Study confirms truth behind 'Darwin's moth'
(University of Exeter) Scientists have revisited -- and confirmed -- one of the most famous textbook examples of evolution in action. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Particulate pollution's impact varies greatly depending on where it originated
(Carnegie Institution for Science) Aerosols are tiny particles that are spewed into the atmosphere by human activities, including burning coal and wood. They have negative effects on air quality -- damaging human health and agricultural productivity. New work from Carnegie's Geeta Persad and Ken Caldeira demonstrates that the impact these fine particles have on the climate varies greatly depending on where they were released. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists identify enzyme that could help accelerate biofuel production
(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have honed in on an enzyme belonging to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family as a promising target for increasing biofuel production from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional 'protein knockdown' in vertebrates
(Technische Universit ä t Dresden) The research groups led by Dr. J ö rg Mansfeld of the Biotechnology Center of the TU Dresden (BIOTEC) and Dr. Caren Norden of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) have developed a novel synthetic antibody that paves the way for an improved functional analysis of proteins. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

MSU plant sciences faculty part of international discovery in wheat genome sequence
(Montana State University) Hikmet Budak, Winifred Asbjornson Plant Sciences Chair, is one of 200 international scientists who co-published an article this week detailing the description of the genome of bread wheat. The implications of the publication include greater food security. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CELEST: New benchmarks in energy storage research
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) Electrochemical energy storage is a key technology of the 21st century. Now, the Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ulm& Karlsruhe (CELEST), one of the most ambitious research platforms in this area worldwide, has started operation. It combines finding-oriented research with close-to-practice development and innovative production technology. CELEST pools the know-how of 29 institutes of its partners, namely, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Ulm University, and the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-W ü rttemberg (ZSW). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

There is not one kind of 'good sperm' -- it depends on other qualities in the male
(Uppsala University) In a study published in Behavioral Ecology researchers from Uppsala University show that the same type of sperm is not always the best for all male birds. Depending on how attractive or dominant you are you might be more successful with longer or shorter sperm. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), physicist Professor Thomas Schimmel and his team have developed a single-atom transistor, the smallest transistor worldwide. This quantum electronics component switches electrical current by controlled repositioning of a single atom, now also in the solid state in a gel electrolyte. The single-atom transistor works at room temperature and consumes very little energy, which opens up entirely new perspectives for information technology. The transistor is presented in Advanced Materials. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

There's no place like home: study finds home care effective for patients with blood clots
(Intermountain Medical Center) Study finds that patients with low-risk blood clots may be better off receiving treatment at home versus being admitted to the hospital. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Using mushrooms as a prebiotic may help improve glucose regulation
(Penn State) Eating white button mushrooms can create subtle shifts in the microbial community in the gut, which could improve the regulation of glucose in the liver, according to a team of researchers. They also suggest that better understanding this connection between mushrooms and gut microbes in mice could one day pave the way for new diabetes treatments and prevention strategies for people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A unique combination of catalysts opens doors to making useful compounds
(Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) All organisms rely on chemical reactions in order to make various natural products. Chemical reactions can be caused by a number of catalysts, such as enzymatic or chemical catalysts. Researchers have developed a new method that aids in the process of making valuable compounds by using a new catalytic method that combines enzymatic catalysts with photocatalysts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Danforth Center and Saint Louis University establish joint faculty partnership
(Donald Danforth Plant Science Center) The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Saint Louis University are pleased to announce that Allison Miller, Ph.D., professor of biology at Saint Louis University (SLU) and research associate at the Missouri Botanical Garden, will be appointed to a joint faculty position between the Danforth Center and SLU. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Stretching beyond limits
(University of California - Santa Barbara) Novel research optimizes both elasticity and rigidity in the same material without the usual tradeoffs (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How a 'jellyfish'-shaped structure relieves pressure in your cells
(Scripps Research Institute) Scientists at Scripps Research have solved the structure of a key protein that senses when our cells swell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Wheat code finally cracked; wheat genome sequence will bring stronger varieties to farmers
(Kansas State University) Kansas State University scientists, in collaboration with the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, published today in the international journal Science a detailed description of the complete genome of bread wheat, the world's most widely cultivated crop. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UM Researcher discovers genetic differences in trees untouched by mountain pine beetles
(The University of Montana) A University of Montana researcher has discovered that mountain pine beetles may avoid certain trees within a population they normally would kill due to genetics in the trees. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

3D inks that can be erased selectively
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) 3D printing by direct laser writing enables production of micro-meter-sized structures for many applications, from biomedicine to microelectronics to optical metamaterials. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed 3D inks that can be erased selectively. This allows specific degradation and reassembly of highly precise structures on the micrometer and nanometer scales. The new photoresists are presented in the journal Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study of greater Yellowstone pronghorn finds highway crossing structures a conservation success
(Wildlife Conservation Society) A recently published study by scientists from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Oregon State University has confirmed that efforts to protect migrating pronghorn by installing wildlife crossing structures over highways have succeeded, in terms of the increased success rate of pronghorn crossings over time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Play-Doh helps plant research
(University of Delaware) You know that smell of fresh cut grass? It's a cry for help plants use when under attack. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Frequent fires make droughts harder for young trees, even in wet eastern forests
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) Forests in the eastern United States may have had it easy compared to their western counterparts, with the intense, prolonged droughts and wildfires that have become typical out west in recent years. But as the climate changes over time, eastern forests are also likely to experience longer droughts. And although wildfires are comparatively rare, prescriptive fires are increasingly used in the east. How will these forests fare in the future? A new study from the University of Illinois provides answers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Old species learn new tricks...very slowly
(Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute) No species lasts forever, and, just as the saying goes, it seems like old species may get stuck in their ways and can't adapt to environmental change as fast as younger species do. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Arctic seabird populations respond to climate change
(American Ornithological Society Publications Office) Seabirds such as gulls can be key indicators of environmental change as their populations respond to shifts in their ocean habitat over time. A new study from The Auk: Ornithological Advances investigates how several species have responded to changing environmental conditions in the Arctic over the last four decades. The authors find that a warming ocean is directly and indirectly affecting seabird populations in Alaska. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

3-D inks that can be erased selectively
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) 3-D printing by direct laser writing enables production of micro-meter-sized structures for many applications, from biomedicine to microelectronics to optical metamaterials. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now developed 3-D inks that can be erased selectively. This allows specific degradation and reassembly of highly precise structures on the micrometer and nanometer scales. The new photoresists are presented in the journal Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New research predicts landslide boundaries two weeks before they happen
(University of Melbourne) University of Melbourne researchers have developed a software tool that uses applied mathematics and big data analytics to predict the boundary of where a landslide will occur, two weeks in advance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Model way to protect trees
(Rothamsted Research) New research unravels the dynamics of tree production, economics and variability in demand to show how to reduce the risks of importing such damaging forest pests and diseases as oak processionary moth and ash dieback. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Effective material developed to prevent post-surgical adhesion
(World Scientific) In a paper published in TECHNOLOGY, a group of researchers have investigated a novel Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) that provides a barrier to prevent adhesions in post-operative complications. This has the potential to avoid the need for a second surgery to remove the adhesions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

When mixing granular matter, order among disorder
(Northwestern University) Researchers find mixed and non-mixed regions among tumbled granular particles, providing a new understanding of how sand, concrete, and paint mix. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fishing quotas upended by nuclear DNA analysis
(University of Johannesburg) Fishing quotas have been decided using an inadequate method for decades, according to a Scientific Reports study. The same method has also been used to decide about culling, hunting quotas, or translocating threatened species. Analysing the nuclear genome of sardines shows previously unrecognised genetic differences between populations, which are not identified by the go-to-method for Isolation-By-Distance, mitochondrial DNA analysis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

OU study shows effects of climate warming in tallgrass prairie ecosystem
(University of Oklahoma) A University of Oklahoma professor, Jizhong Zhou, and his team have completed a new study on the effects of climate warming on soil microbes in a long-term climate change experiment at a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The new study shows that climate warming will affect microbial communities in the future, and future community states will be more predictable under warmed climate. Eventually, microbial communities will produce different functions and feedbacks to climate warming. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Models give synthetic biologists a head start
(Rice University) Rice University researchers have developed mathematical models to predict the performance of multi-input synthetic biological circuits that can be used to engineer bacteria and other organisms to regulate cellular systems or perform functions they wouldn't in nature. Applications include biological sensing, chemical production and therapeutics such as probiotics to alter gut bacteria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Light-engineered bacterial shapes could hold key to future labs-on-a-chip
(eLife) Scientists have used light patterns to control the swimming speed of bacteria and direct them to form different shapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Substances associated with bee ferocity are discovered
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) Chemical compounds identified by Brazilian researchers may explain why less aggressive bees become ferocious. Study is published in Journal of Proteome Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists get new tool to track new pathogen killing frogs
(University of Central Florida) An undergraduate researcher has developed a method to screen frogs for an infectious disease that has been linked to mass die-offs of frogs around the world. Thanks to her method, scientists will be able to track the disease and try to figure out why it is triggering the deaths. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Snake fungal disease alters skin microbiome in eastern Massasaugas
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) In the first study of its kind, researchers characterized the skin microbiome of a population of free-ranging snakes to begin to understand how the animals' environmental microbial community may promote disease resistance as well as how it may be disrupted by infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Lipid droplets play crucial roles beyond fat storage
(University of Rochester) Lipid droplets were long thought of merely as formless blobs of fat. But a study by Michael Welte of the University of Rochester, and his colleagues, describes how lipid droplets regulate certain proteins involved in gene expression. The research has implications for understanding what helps embryos survive and how we look at lipid-related diseases like obesity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists pinpoint brain networks responsible for naming objects
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) Scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have identified the brain networks that allow you to think of an object name and then verbalize that thought. The study appeared in the July issue of BRAIN. It represents a significant advance in the understanding of how the brain connects meaning to words and will help the planning of brain surgeries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Research brief: UMN researchers use green gold to rapidly detect and identify harmful bacteria
(University of Minnesota) Researchers from the University of Minnesota (UMN) have developed a method to screen and identify harmful or antibiotic-resistant bacteria within one hour using a portable luminometer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Algorithm provides early warning system for tracking groundwater contamination
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory have developed a low-cost method for real-time monitoring of pollutants using commonly available sensors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What homebody island birds could tell us about adaptation and evolution
(Colorado State University) Researchers led by Colorado State University's Cameron Ghalambor are launching a National Science Foundation-supported study of what evolutionary biologists term 'microgeographic' adaptation strategies of island scrub-jays, North America's only island-endemic bird. Island scrub-jays live exclusively on Santa Cruz Island, one of the Channel Islands off the southern California coast. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Getting more out of microbes
This study advances research for fundamental science and biotechnology applications by testing the performance of an unusual bacterial microorganism known as Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (Shewanella) in microgravity conditions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

From office windows to Mars: Scientists debut super-insulating gel
(University of Colorado at Boulder) A new gel developed by researchers at CU Boulder could increase energy efficiency in skyscrapers and help scientists to build habitats on Mars. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Why zebrafish (almost) always have stripes
(Ohio State University) A mathematical model helps explain the key role that one pigment cells plays in making sure that each stripe on a zebrafish ends up exactly where it belongs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UMass Amherst computational biophysicist receives grant to study 'floppy' proteins
(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) Jianhan Chen at UMass Amherst has a four-year grant from the National Science Foundation to study a newly recognized class of proteins with highly flexible three-dimensional (3D) structural properties, in particular some extra-floppy ones called intrinsically disordered proteins. By staying flexible, IDPs may have an advantage in interacting with other proteins and each other, perhaps letting them respond faster than a more rigid structure, or interact with a wider variety of molecules, or both. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Kent State geologist wins grant to study climate change, inspire young scientists
(Kent State University) The National Science Foundation (NSF) presented its prestigious Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award to Dr. Herndon for her project, 'Manganese Biogeochemistry and Impacts on Carbon Storage in Plant-Soil Systems.' The five-year grant is expected to total $487,000. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Artificial intelligence platform screens for acute neurological illnesses at Mount Sinai
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) An artificial intelligence platform designed to identify a broad range of acute neurological illnesses, such as stroke, hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus, was shown to identify disease in CT scans in 1.2 seconds, faster than human diagnosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Links between tax havens, deforestation and illegal fishing exposed
(Stockholm Resilience Centre) On average 68 percent of all investigated foreign capital to sectors associated with deforestation of the Amazon rainforest was transferred through tax havens. And 70 percent of the known fishing vessels involved in illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing are, or have been, registered in tax havens. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

'Undruggable' cancers slowed by targeting growth signals
(University of California - San Francisco) As many as 50 percent of human cancer cases -- across a wide variety of tissues -- involve defects in a common cellular growth signaling pathway. These defects have so far defied most attempts to develop targeted therapies. Now researchers at UCSF and Redwood City-based Revolution Medicines Inc. have identified a new strategy for potentially treating intractable cancers by decoupling the entire RAS/MAP Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway from external growth signals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers predict risk for common deadly diseases from millions of genetic variants
(Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard) A research team reports a new kind of genome analysis that could identify large fractions of the population who have a much higher risk of developing serious common diseases, including coronary artery disease, breast cancer, or type 2 diabetes. These tests, which use information from millions of places in the genome to ascertain risk for five diseases, can flag greater likelihood of developing the potentially fatal conditions well before any symptoms appear. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

VOX pops cereal challenge
(Rothamsted Research) A plant virus with a simple genome promises to help crop scientists understand traits and diseases in wheat and maize more quickly and easily than existing techniques and, as its full potential is tapped, to work across a range of different plant species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Disrupted nitrogen metabolism might spell cancer
(Weizmann Institute of Science) Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, in collaboration with colleagues from the National Cancer Institute and elsewhere, have now shown that in many cancers, the patient's nitrogen metabolism is altered, producing detectable changes in the body fluids and contributing to the emergence of new mutations in cancerous tissue. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news