Juicy past of favorite Okinawan fruit revealed
(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) A genetic analysis of fruit in the mandarin family has unraveled a complex journey from the mountainous region of southern China to the markets of Okinawa, says researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New US and German collaboration aims to produce green hydrogen more efficiently
(University of Illinois College of Liberal Arts& Sciences) The US National Science Foundation and the German Research Foundation have joined forces to award the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and Technical University of Darmstadt a three-year $720,000 research grant to explore opportunities to more efficiently produce green hydrogen, a clean and renewable source of energy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Extreme heat, dry summers main cause of tree death in Colorado's subalpine forests
(University of Colorado at Boulder) Even in the absence of bark beetle outbreaks and wildfire, trees in Colorado subalpine forests are dying at increasing rates from warmer and drier summer conditions, found recent University of Colorado Boulder research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Brain-repair discovery could lead to new epilepsy treatments
(University of Virginia Health System) Researchers have discovered a previously unknown repair process in the brain that they hope could be harnessed and enhanced to treat seizure-related brain injuries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The National Academy of Sciences admits IPK scientist Nicolaus von Wir é n as member
(Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research) Great honour for Prof. Dr Nicolaus von Wir é n: The National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina has accepted the Head of the Department of Physiology and Cell Biology at the IPK Leibniz Institute as a new member. For Nicolaus von Wir é n, this is already the second award within a few months. Only recently he was recognised by the Web of Science as an influential researcher. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Topology in biology
(Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization) A phenomenon known from quantum systems could now make its way into biology:In a new study published in Physical Review X, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPI-DS) in Goettingen show that the notion of topological protection can also apply to biochemical networks. The model which the scientists developed makes the topological toolbox, typically used only to describe quantum systems, now also available to biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists identify five new plant species in Bolivia
(University of Exeter) Scientists have identified five new plant species in the Bolivian Andes. The species are all part of the genus Jacquemontia, which are twining or trailing plants with pretty blue flowers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

China's carbon-monitoring satellite reports global carbon net of six gigatons
(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) About six gigatons -- roughly 12 times the mass of all living humans -- of carbon appears to be emitted over land every year, according to data from the Chinese Global Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Scientific Experimental Satellite (TanSat). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Reverse optogenetic tool developed
(Ruhr-University Bochum) A new optogenetic tool, a protein that can be controlled by light, has been characterized by researchers at Ruhr-Universit ä t Bochum. They used an opsin - a protein that occurs in the brain and eyes - from zebrafish and introduced it into the brain of mice. Unlike other optogenetic tools, this opsin is not switched on but rather switched off by light. Experiments also showed that the tool could be suitable for investigating changes in the brain that are responsible for the development of epilepsy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The impact of climate change on Kenya's Tana river basin
(University of East Anglia) Many species within Kenya's Tana River Basin will be unable to survive if global temperatures continue to rise as they are on track to do - according to new research from the University of East Anglia. A new study published in the journal PLOS ONE outlines how remaining within the goals of the Paris Agreement would save many species. The research also identifies places that could be restored to better protect biodiversity and contribute towards global ecosystem restoration targets. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New tracking system monitors danger to rainforests
(University of Delaware) Similar to the election needle and the stock market index, scientists have developed a new tracking system to detect danger to rainforests around the world. The data to build the index was culled from advanced satellite measurements of climate and vegetation of each tropical region on Earth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UTA researcher explores 3D printing of multilayered materials for smart helmets
(University of Texas at Arlington) A mechanical and aerospace engineering professor at The University of Texas at Arlington is developing advanced helmets to ensure that members of the military are as protected as possible from blasts and other types of attacks. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Investing in a sustainable future for our coastal economy
(UK Research and Innovation) The UK marine economy is worth £ 48 billion with strong growth in renewable energy and aquaculture. However, the marine environment is under pressure from the triple ocean crises of climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution. Researchers will investigate how to strengthen the marine economy while protecting ecosystems and communities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Southeastern US herbaria digitize three million specimens, now freely available online
(Botanical Society of America) The National Science Foundation recently provided funding to over 100 herbaria across the Southeast U.S. to digitize more than three million plant specimens collected by botanists and naturalists across the country. Researchers tracked the speed and productivity of staff and students who handled the specimens, from the collection drawers to online repositories, to provide institutions with a framework to better determine the time and money needed to digitize remaining collections. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Early-life social connections influence gene expression, stress resilience
(University of Colorado at Boulder) Having friends may not only be good for the health of your social life, but also for your actual health--if you're a hyena, that is. Strong social connections and greater maternal care early in life can influence molecular markers related to gene expression in DNA and future stress response, suggests a new University of Colorado Boulder study of spotted hyenas in the wild. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New tests can detect tiny but toxic particles of coal ash in soil
(Duke University) Duke University scientists have developed tests sensitive enough to detect and measure microscopic particles of coal ash in soil, even at concentrations so low and sizes so small that other tests would likely miss them. The four new tests complement tests previously developed at Duke to detect coal ash contamination in water and larger particles of coal ash in soil. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study reports strong indications of freshened groundwater offshore the Maltese Islands
(University of Malta) An international team of scientists has reported strong indications of freshened groundwater offshore the coastline between Valletta and Marsascala, in the south-east of Malta. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A rock with many perspectives
(GFZ GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Helmholtz Centre) The chequered history of the Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe offers insights into oil and gas formation and traces of life on Mars. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New insight on the reproductive evolution of land plants
(Instituto de Tecnologia Qu í mica e Biol ó gica Ant ó nio Xavier da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa ITQB NOVA) International consortium, including then IGC, now current ITQB NOVA PI and GREEN-IT member J ö rg Becker, offers novel insight into the reproductive evolution of land plants, in new study published in Nature Plants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Smartphone screens effective sensors for soil or water contamination
(University of Cambridge) The touchscreen technology used in billions of smartphones and tablets could also be used as a powerful sensor, without the need for any modifications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Eco-friendly plastic from cellulose and water
(University of G ö ttingen) Plastics offer many benefits to society and are widely used in our daily life: they are lightweight, cheap and adaptable. However, the production, processing and disposal of plastics pose a major global threat to the environment and human health. However, researchers at the University of G ö ttingen have now found a sustainable method - " hydrosetting " , which uses water at normal conditions - to process and reshape a new type of hydroplastic polymer. The research was published in Nature Sustainability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Stanford researchers develop tool to drastically speed up the study of enzymes
(Stanford University) A new tool that enables thousands of tiny experiments to run simultaneously on a single polymer chip will let scientists study enzymes faster and more comprehensively than ever before. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

California's carbon mitigation efforts may be thwarted by climate change itself
(University of California - Irvine) To meet an ambitious goal of carbon neutrality by 2045, California's policymakers are relying in part on forests and shrublands to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, but researchers at the University of California, Irvine warn that future climate change may limit the ecosystem's ability to perform this service. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study provides clues to decades-old mystery about cell movement
(University of Minnesota) A new study, led by University of Minnesota Twin Cities engineering researchers, shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues, like collagen, are a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The groundbreaking discovery provides the first proof of a theory from the early 1980s and could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement from regenerative medicine to cancer research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Investigational magnetic device shrinks glioblastoma in first-in-world human test
(Houston Methodist) Houston Methodist Neurological Institute researchers from the department of neurosurgery shrunk a deadly glioblastoma tumor by more than a third using a helmet generating a noninvasive oscillating magnetic field that the patient wore on his head while administering the therapy in his own home. The 53-year-old patient died from an unrelated injury about a month into the treatment, but during that short time, 31% of the tumor mass disappeared. The autopsy of his brain confirmed the rapid response to the treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cattle losing adaptations to environment, MU researchers find
(University of Missouri-Columbia) In a new PLOS Genetics study, researchers have uncovered evidence showing that cattle are losing important environmental adaptations, losses the researchers attribute to a lack of genetic information available to farmers. After examining genetic material stretching back to the 1960s, they identified specific DNA variations associated with adaptations that could one day be used to create DNA tests for cattle -- tests that could tell farmers whether their cattle are suited for one environment or another. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

$1M NASA grant to improve carbon monitoring in East Africa
(Cornell University) Cornell University researchers will develop the first high-resolution carbon monitoring system for East Africa that combines " bottom up " ecological modeling with " top down " satellite data, thanks to a three-year, $1 million NASA grant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Synlogic publishes papers in Nature journals demonstrating proof-of-mechanism and potential of synth
(MacDougall Biomedical Communications, Inc.) Synlogic, Inc. announced today the publication of two papers in the journals Nature Metabolism and Communications Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Targeted removals and enhanced monitoring can help manage lionfish in the Mediterranean
(University of Plymouth) New research by the University of Plymouth represents one of the first studies to examine the effectiveness of targeted lionfish removals from both an ecological and a socio-economic perspective. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Eric Everett wins IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Basic Research
(International& American Associations for Dental Research) The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) announced Eric Everett, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA, as the 2021 recipient of the IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Biological Mineralization Basic Research. Everett was recognized during the Opening Ceremonies of the virtual 99th General Session& Exhibition of the IADR on July 21-24, 2021. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Alastair Sloan named 2021 recipient of the IADR Isaac Schour Memorial Award
(International& American Associations for Dental Research) The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) announced Alastair Sloan, The University of Melbourne, Australia, as the 2021 recipient of the IADR Isaac Schour Memorial Award. Sloan was recognized during the Opening Ceremonies of the virtual 99th General Session& Exhibition of the IADR, held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) and the 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), on July 21-24, 2021 (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Exoskeletons have a problem: They can strain the brain
(Ohio State University) Exoskeletons - wearable devices used by workers on assembly lines or in warehouses to alleviate stress on their lower backs - may compete with valuable resources in the brain while people work, canceling out the physical benefits of wearing them, a new study suggests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How does the structure of cytolysins influence their activity?
(Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) In a new study, researchers have uncovered how cytolysins from Enterococcus faecalis destroys bacterial and mammalian cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fionnuala Lundy wins IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Pulp Biology and Regeneration
(International& American Associations for Dental Research) The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) announced Fionnuala Lundy, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, as the 2021 recipient of the IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Pulp Biology and Regeneration. Lundy was recognized during the Opening Ceremonies of the virtual 99th General Session& Exhibition of the IADR, held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) and the 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), on July 21-24, 2021 (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Eija Kononen wins IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Research in Oral Biology
(International& American Associations for Dental Research) The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) announced Eija Kononen, University of Turku, Finland, as the 2021 recipient of the IADR Distinguished Scientist Award in Research in Oral Biology. K ö n ö nen was recognized during the Opening Ceremonies of the virtual 99th General Session& Exhibition of the IADR, held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) and the 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), on July 21-24, 2021. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How a unique sponge 'goes with the flow' could improve man-made structures
(NYU Tandon School of Engineering) A collaboration across three continents at the frontiers of physics, biology, and engineering co-led by Maurizio Porfiri at NYU Tandon, applied super computing muscle and special software to a novel simulation of the Venus' flower basket sponge. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Inheriting mother's friends key to hyena success
(Michigan State University) In the wild, inheriting advantageous physical traits may be the difference between a long life and a short one. But for the spotted hyena, another kind of inheritance, one that has nothing to do with genetics, turns out to be extremely important for health and longevity -- social networks inherited from their mothers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

SMART breakthrough in detection of SARS-CoV-2 variant in wastewater
(Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART)) Researchers from the Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Interdisciplinary Research Group (IRG) at Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), MIT's research enterprise in Singapore, alongside collaborators from Biobot Analytics, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have successfully developed an innovative, open-source molecular detection method that is able to detect and quantify the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant of SARS-CoV-2. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Who eats the invaders?
(University of Malta) A landmark scientific study involving marine biologists from Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Libya, Italy, Tunisia, the UK, the US and even Malta, documenting instances where native Mediterranean species have preyed upon two highly invasive marine fish - the Pacific red lionfish and the silver-cheeked toadfish - has just been published. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.617 gives the immune system a hard time
(Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ)/German Primate Center) Study with cell cultures shows that the mutant is less well inhibited by antibodies (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New PlantwisePlus program launched to help farmers produce more and higher quality food
(CABI) A new CABI-led worldwide programme - PlantwisePlus - has been launched to help support low and lower-middle income countries to predict, prepare themselves for and prevent plant health threats in a changing climate reducing crop losses and empowering farmers to increase income, food security and food safety by producing more and higher quality food. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Zero-dimensional molecular sieve membranes enhance gas separation selectivity
(Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences) Scientists proposed zero-dimensional molecular sieve membranes that could enhance the separation selectivity of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Microbes play role in corn 'hybrid vigor'
(North Carolina State University) The tiny organisms living in soil may have a greater effect on the yield and pest and disease resistance of crop plants grown in that soil than previously known. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The gene's-eye view of evolution
(Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology) New book, The Gene's-Eye View of Evolution, reviews the history of the gene's-eye view of evolution by describing current disagreements and conceptual debates, and highlighting its value in contemporary evolutionary biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The need for nuance in carbohydrate recommendations
(FoodMinds) Without a standard definition for carbohydrate quality, some foods that contain carbohydrates are often stigmatized based on isolated and reductionist assessment methods that fail to consider their contributions to nutrient intakes and balanced, healthy diets. In a new perspective piece, published in Advances in Nutrition, authors call for a more holistic approach to carbohydrate guidance to address the complex needs of both people and the planet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Traditional Japanese food may hold building blocks of COVID-19 treatments
(Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) Natto, a fermented soybean dish often served for breakfast in Japan, originated at the turn of the last millennium but may hold an answer to a modern problem: COVID-19, according to a new study based on cell cultures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover nucleotide sequence responsible for effectively fighting pathologies
(National Research University Higher School of Economics) Researchers from HSE University have discovered nucleotide sequences characteristic of microRNA isoforms (microRNAs with errors). The discovery will help predict errors in microRNA behaviour and create drugs that can detect targets (such as viruses) more effectively. The results of the study have been published in the RNA Biology journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A novel method for the rapid repair of peripheral nerve injuries
(Bar-Ilan University) One of the main problems preventing optimal regeneration following peripheral nerve injuries is that axons within severed nerves have difficulty regenerating and reaching their target. This may be attributed in part to misguided axons that sprout in multiple directions, decreasing probability to reach their target organs. A new technique, engineered by researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, fills a nerve conduit with gel containing physical and chemical components that promote and align axon regrowth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A global comparison of life-cycle GHG emissions from passenger cars
(International Council on Clean Transportation) A new study of the life-cycle GHG emissions from passenger cars sharply distinguishes the climate impacts of electric vehicles and combustion vehicles. It finds that only battery electric vehicles and fuel-cell electric vehicles powered by renewable electricity can achieve the kind of reductions in GHG emissions from transportation that comport with Paris Agreement goals. There is no realistic pathway that relies on combustion-engine vehicles, including hybrids of any sort. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Toxic facility relocation depends on community pressure
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) No one wants to live near a toxic plant. Toxic-releasing facilities such as paper, pulp, and other manufacturing plants negatively affect human health, environmental quality, and property values. And communities with lower income and educational attainment are more likely to house such facilities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news