CCNY's Nir Krakauer in monsoon research breakthrough
(City College of New York) With average precipitation of 35 inches per four-month season over an area encompassing most of the Indian subcontinent, the South Asia summer monsoon is intense, only partly understood, and notoriously difficult to predict. Until now, according to findings by Nir Y. Krakauer, a City College of New York civil engineer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Captured carbon dioxide converts into oxalic acid to process rare earth elements
(Michigan Technological University) Removing carbon dioxide from power plant emissions is a good idea to start with -- and it may have an extra economic benefit. A Michigan Tech engineering is presenting their results this week on turning carbon dioxide into oxalic acid, which is used to process rare earth elements for electronic devices. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Antarctic flies protect fragile eggs with 'antifreeze'
(University of Cincinnati) A molecular analysis by the University of Cincinnati found that wingless flies protected their eggs with a temperature-resistant gel to help them withstand freezing and thawing in Antarctica. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Did volcanoes kill the dinosaurs? New evidence points to 'maybe.'
(Princeton University) Princeton geoscientists Blair Schoene and Gerta Keller led an international team of researchers who have assembled the first high-resolution timeline for the massive eruptions in India's Deccan Traps, determining that the largest eruption pulse occurred less than 100,000 years before the mass extinction that killed the (non-avian) dinosaurs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Clinical trial: Prenatal DHA prevents blood-pressure increase from obesity during childhood
(University of Kansas) A clinical trial at the University of Kansas and KU Medical Center finds pregnant mothers who daily consumed 600 milligrams of DHA -- an omega-3 fatty acid -- protected their offspring from the blood pressure-elevating effects of excessive weight in early childhood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Revealing the role of the mysterious small proteins
(Center for Genomic Regulation) CRG investigators develop a technique to identify and classify proteins with less than 100 amino acids. These types of proteins account for only 16 percent of a bacterial genome's coding capacity. This technique may be applied to guide the search for new proteins with different functions, such as antimicrobials. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Proximity to land determines how coral reef communities respond to climate change events
(University of Exeter) Severe weather and environmental disturbances, such as cyclones or thermal coral bleaching, affect specific areas of coral reefs differently, new research has shown. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

More water resources over the Sahel region of Africa in the 21st century under global warming
(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) Scientists from Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences found that the projection uncertainty of Sahel summer precipitation among the climate models is closely related to the historical precipitation simulation in South Asia and the western North Pacific. They use the specified historical simulation biases to calibrate future projections and found that more water resources are available in the twenty-first century, with an increase of 119% after the calibration. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A tasty Florida butterfly turns sour
(University of Arizona) A 15-year study led by University of Arizona entomologist Katy Prudic found that, when living apart from the unsavory bug it mimics, the viceroy butterfly becomes yucky, making biologists rethink old theories about animal mimicry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists find routine allomaternal nursing in an Old World monkey
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) A team of scientists led by Professor Li Ming at the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found widespread allomaternal nursing behavior in an Old World monkey, the golden snub-nosed monkey. Based on more than eight years of field observation of infants and their mothers at Shennongjia National Park, Central China, as well as analysis of the monkeys' reproductive histories, the study provides the first evidence of regular allomaternal nursing in golden snub-nosed monkeys. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists reveal impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen discharge on nitrogen transport in global rivers
(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) Scientists found that riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the USA has increased primarily due to the use of nitrogen fertilizers. In contrast, European rivers were affected mainly by point source pollution. However, both aspects are equally important for aquatic environments in China. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Honeybees' waggle dance no longer useful in some cultivated landscapes
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) For bees and other social insects, being able to exchange information is vital for the success of their colony. One way honeybees do this is through their waggle dance. Biologists at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland and at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany have now shed some new light on the benefits and disadvantages of the bee dance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Extinct weasel relative with confounding skull likely ate meat with a side of veggies
(American Museum of Natural History) The oddly shaped skull of Leptarctus primus, an extinct weasel relative that lived in North America and Asia about 20 million years ago, has long led to conflicting theories about its diet. But new biomechanical models show that Leptarctus was likely a carnivorous predator, with capability for omnivory and a broader diet when prey was scarce, and a skull that functioned similarly to that of the living American badger. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UCF study finds high IQs won't be enough to prevent ecological disasters
(University of Central Florida) High IQs aren't going to be enough to stop an ecological disaster. It's going to take social intelligence, too. That's the conclusion of a new study co-authored by a University of Central Florida researcher and published Wednesday in the journal Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists sharpen their molecular scissors and expand the gene editing toolbox
(Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center) Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine scientists have figured out a better way to deliver a DNA editing tool to shorten the presence of the editor proteins in the cells in what they describe as a 'hit and run' approach. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Good dog? Bad dog? Their personalities can change
(Michigan State University) When dog-parents spend extra time scratching their dogs' bellies, take their dogs out for long walks and games of fetch, or even when they feel constant frustration over their dogs' naughty chewing habits, they are gradually shaping their dogs' personalities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change may affect ecological interactions among species
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) Predator-prey equilibria are being disrupted by climate change, according to a study led by Brazilian researchers and published in Nature Climate Change. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Chemical added to consumer products impairs response to antibiotic treatment
(Washington University in St. Louis) Triclosan exposure may inadvertently drive bacteria into a state in which they are able to tolerate normally lethal concentrations of antibiotics -- including those antibiotics that are commonly used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Foxes were domesticated by humans in the Bronze Age
(FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology) In the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, between the third and second millennium BC, a widespread funeral practice consisted in burying humans with animals. Scientists have discovered that both foxes and dogs were domesticated, as their diet was similar to that of their owners. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fifteen-thousand-year friendship between hound and human under the microscope
(University of Copenhagen) EVOLUTION It is often remarked that 'dogs look like their owners'. Might there be more to the assertion than believed? A new research project at the University of Copenhagen will examine the DNA of prehistoric dogs and humans to identify shared traits and differences in the genetic development of these two species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Aquatic microorganism could inspire soft robots able to move fast in narrow spaces
(Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati) Euglena cells are unicellular organisms that spend most of their time on swimming by beating their flagellum. Sometimes, Euglena performs harmoniously coordinated cell body deformation, in a behavior known as metaboly. A team of researchers from SISSA and OGS in Trieste, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna in Pisa, and UPC in Barcelona shows that metaboly allows Euglena to crawl remarkably fast in narrow spaces. This feature could inspire new applications in soft robotics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Can mixing household cleaners kill you? (video)
(American Chemical Society) When the bathroom starts looking grimy, and it's time to whip out yellow gloves, the only thing that matters is getting the job done quickly. So you open the cabinet, see a bunch of bottles and think, 'Hey, why not mix all of the different cleaners together?' Think again! Your all-purpose cleaning cocktail could turn a bad day even worse. Can death by toilet-bowl cleaning really happen? Today on Reactions, you're about to find out: https://youtu.be/FH1h0oWjark. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Good news: Habitats worthy of protection in Germany are protected
(Forschungsverbund Berlin) The world's largest coordinated network of protected areas is not located at the South Pole or in Australia, Africa, Asia or on the American continents -- but in Europe. As part of an international team, researchers from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries have examined how effectively Natura 2000 protects listed habitat types in Germany. The result: although the existing network includes sites of special interest, not all habitat types are represented proportionally. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Using E. coli to create bioproducts, like biodiesel, in a cost-effective manner
(Louisiana State University) LSU mechanical engineering graduate student Tatiana Mello of Piracicaba, Brazil, is currently working on genetically engineering and optimizing E. coli bacteria to produce bioproducts, like biodiesel, in a cost-effective manner. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New strategy improves efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) The efficiency of CRISPR genome editing tools targeted to the site of interest by Cas9 nucleases varies considerably and a new CMP-fusion strategy, called CRISPR-chrom, enhances the activity up to several-fold. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Signals on the scales
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) How are the images cast on the retina reassembled in the brain? Researchers in Munich and Tuebingen find that processing of visual stimuli occurs at the earliest waystation on the way to the visual cortex -- but not all are treated equally. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

63rd Biophysical Society Annual Meeting to kick-off in Baltimore from March 2 -- 6, 2019
(Biophysical Society) The Annual Meeting attracts over 6,000 attendees and features more than 900 posters and over 500 speakers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

SNoOPI: A flying ace for soil moisture and snow measurements
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Work has begun on a new CubeSat mission that will demonstrate for the first time a new, highly promising technique for measuring soil moisture from space -- data important for early flood and drought warnings as well as crop-yield forecasts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CLEAR at UTA continues collaboration with the Apache Corporation
(University of Texas at Arlington) The Collaborative Laboratories for Environmental Analysis and Remediation at the University of Texas at Arlington has extended its collaboration with the Apache Corporation to study surface and groundwater quality in the company's Alpine High play in West Texas. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Leadership in biomedical engineering
(University of Delaware) Dawn Elliott, chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Delaware, has been recognized as the inaugural recipient of the Orthopaedic Research Society's Adele L. Boskey, PhD Award. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How to keep stink bugs out this winter
(Virginia Tech) Every winter stink bugs infiltrate homes across the United States and two new studies published in the Journal of Economic Entomology by Virginia Tech researchers may shed some light on ways to keep the pests away. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Recent drought may provide a glimpse of the future for birds in the Sierra Nevada
(Point Blue Conservation Science) To better understand the effects of climate change on the bird community in the Sierra Nevada region, researchers examined the impacts to birds from a recent extreme drought (2013-2016). The drought resulted in the widespread death of pine trees due to attacks by bark beetles, potentially impacting wildlife habitat. While the results were varied, researchers found that many bird species responded positively to the climate conditions associated with the drought, potentially offsetting the negative habitat impacts of the dead trees. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sir Charles Lyell's historical fossils (London's Natural History Museum) accessible online
(Pensoft Publishers) Over 1,700 animal and plant specimens from the collection of eminent British geologist Sir Charles Lyell -- known as the pioneer of modern geology -- were digitized and made openly accessible via the NHM Data Portal. The records are to facilitate future studies in taxonomy, stratigraphy and volcanology, in addition to providing an exemplary workflow for reduced-cost, yet efficient and high-profile digitization. These are described in a data paper in the open-access Biodiversity Data Journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Innovative nanocoating technology harnesses sunlight to degrade microplastics
(Pensoft Publishers) Low density polyethylene film (LDPE) microplastic fragments, successfully degraded in water using visible-light-excited heterogeneous ZnO photocatalysts. The innovative sunlight-harnessing microplastics degrading technology is part of a study funded by the EU Horizon 2020 funded project CLAIM: Cleaning Marine Litter by Developing and Applying Innovative Methods in European Seas (GA no. 774586). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover a flipping crab feeding on methane seeps
(Oregon State University) Researchers have documented a group of tanner crabs vigorously feeding at a methane seep on the seafloor off British Columbia -- one of the first times a commercially harvested species has been seen using this energy source. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Life-changing magic of tidying up: Complex structures' organization studied in slime mold
(University of Tokyo) Researchers in Japan think they have found an answer to the fundamental biological question of how individual cells know which way to position themselves within a complex, multicellular body. Depending on a cell's purpose in the larger structure, contact or diffuse chemical signals direct it to its final destination. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

An intricate interaction: dietary fatty acid intake influences hypertension risk
(Kanazawa University) Hypertension is an important public health problem that can lead to life-threatening cardiovascular events, including heart attack and stroke. Here, the relationship between dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids and hypertension, using blood pressure measurement and a diet history questionnaire. A Kanazawa University research team found that increased dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids positively impacted hypertension, but that this benefit was limited to individuals without impaired glucose tolerance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Join us on an adventure to Towabonga -- coral reef ecology for kids!
(SECORE international) The new educational kids comic by awarded illustrator Bernhard Speh and SECORE International is published! Coral Heroes takes its readers on a lovingly drawn journey to the reefs of Towabonga, where they meet the mightiest builders on Earth and get to know why corals need our help. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Foreign bees monopolize prize resources in biodiversity hotspot
(University of California - San Diego) New research revealed that foreign honey bees often account for more than 90 percent of pollinators observed visiting flowers in San Diego, considered a global biodiversity hotspot. The non-native bees have established robust feral populations and currently make up 75 percent of the region's observed pollinators. Their monopoly over the most abundantly blooming plant species may strongly affect the ecology and evolution of species that are foundational to the stability of the region's plant-pollinator interactions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Plants: How cell walls are assembled
(Martin-Luther-Universit ä t Halle-Wittenberg) Plant researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) are providing new insights into basic cell division in plants. The scientists have succeeded in understanding how processes are coordinated that are pivotal in properly separating daughter cells during cell division. In the renowned scientific publication The EMBO Journal, they describe the tasks of certain membrane building blocks and how plants are impacted when these building blocks are disrupted. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Earliest example of animal nest sharing revealed by scientists
(University of Southampton) An international team of scientists, including researchers from the University of Southampton, has shown that fossilized eggshells unearthed in western Romania represent the earliest known nest site shared by multiple animals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Complete world map of tree diversity
(German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig) Researchers at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have succeeded in constructing, from scattered data, a world map of the diversity of tree species. Climate plays a central role for its global distribution; however, the number of species in a specific region also depends on the spatial scale of the observation, the researchers report in Nature Ecology and Evolution. The new approach could help improve conservation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Earth may be 140 years away from reaching carbon levels not seen in 56 million years
(American Geophysical Union) Total human carbon dioxide emissions could match those of Earth's last major greenhouse warming event in fewer than five generations, new research finds. A new study finds humans are pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at a rate nine to 10 times higher than the greenhouse gas was emitted during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a global warming event that occurred roughly 56 million years ago. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Nitisinone increases melanin in people with albinism
(NIH/National Eye Institute) A small pilot clinical study at the National Eye Institute (NEI) suggests that the drug nitisinone increases melanin production in some people with oculocutaneous albinism type 1B (OCA-1B), a rare genetic disease that causes pale skin and hair and poor vision. Increased melanin could help protect people with the condition against the sun's UV rays and promote the development of normal vision. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fossil fuel combustion is the main contributor to black carbon around Arctic
(Baylor University) Fossil fuel combustion is the main contributor to black carbon collected at five sites around the Arctic, which has implications for global warming, according to a study by an international group of scientists that included a US team from Baylor University. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers find genetic clues to high rates of asthma in those of African ancestry
(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) In the largest study of its kind, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found new clues into the parts of the human genome associated with the higher rates of asthma in those of African ancestry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Vigorous exercise, fasting, hormones improve elimination of toxic, misfolded, unnecessary proteins in mouse and human cells
(Harvard Medical School) A new study shows vigorous exercise and fasting improve the ability of human and mouse cells to remove misfolded, toxic, unnecessary proteins. The findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism that activates the cells' protein-disposal machinery, allowing them to adapt their protein content to shifting demands and new conditions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New compound could help treat ovarian cancer
(University of Sheffield) Scientists from the University of Sheffield have discovered a compound that could be more effective in treating certain cancers than standard chemotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New insights into phenotypic complexity and diversity among cichlids
(University of Konstanz) Researchers from the University of Konstanz, the University of California-Los Angeles, Tel Aviv University and the Inter-University Institute for Marine Sciences in Eilat gain new in-sights into how phenotypic complexity influences diversification among Lake Malawi cichlid fish. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Renewable energy generation with kites and drones
(Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) A group of researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid has recently developed a new software aimed at the analysis of energy generation systems based on kites and drones. In a recently published scientific article, they used the software to study the behavior of these systems while transforming the kinetic energy of the wind into useful electrical energy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news