New infection prevention tool improve transparency and standardization of practice
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) Researchers developed a new color-coded visual tool called Infection Risk Scan, or IRIS, which is set to make it easier for healthcare workers to measure in which areas a hospital complies with guidelines and where it needs to implement measures to improve infection control and the use antimicrobial therapies, according to research presented at the 28th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 20, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news