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A sustainable future powered by sea
(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) OIST researchers develop turbines to convert the power of ocean waves into clean, renewable energy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Assembly of nanoparticles proceeds like a zipper
(Aalto University) according to scientists from Aalto University Finland, viruses and nanoparticles can be assembled into processable superlattice wires. The demonstration shows that electrostatic self-assembly of nanoparticles can potentially be used to form processable materials for future applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Crowning the 'King of the Crops': Sequencing the white Guinea yam genome
(Earlham Institute) An international collaboration involving the Earlham Institute, Norwich, UK, and the Iwate Biotechnology Research Centre, Japan, has for the first time provided a genome sequence for the white Guinea yam, a staple crop with huge economic and cultural significance on the African continent and a lifeline for millions of people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New gene delivery approach could allow long-term persistence in proliferating cells
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Researchers added a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) to a conventional adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector used for gene transfer, and the modified vectors were able to establish colonies and maintain long-term transgene expression in HeLa cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Seven exciting studies on membrane technologies explained
(World Scientific) 'Membranes for Gas Separations, Vol. 1' in the World Scientific Series in Membrane Science and Technology: Biological and Biomimetic Applications, Energy and the Environment, addresses the subject of gas separation using membranes. The book is a collection of seven gas-separating membrane technologies' studies. Each chapter of this book is dedicated to a distinctive example of different membrane compositions including inorganic, polymeric, metallic, metal organic framework and composite, which have demonstrated successes in separating several industrially relevant gas mixtures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A global perspective: Can humans mitigate risks associated with natural disasters?
(World Scientific) 'The Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction& Management' explores climate change and its association with socio-economic development and cultures, particularly in vulnerable communities, and investigates how resilience to disasters can be built. As its title suggests, the focus is on mitigation strategies and policies to reduce and manage the consequences of natural disasters. The handbook covers pre- to post-disaster occurrences from a wide range of perspectives, such as gender and country. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cornell's Center for Materials Research's NSF funding extended, increased
(Cornell University) The   Cornell Center for Materials Research   - which through research and education is enhancing national capabilities in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and materials research at all levels -- has been has been granted $23.2 million for the next six years from the National Science Foundation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NYU dentistry study pinpoints role of proteins that produce pearls
(New York University) While it is known that pearls are made of calcium carbonate with an organic matrix core, the role of the proteins modulating the organization of these crystals has, until recently, been unclear. Researchers at NYU Dentistry reported the role of two such proteins that regulate the processes leading up to the formation of pearl. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fires in Australia pop up in places already burned
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Fires that span across the Northern Territory and Western Australia appear to have broken out in areas that have already been burned in previous fires. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

USDA announces support to grow the bioeconomy
(National Institute of Food and Agriculture) The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) today announced six grants totaling nearly $21.1 million to support the development of new jet fuel, biobased products and biomaterials from renewable sources. Funding is made through NIFA's Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI), authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NIST's quick test may speed antibiotic treatment and combat drug resistance
(National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)) Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated a potential new tactic for rapidly determining whether an antibiotic combats a given infection, thus hastening effective medical treatment and limiting the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Their method can quickly sense mechanical fluctuations of bacterial cells and any changes induced by an antibiotic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Yale announces collaboration with WBCSD to improve corporate reporting
(Yale School of Forestry& Environmental Studies) The Yale Initiative on Sustainable Finance will provide high-quality research on the flow of capital into sustainability-oriented projects and sustainable companies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Early trilobites had stomachs, new fossil study finds
(American Museum of Natural History) Exceptionally preserved trilobite fossils from China, dating back to more than 500 million years ago, have revealed new insights into the extinct marine animal's digestive system. The new study shows that at least two trilobite species evolved a stomach structure 20 million years earlier than previously thought. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Baltimore Ecosystem Study partners with Baltimore City Public Schools
(Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies) Through a $1.2 million grant from the National Science Foundation, the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) is partnering with Baltimore City Public Schools to transform the way that chemistry is taught in the city's high schools. The innovative approach draws on data gathered by BES to convey how chemistry shapes the local environment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ozark grasslands experience major increase in trees and shrubs
(University of California - Davis) Woody vegetation, such as trees and shrubs, has increased dramatically in Ozark grasslands over the past 75 years, according to a study published this week in the journal Landscape Ecology. If these ecosystems continue to favor woody vegetation, will it be possible to maintain open grasslands for the foreseeable future? (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

An extraordinary cave animal found in Eastern Turkmenistan
(Pensoft Publishers) A remote cave in Eastern Turkmenistan was found to shelter a marvelous cave-adapted inhabitant that turned out to represent a species and genus new to science. This new troglodyte is the first of its order from Central Asia and the first strictly subterranean terrestrial creature recorded in the country. The study is published in the open-access journal Subterranean Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ancient human DNA in sub-Saharan Africa lifts veil on prehistory
(Harvard Medical School) The first large-scale study of ancient human DNA from sub-Saharan Africa opens a long-awaited window into the identity of prehistoric populations in the region and how they moved around and replaced one another over the past 8,000 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Big herbivorous dinosaurs ate crustaceans as a side dish, says CU Boulder study
(University of Colorado at Boulder) Some big plant-eating dinosaurs roaming present-day Utah some 75 million years ago were slurping up crustaceans on the side, a behavior that may have been tied to reproductive activities, says a new University of Colorado Boulder study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Going diving in the tropics? Don't eat the reef fish!
(University of British Columbia) Reducing tourist consumption of reef fish is critical for Palau's ocean sustainability, finds a new UBC study that suggests other small island nations might also consider adopting this strategy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers set time limit for ultrafast perovskite solar cells
(St John's College, University of Cambridge) Researchers have quantified the astonishingly high speeds at which future solar cells would have to operate in order to stretch what are presently seen as natural limits on their energy conversion efficiency. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lightning-fast trappers
(University of Freiburg) New findings on the biomechanics and evolution of suction traps in carnivorous bladderworts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CWRU researcher wins $5.5 million federal grant to develop bio-inspired materials
(Case Western Reserve University) With a new $5.5 million, five-year federal grant, a Case Western Reserve University researcher is leading an international team to develop functional materials inspired by some of the most desirable substances found in nature. The bioinspired materials produced in the project will be tested in soft-sided robots, but are expected to have a wide range of practical uses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UMN researchers find recipe for forest restoration
(University of Minnesota) A new study led by graduate student Leland Werden and associate professor Jennifer Powers of the University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences has uncovered some valuable information on ways to maximize the success of replanting efforts, bringing new hope for restoring these threatened ecosystems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Changing of the guard -- research sheds light on how plants breathe
(John Innes Centre) New research is set to change the textbook understanding of how plants breathe. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover new cattle disease and prevent it from spreading
(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) Following genetic studies of deformed calves research conducted at the University of Copenhagen is able to uncover a hitherto unknown disease found among Holstein cattle. The breeding bull from which the mutation and thus the deformation originate has now been put down to prevent the disease from spreading further. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists and farmers work together to wipe out African lovegrass
(Queensland University of Technology) A partnership between QUT, the NSW Government and farmers could lead to the eventual eradication of the highly invasive African lovegrass threatening pastures and native grasslands Australia-wide.What they discovered is that local knowledge is the key to a successful management approach. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Surprising discovery -- how the African tsetse fly really drinks your blood
(University of Bristol) Researchers at the University of Bristol have been taking a close-up look at the biting mouthparts of the African tsetse fly as part of ongoing work on the animal diseases it carries. Using the new high-powered scanning electron microscope in the University's Life Sciences Building, researchers from the Trypanosome Research Group were able to see the rows of sharp teeth and rasps that the fly uses to chew through the skin when it bites. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hope to discover sure signs of life on Mars? New research says look for the element vanadium
(University of Kansas) A new paper in the journal Astrobiology suggests NASA and others hunting for proof of Martian biology in the form of 'microfossils' could use the element vanadium in combination with Raman spectroscopy to confirm traces of extraterrestrial life. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Dino-killing asteroid's impact on bird evolution
(Cornell University) Human activities could change the pace of evolution, similar to what occurred 66 million years ago when a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, leaving modern birds as their only descendants. That's one conclusion drawn by the authors of a new study published in Systematic Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover unique property of critical methane-producing enzyme
(Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) An unexpected discovery has given a group of University of Illinois scientists a greater understanding of an important methane-producing enzyme called methyl-coenzyme M reductase, or MCR. Their findings overturn what was previously believed to be true in the field: that a set of unique modifications present in MCR were essential to how the enzyme functions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

$2.375 million federal award to study epigenetic control systems, inform drug discovery
(Van Andel Research Institute) Van Andel Research Institute scientist Scott Rothbart, Ph.D., has been awarded a five-year, $2.375 million Maximizing Investigators' Research Award from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health that will fuel in-depth, multidisciplinary studies into the epigenetic control mechanisms that regulate the genetic code. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Animal acoustic activity decline shows forest fire pollution wreaks havoc on wildlife
(University of Kent) Forest fires in Southeast Asia during the El Ni ñ o droughts of 2015 caused considerable disruption to the biodiversity of the region due to the smoke-induced 'haze' they created, according to new research led by Benjamin Lee at the University of Kent and the National Parks Board in Singapore. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Dinosaur evolution: Lumbering giants had agile ancestors
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) The best known sauropod dinosaurs were huge herbivorous creatures, whose brain structures were markedly different from those of their evolutionary predecessors, for the earliest representatives of the group were small, lithe carnivores. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

In search of a greener cleaner
(University of Pittsburgh) With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering are developing machine learning procedures to discover new chelating agents that are both effective and degradable. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Plants combine color and fragrance to procure pollinators
(Cornell University) Who knew that it's possible to predict the fragrance of a flower by looking at its color?This is true for many of the 41 insect-pollinated plant species growing in a Phrygana scrubland habitat on the Greek island of Lesbos. An international research team   published their findings Sept. 4 in Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Wave Glider surfs across stormy Drake Passage in Antarctica
(University of Washington) A hardy ocean drone made a first-ever attempt to surf across Antarctica's stormy Drake Passage gathering data about ocean mixing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fly away home? Ice age may have clipped bird migration
(University of Nebraska-Lincoln) The onset of the last ice age may have forced some bird species to abandon their northerly migrations for thousands of years, says new research led by a University of Nebraska-Lincoln ornithologist. Published Sept. 20 in the journal Science Advances, the study challenges a long-held presumption that birds merely shortened their migratory flights when glaciers advanced south to cover much of North America and northern Europe about 21,000 years ago. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Protected waters foster resurgence of West Coast rockfish
(NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region) West Coast rockfish species in deep collapse only 20 years ago have multiplied rapidly in large marine protected areas off Southern California, likely seeding surrounding waters with enough offspring to offer promise of renewed fishing, a new study has found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers stumped by plants with multiple chromosomes set January meeting to collaborate
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) Some of the world's most beloved plants -- coffee, bananas, potatoes, chrysanthemums and roses, to name a few -- could be made even better, but the complexity of their chromosomes either stumps or stifles scientists who study them.With a $47,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture, about 40 researchers will convene in San Diego Jan. 11-12 to begin collaborating on polyploid studies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Convergent evolution of mimetic butterflies confounds classification
(City College of New York) David Lohman, associate professor of biology at The City College of New York's Division of Science, is co-author of a landmark paper on butterflies 'An illustrated checklist of the genus Elymnias H ü bner, 1818 (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).' Lohman and his colleagues from Taiwan and Indonesia revise the taxonomy of Asian palmflies in the genus Elymnias in light of a forthcoming study on the butterflies' evolutionary history. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Discovery helps improve accuracy of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing
(University of California - Berkeley) Detailed study of how domains within the Cas9 protein move when the molecule binds to DNA has allowed UC Berkeley, Harvard and Massachusettes General Hospital scientists to locate the protein that monitors the fidelity of binding between the Cas9 single-guide RNA and its DNA target. The researchers then tweaked this domain to boost specificity, creating the highest fidelity Cas9 protein to date. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lipid vesicles replace blood in new bacteria test
(American Chemical Society) As schools around the U.S. start back up, so do trips to the doctor's office. But is that raw sore throat due to bacteria, which can be fought off with antibiotics, or a virus? Getting a definitive diagnosis of bacterial infections like Strep throat can take days. Now, one group reports in ACS Sensors that they have developed a new test that will provide results in just hours. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ensuring broccoli sprouts retain their cancer-fighting compounds
(American Chemical Society) Raw broccoli sprouts, a rich source of potential cancer-fighting compounds, have become a popular health food in recent years. But conventional heat treatment used to kill bacteria on produce can reduce levels of the broccoli sprouts' helpful phytochemicals. Now researchers report in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that high pressure processing could wipe out harmful bacteria while maintaining high concentrations of its health-promoting ingredients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cell phone data coupled with sewage testing show drug use patterns
(American Chemical Society) The drugs people inhale, inject or ingest ultimately end up in some form down the toilet. So scientists have started monitoring drug use through sewage-based epidemiology. But this approach hasn't taken into account the variation in number of people who add to wastewater in a given area at a given time. Now one team reports in ACS' Environmental Science& Technology a way to account for commutes and vacations: by tracking cell phone signals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Getting to the heart of the matter: Nanogels for heart attack patients
(American Chemical Society) Heart disease and heart-related illnesses are a leading cause of death around the world, but treatment options are limited. Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that encapsulating stem cells in a nanogel could help repair damage to the heart. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fish may use different behaviors to protect against parasites
(Wiley) New research indicates that fish may adapt their behavior to defend against parasite infection. The findings are published in the Journal of Zoology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How do human impacts on wetlands affect animals?
(Wiley) A new Biological Reviews study provides a comprehensive assessment of how changes to wetlands affect animals, and the authors use their findings to provide recommendations for managing wetlands to maximise their biodiversity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

$20M NSF award to fund research into the role of microorganisms in plant, soil, water
(University of Kansas) The University of Kansas will partner with Kansas State University, Wichita State University, Fort Hays State University and Haskell Indian Nations University to better understand how tiny microorganisms, collectively known as microbiomes, influence environmental changes and the resulting economic implications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Emerging disease further jeopardizes North American frogs
(US Geological Survey) A deadly amphibian disease called severe Perkinsea infections, or SPI, is the cause of many large-scale frog die-offs in the United States, according to a new study by the US Geological Survey. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Pulling, not pushing, silk could revolutionize how greener materials are manufactured
(University of Sheffield) New insights into how animals spin silk could lead to new, greener ways of producing synthetic fibres, according to academics at the University of Sheffield. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news