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Study redefines HPV-related head and neck cancers
(Virginia Commonwealth University) Much of what we thought we knew about the human papilloma virus (HPV) in HPV-related head and neck cancers may be wrong, according to a newly published study by Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) researchers that analyzed data from The Human Cancer Genome Atlas. Head and neck cancers involving HPV are on the rise, and many experts believe we are seeing the start of an epidemic that will only get worse in the coming years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New insight into life-threatening childhood brain cancer
(Newcastle University) The most common type of malignant childhood brain cancer has been identified as seven separate conditions each needing a different treatment, new research has revealed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Smoke from wildfires can have lasting climate impact
(Georgia Institute of Technology) Researchers have found that carbon particles released into the air from burning trees and other organic matter are much more likely than previously thought to travel to the upper levels of the atmosphere, where they can interfere with rays from the sun -- sometimes cooling the air and at other times warming it. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Experimental therapy for immune diseases hits Achilles heel of activated T cells
(Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center) Immune diseases like multiple sclerosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis unleash destructive waves of inflammation on the body, causing death or a lifetime of illness and physical impairment. With safe and effective treatments in short supply, scientists report in PNAS Early Edition discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated immune cells -- killing them off and stopping autoimmune damage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Conservation and nameless earthworms: Assessors in the dark?
(Pensoft Publishers) Earthworms help to ensure that ecosystems thrive. However, people find it hard to relate to animals that are known by their scientific names only. Meanwhile, threatened earthworms may go extinct simply because they are often excluded from environmental assessments. A recently compiled list of standardized English names for earthworms in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is meant to address this lack of conservation attention. The article is published in the open-access journal African Invertebrates. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Reduced US air pollution will boost rainfall in Africa's Sahel, says study
(The Earth Institute at Columbia University) Falling sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States are expected to substantially increase rainfall in Africa's semi-arid Sahel, while bringing slightly more rain to much of the US, according to a new study in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sunflower genome sequence to provide roadmap for more resilient crops
(University of Georgia) University of Georgia researchers are part of an international team that has published the first sunflower genome sequence. This new resource will assist future research programs using genetic tools to improve crop resilience and oil production. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New journal provides next-generation research for sustainable plant productivity
(American Phytopathological Society) The American Phytopathological Society announces the first issue of Phytobiomes, an open-access, cross-disciplinary journal covering ecology, climatology, plant pathology, computational biology, genetics, agronomy, entomology, animal science, and many other disciplines. Phytobiomes was developed to be the home for next-generation transdisciplinary research on sustainable plant productivity by reporting on the many combinations of interactions within the plant's biome, or ecosystem, including those of insects, disease, weather, weeds, soils, animals, and more. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sheffield bioenergy experts collaborate with Egyptian partners to produce drinking water
(University of Sheffield) Seawater in Egypt could be turned into drinking water using biomass energy as a source of heat in a new collaborative project from academics at the University of Sheffield UK and Port Said University in Egypt. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ESA announces the recipients of the 2016 Murray F. Buell and E. Lucy Braun Student Awards
(Ecological Society of America) The Ecological Society of America recognizes Michael J.M. McTavish and Julienne E. NeSmith for outstanding student research presentations at the 101st Annual Meeting of the Society in Fort Lauderdale, Florida in August 2016. ESA will present the awards during the 2017 Annual Meeting in Portland, Oregon. The awards ceremony will take place on Monday, Aug. 7, at 8 AM in the Oregon Ballroom at the Oregon Convention Center. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Rethinking role of viruses in coral reef ecosystems
(San Diego State University) Viruses are thought to frequently kill their host bacteria, especially at high microbial density. A state called lysogeny, in which viruses lie dormant but don't kill their hosts, has been thought to be relatively rare , mostly occurring at low bacterial concentrations. A new study suggests lysogeny might be much more common than previously believed. These findings could lead to a better understanding of degraded coral reef ecosystems and how to preserve them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Phones and drones to monitor endangered species
(Duke University) Conservation researchers have developed an interactive software tool called ConservationFIT that can 'read' digital images of animal footprints captured from smartphones, cameras or drones and accurately identify the species, sex and age of the animal that made the tracks, and even match tracks to individual animals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Two biomarkers appear to predict course of IPF
(American Thoracic Society) Two T cell biomarkers appear to predict the survival trajectory of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a lung disease that has a varied, but ultimately devastating, impact on patients, according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Luminous bacteria will help to measure radioactivity
(Siberian Federal University) Siberian biophysicists have conducted a research concerning a biological effect of low-dose gamma radiation. The results have been published in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, one of the leading scientific journals in the world among those dedicated to the issues of environmental radioactivity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Self-ventilating workout suit keeps athletes cool and dry
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A team of MIT researchers has designed a breathable workout suit with ventilating flaps that open and close in response to an athlete's body heat and sweat. These flaps, which range from thumbnail- to finger-sized, are lined with live microbial cells that shrink and expand in response to changes in humidity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Insects resist genetic methods to control disease spread, Indiana University study finds
(Indiana University) A study from Indiana University published May 19 in the journal Science Advances finds that insects possess a naturally occurring resistance to the use of gene-editing technology to prevent diseases such as malaria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Epigenetic program leading to vessel differentiation
(Kumamoto University) Clarification of how human blood vessels are constructed is desperately needed to advance regenerative medicine. Researchers in Japan investigated the changes in gene functions that occur when stem cells become vascular cells. They found that the histone code, which alters the transcriptional state of the gene, changes over time as stem cells differentiate into blood vessels in response to a stimulus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A muffin a day might just keep the doctor away
(University of Queensland) A food scientist has developed a healthy heart muffin recipe that builds on an earlier discovery by University of Queensland and the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls on how beta glucan fibre in oats can slow absorption of fats to reduce blood cholesterol. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Nutritional properties of mushrooms are better when grilled or microwaved
(FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology) Culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) influence on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. A study by Spanish researchers has shown that microwaving and grilling are the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mislocalized calcium channel causes insulin secretion defect in diabetes
(Uppsala University) Researchers from Uppsala University have studied beta cells of type-2 diabetic donors, and find that a mislocalized calcium channel contributes to the failed insulin secretion associated with the disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

DFG to fund 15 new research training groups
(Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) Topics range from malaria to contemporary literature. € 66 million in funding for an initial four and a half years continues promotion of transferable skills. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Shapeshifting materials: Using light to rearrange macroscopic structures
(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) OIST researchers create self-assembling molecules which can be broken down by ultraviolet light to recombine into novel macroscopic shapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Herpetologists describe an elf frog from the elfin forests in southern Vietnam
(Pensoft Publishers) Going under the common name of Elfin mountain toad, a new amphibian is recognized as one of the smallest representative of its group. The new species was identified from the highland wet forests of Langbian Plateau, Southern Vietnam. The discoverers gave it this name that derives from German and Celtic folklore because of the resemblance they found between the tiny delicate amphibians and elves - small magic creatures. Furthermore, their habitat is known as elfin forests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ESF lists Top 10 new species for 2017
(SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry) A spider and an ant with names drawn from popular books, a pink katydid and an omnivorous rat made the College of Environmental Science and Forestry's list of the Top 10 New Species for 2017. Also listed: a freshwater stingray, a bush tomato that appears to 'bleed,' a devilish-looking orchid, a millipede with more than 400 legs, an amphibious centipede and a marine worm. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Biophysicists have proposed a universal mechanism for the 'sense of smell' in bacteria. This was done by obtaining the structure of the NarQ protein from Escherichia coli (E. coli). The paper published in Science will help us understand how bacteria 'communicate' with one another and form biofilms on sterile surfaces or inside the human body. Drugs which affect bacteria's 'sense of smell' could potentially be used as substitutes for modern antibiotics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fueling the future
(University of Pittsburgh) The Royal Society of Chemistry journal Energy& Environmental Science recently published research by a team from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Oklahoma investigating the full life cycle impact of one promising 'second-generation biofuel' produced from short-rotation oak. The study found that second-generation biofuels made from managed trees and perennial grasses may provide a sustainable fuel resource. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sequestering blue carbon through better management of coastal ecosystems
(Utah State University) Focusing on the management of carbon stores within vegetated coastal habitats provides an opportunity to mitigate some aspects of global warming. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How RNA formed at the origins of life
(University College London) A single process for how a group of molecules called nucleotides were made on the early Earth, before life began, has been suggested by a UCL-led team of researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Iron deficiency restrains marine microbes
(Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR)) Iron is a critical nutrient in the ocean. Its importance for algae and the nitrogen cycle has already been investigated in detail. Now a new discovery shows that microbes also need iron to process phosphorus. A team of researchers from the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel and the University of Southampton, UK has just published results in the international journal Nature Communications showing that iron can limit phosphorus acquisition in the ocean. Their study contributes to knowledge of nutrient cycling in the ocean. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fake caterpillar study reveals global pattern in predation
(University of Oxford) A new Oxford University collaboration revealing the world's prime insect predation hotspots, achieved its landmark findings using an unusual aid: plasticine 'dummy caterpillars.'The new study published in Science has revealed a global pattern of predation on insect herbivores. The trends observed were surprising, revealing that predatory behaviour in the tropics is not driven by birds or mammals but by ants and other small arthropods. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

More data, user customization enhance global fishing watch platform in beta release 2.0
(Global Fishing Watch) Global Fishing Watch is releasing Beta 2.0. The interactive map of the world's commercial fishing activity now allows custom layers, downloadable reports, fishing vessels filtered by country, and public access without registration. This public database and web platform now includes 60,000 fishing vessels representing nearly all of the world's industrial fishing fleet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Research shows the impact of invasive plants can linger long after eradication
(Cambridge University Press) A new study featured in the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management shows the impact of weedy invaders can linger for years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Deconstructing osmosis provides insight for medical and industrial use
(American Institute of Physics) New research into osmosis-driven behavior now provides a more granular theoretical understanding of the deterministic mechanisms, appearing as a pair of publications this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics. The first paper deconstructs the molecular mechanics of osmosis with high concentrations, and generalizes the findings to predict behavior for arbitrary concentrations. The second piece of the study then simulates via molecular modeling two key forms of osmotic flow in a broadly utilizable way. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New coral reef fish species shows rare parental care behavior
(University of California - Santa Cruz) The vast majority of coral reef fish produce large numbers of young that disperse into the ocean as larvae, drifting with the currents before settling down on a reef. A few reef fish, however keep their broods on the reef, protecting the young until they are big enough to fend for themselves. On a recent trip to the Philippines, researchers discovered a new species of damselfish that exhibits this unusual parental care behavior. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Predators are real lowlifes
(Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute) By deploying green clay caterpillar models across six continents, researchers unmasked an important global pattern. Their discovery that predation is most intense near sea level in the tropics provides a foundation for understanding biological processes from crop protection and carbon storage to the effects of climate change on biodiversity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Antarctica 'greening' due to climate change
(University of Exeter) Plant life on Antarctica is growing rapidly due to climate change, scientists have found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study helps solve a great mystery in the organization of our DNA
(Gladstone Institutes) After decades of research aiming to understand how DNA is organized in human cells, scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have shed new light on this mysterious field by discovering how a key protein helps control gene organization. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Engineering heart valves for the many
(Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard) The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and the University of Zurich announced today a cross-institutional team effort to generate a functional heart valve replacement with the capacity for repair, regeneration, and growth. The team is also working towards a GMP-grade version of their customizable, scalable, and cost-effective manufacturing process that would enable deployment to a large patient population. In addition, the new heart valve would be compatible with minimally invasive procedures to serve both pediatric and adult patients. (Sou...
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Stanford scientists use nanotechnology to boost the performance of key industrial catalyst
(Stanford University) Nanoscale stretching or compressing significantly boost the performance of ceria, a material widely used in catalytic converters and clean-energy technologies, Stanford scientists report. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers receive NIH grant to study heart problems at the molecular level
(Washington State University) Washington State University researchers have received a $1.57 million National Institutes of Health grant to understand the molecular-scale mechanisms that cause cardiomyopathy, or heart muscle disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UCI scientists find evolution in butterfly eye dependent on sex
(University of California - Irvine) By analyzing both the genes that control color detecting photoreceptors and the structural components of the eye itself, University of California, Irvine evolutionary biologists have discovered male and female butterflies of one particular species have the unique ability to see the world differently from each another because of sex-related evolutionary traits. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mechanisms behind sensory deficits in Parkinson's disease
(Karolinska Institutet) Although Parkinson's disease is often associated with motor symptoms such as stiffness, poor balance and trembling, the first symptoms are often sensory and include a reduced sense of touch and smell. In a study on mice, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now been able to identify neural circuits and mechanisms behind this loss of sensory perception. The study, which is published in the scientific journal Neuron, may open avenues to methods of earlier diagnosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate stabilization: Planting trees cannot replace cutting CO2 emissions
(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)) Growing plants and then storing the CO2 they have taken up from the atmosphere is no viable option to counteract unmitigated emissions from fossil fuel burning, a new study shows. The plantations would need to be so large, they would eliminate most natural ecosystems or reduce food production if implemented as a late-regret option in the case of substantial failure to reduce emissions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Warm-bloodedness possibly much older than previously thought
(University of Bonn) Warm-bloodedness in land animals could have developed in evolution much earlier than previously thought. This is shown by a recent study at the University of Bonn, which has now been published in the journal Comptes Rendus Palevol. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Members of the University of Seville discover neural stem cells can become blood vessels
(University of Seville) Mother cells from the adult carotid body can transform into blood vessels, as well as into neurons. This discovery could have important repercussions on the advance in treatment of diseases as different as pediatric tumors and Parkinson's. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Even non-migratory birds use a magnetic compass
(Lund University) Not only migratory birds use a built-in magnetic compass to navigate correctly. A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that non-migratory birds also are able to use a built-in compass to orient themselves using the Earth's magnetic field. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Water efficiency in rural areas is getting worse, even as it improves in urban centers
(North Carolina State University) A nationwide analysis of water use over the past 30 years finds that there is a disconnect between rural and urban areas, with most urban areas becoming more water efficient and most rural areas becoming less and less efficient over time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How does the loss of species alter ecosystems?
(German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig) The iDiv Ecotron, a central experimental platform of the DFG Research Centre iDiv, was officially launched during a ceremony last Wednesday. Researchers will use this unique facility to better understand the consequences of species loss. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Tea-time means leopard-time in India
(Wildlife Conservation Society) A new WCS study finds that leopards are abundant in tea-garden landscapes in north-eastern India, but that their mere presence does not lead to conflicts with people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study sheds light on origins of life on Earth through molecular function
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) Debate exists over how life began on Earth, but a new study provides evidence for a 'metabolism-first' model. Scientists at the University of Illinois mined the Gene Ontology database to trace the origins and evolution of molecular functions through time. The study shows metabolism and binding arose first, followed by the functional activities of larger macromolecules and cellular machinery. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news