BCG revaccination of health workers in Brazil to improve innate immune responses against COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

AbstractObjectivesThe BCG vaccine, widely used in Brazil in new-borns, induces adjuvant protection for several diseases, including childhood virus infections. BCG activates monocytes and innate memory NK cells which are crucial for the antiviral immune response. Therefore, strategies to prevent COVID-19 in health workers (HW) should be carried out to prevent them becoming unwell so that they can continue to work during the pandemic. The hypothesis is that BCG will improve the innate immune response and prevent symptomatic infection or COVID-19 severity.The primary objective is to verify the effectiveness and safety of the BCG vaccine to prevent or reduce incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the city of Goi ânia (Brazil) among HW previously vaccinated with BCG and also its severity and mortality during the pandemic of the disease.Secondary objectives are to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 among these professionals and the innate immune response elicited to BCG.Trial designThis a phase II trial for repositioning BCG as a preventive strategy against COVID-19.The trial is an open-label, parallel-group randomised clinical trial, comparing HW vaccinated with BCG and HW not vaccinated.ParticipantsThe trial will recruit 800 HW of Goi ânia - Goiás, Brazil to reach a total of 400 HW included after comorbidities questioning and laboratorial evaluation.Eligibility criteria: Any HW presenting BCG vaccination scar with...
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials

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ConclusionsThe study represents the much-needed, large-volume, epidemiological profile of HI from an LMIC, highlighting the suboptimal utilization of peripheral healthcare systems. Strengthening and integrating these facilities with the tertiary centers in a hub and enhanced spoke model, task sharing design, and efficient back-referrals promise effective neurotrauma care while avoiding overburden in the tertiary centers. Better implementation of road safety laws also has the potential to reduce the burden of HI.
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Companies can probe into how employee religious beliefs conflict with vaccination, but they risk opening themselves up to legal complaints.
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
NK cell suppression of T cells is a key determinant of viral pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. This process involves perforin-dependent elimination of activated CD4+ T cells during the first 3 days of infection. Although this mechanism requires cell-cell contact, NK cells and T cells typically reside in different compartments of lymphoid tissues at steady state. Here, we showed that NK cell suppression of T cells is associated with transient accumulation of NK cells within T cell–rich sites of the spleen during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was required for this relocatio...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in host defense against viral infections and malignancy, and their role for regulating other components of the antiviral response is being investigated. In this issue of the JCI, Ali et al. examine the mechanisms by which NK cells migrate into the white pulp and mediate suppression of virus-specific T cells. Herein, the authors show that an acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection induced a potent type I IFN (IFN-I) response that resulted in the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3 ligands and permitted NK cell trafficking to T cell zones. Collectively, th...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is high, but breakthrough infections still occur. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of 76 breakthrough cases after full vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), or JNJ-78436735 (Janssen) to unvaccinated controls (February–April 2021) in metropolitan New York, including their phylogenetic relationship, distribution of variants, and full spike mutation profiles. The median age of patients in the study was 48 years; 7 required hospitalization and 1 died. Most breakthrough infections (57/76) occurred with B.1.1.7 (Alpha) or B.1.526 (Iota). Among the 7 hospi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
IL-1β is a proinflammatory mediator with roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Here we show that IL-1β contributes to autoimmune arthritis by inducing osteoclastogenic capacity in Tregs. Using mice with joint inflammation arising through deficiency of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn–/–), we observed that IL-1β blockade attenuated disease more effectively in early arthritis than in established arthritis, especially with respect to bone erosion. Protection was accompanied by a reduction in synovial CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs that displayed preserved suppressive capacity and aerobic metabolism but aberra...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The care sector faces catastrophic staff shortages unless unvaccinated workers get their Covid shot by midnight (Thursday) or the government listens to reason and abandons its draconian ‘no jab, no job’ policy, warns UNISON. Care workers must have their first vaccination today (Thursday) to beat the government’s deadline of 11 November to be double-jabbed or be banned from entering care homes in England. UNISON believes mandatory vaccination should be scrapped or thousands of people may lose out on the support they need. The care sector is already in the grip of a severe staffing crisis and...
Source: UNISON meat hygiene - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: News Press release adult social care Mandatory vaccination Source Type: news
Key Points In almost all U.S. states, pregnancies reported as occurring at the right time or being wanted sooner than they occurred comprised the largest share of pregnancies in 2017, though proportions varied widely by state.
Source: The Guttmacher Institute - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news
This study evaluated epidemiological trends and care among injured patients pre...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
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