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Total 236 results found since Jan 2013.

Flexion Synergy Overshadows Flexor Spasticity During Reaching in Chronic Moderate to Severe Hemiparetic Stroke
Clinicians will be required to quantitatively measure and directly target the contributing underlying motor impairments in individuals with hemiparetic stroke to realize advances beyond conventional care in restoring upper extremity function (Krakauer et al., 2012). In the context of reaching function, impairment in joint individuation is the best predictor of recovery outcome over other common impairments observed in chronic stroke such as weakness and spasticity (Zackowski et al., 2004). The term “spasticity” is defined traditionally as a velocity-dependent hyperactive stretch reflex (Lance, 1980; Thilmann et al., 19...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Michael D. Ellis, Ingrid Schut, Julius P.A. Dewald Source Type: research

Reliability of lower limb transcranial magnetic stimulation outcomes in the ipsi- and contralesional hemispheres of adults with chronic stroke
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a painless and non-invasive method to study the motor system. TMS has become extensively used worldwide, for example in healthy humans to investigate mechanisms of brain plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) (Delvendahl et al., 2012) and to probe the neurophysiological underpinnings of M1 function (Reis et al., 2008). Also, TMS-related measures are used clinically for diagnostic, prognostic and evaluative purposes in different pathologies, such as stroke (Liepert et al., 2000a; Liepert et al., 2000b; Talelli et al., 2006).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Beaulieu Louis-David, Mass é-Alarie Hugo, Ribot-Ciscar Edith, Schneider Cyril Source Type: research

tDCS for motor stroke: the relevance of systematic comparisons
The need for adjuvant therapies to enhance motor recovery after stroke is documented by the global incidence of approx. 17 million stroke cases per year, resulting in the leading cause for long-term disability worldwide (Feigin et al., 2014). Electromagnetic brain stimulation protocols have the capacity to induce neuroplasticity non-invasively in cortical areas and have thereby the potential to promote recovery processes. One of the techniques that has raised considerable hope as an adjuvant tool for motor rehabilitation is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (Buch et al., 2017).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bernhard Sehm Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor sequence learning and upper limb function after stroke
Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and many people are left with impairments and are dependent on others for activities of daily living (Dobkin, 2005; DOH, 2007; Veerbeek et al., 2011). Strategies to improve plasticity and enhance motor learning are needed. One potential approach is to use transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance the effect of physical therapy.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Melanie K Fleming, John C Rothwell, Laszlo Sztriha, James T Teo, Di J Newham Source Type: research

Inhibition versus facilitation of contralesional motor cortices in stroke: Deriving a model to tailor brain stimulation
Stimulation of the brain is a well-accepted experimental technique for promoting recovery of the paretic upper limb after stroke. Based on the premise that ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) is important for motor function (Nudo et al., 1996) and contralesional motor cortices compete with iM1 to inhibit output devoted to the paretic upper limb (Murase et al., 2004), the standard approach involves facilitating iM1 and/or inhibiting the contralesional motor cortices (Fregni et al., 2007; Di Lazzaro et al., 2013).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, Andre G. Machado, Adriana B. Conforto, Kelsey A. Potter-Baker, David A. Cunningham, Nicole M. Varnerin, Xiaofeng Wang, Ken Sakaie, Ela B. Plow Source Type: research

Physiological arousal accompanying postural responses to external perturbations after stroke
Neuromuscular control of standing balance is known to be impaired after stroke (Garland et al. 2009). Response to surface translations have characterized the postural reactions of people post-stroke as being asymmetrical favoring the non-paretic leg (Marigold et al. 2004; van Asseldonk et al. 2006), accompanied by muscle activation which is delayed, and of decreased amplitude, in the paretic limb with poor intra-limb muscle coordination (Badke and Duncan 1983; Marigold and Eng 2006). In particular, the plantarflexor muscles in people post-stroke demonstrate impaired responses to external perturbations (Pollock et al.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: C.L. Pollock, M.G. Carpenter, M.A. Hunt, A. Gallina, T.M. Vieira, T.D. Ivanova, Garland SJ Source Type: research

Parietomotor connectivity in the contralesional hemisphere after stroke: a paired-pulse TMS study
Stroke is the main cause of acquired disability in adults. Upper limb paresis is one of the most frequent symptoms after stroke; the recovery of upper limb function is often problematic but constitutes a key factor in personal autonomy. Spatial neglect (defined as a failure to acknowledge or explore stimuli towards the contralesional side) (Heilman et al. 2000) is another challenging consequence of stroke, since it slows recovery and impairs activities of daily living (Di Monaco et al. 2011). In fact, spatial neglect is a frequent consequence of lesions in the right hemisphere - especially those affecting the inferior pari...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Etienne Allart, Arnaud Delval, Alexandre Caux-Dedeystere, Julien Labreuche, Romain Viard, Renaud Lopes, Herv é Devanne Source Type: research

Bilateral changes in muscle architecture of physically active people with chronic stroke: a quantitative muscle ultrasound study
Stroke is primarily regarded as a central nervous system (CNS) disorder, but post-stroke structural changes in skeletal muscles have been described. Imaging techniques such as Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Computed Tomography (CT) have revealed atrophy in several paretic side muscles of stroke survivors (English et al., 2010; Scherbakov et al., 2015). In addition to atrophy, increased intramuscular fat has been found in hemiparetic muscles of post-stroke patients (Ryan et al., 2002, Klein et al., 2010, Ryan et al., 2011).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frank Berenpas, Anne-Marieke Martens, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Alexander C. Geurts, Nens van Alfen Source Type: research

Individuals with Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke can Correctly Match Forearm Positions within a Single Arm
By 2030, approximately 10 million American adults will have been affected by a stroke, an estimated 84% of these individuals will survive, and many of these individuals will move on to long-term disability facing challenges in coordinating and controlling movements Mozaffarian et al. (2015). According to clinical assessments, more than half of these stroke survivors may have a compromised position sense Connell et al. (2008); Winward et al. (2002) that can result in devastating effects on their ability to control their movements Cole (1995); Ghez et al.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Netta Gurari, Justin M. Drogos, Julius P.A. Dewald Source Type: research

EP 20. Contralesional Cathodal tDCS versus dual-tDCS for decreasing upper limb spasticity in chronic stroke individuals: A clinical and neurophysiological study
Different transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paradigms have been implemented to treat post-stroke spasticity, but discordant results have been reported.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Del Felice, V. Daloli, S. Masiero, P. Manganotti Tags: ePoster Presentations – Noninvasive Neuromodulation I Source Type: research

EP 10. Home-based motor imagery training in chronic stroke supported by neurofeedback: A feasibility study
Chronic hemiparesis of an upper limp following stroke has been related to an over-involvement of the ipsilateral hemisphere that inhibits use of the affected limb. Interventions helping to shift back this altered lateralization have been suggested to positively affect upper limp functional recovery. One such intervention is the combination of motor imagery (MI) supported by EEG neurofeedback. However, cortical reorganization requires highly intensive practice. In this feasibility study this was achieved by implementing a mobile EEG neurofeedback system.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: C. Kranczioch, C. Zich, C. Schweinitz, J. Meekes, S. Debener Source Type: research

EP 9. Prevalence, clinical characteristics and long-term course of headache in patients with stroke (multicenter study of DMKG)
Headache in association with stroke is a symptom not at all differentiated and investigated in Germany. According to previous data, it seems to be a common problem, but usually other symptoms of stroke are predominating. Furthermore, the treatment is focused on acute therapy of ischemic stroke followed by rehabilitation. However, headaches in subarachnoid hemorrhage as a special type of stroke represents the leading clinical symptom and thus also be diagnostically significant. Headache in stroke should be classified as symptomatic headache (IHS 6.1 –6.2).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Dietrich, A. D üring, D. Rothkirch, F. Filippopulos, O. Eren, T. Dresler, A. Straube, G. Goßrau, T. Kraya Source Type: research

EP 6. Longitudinal resting state functional connectivity patterns in the early phase of recovery from Aphasia in temporoparietal stroke
Poststroke aphasia recovery evolves in space and time. Substantial language improvements can be observed within the first days after stroke. However, underlying changes in the functional status of the language network during the acute phase remain to be demonstrated.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Klingbeil, A. Stockert, M. Wawrzyniak, K. Wrede, D. Saur Source Type: research

EP 5. Decrement of the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation over time in chronic stroke patients
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been applied as one rehabilitative treatment option in stroke patients (Quandt and Hummel, 2014) and a meta-analysis recently showed its positive effects on motor recovery (Stein et al., 2015). One major challenge in stroke patients, especially severely impaired, is the opening of the hand due to extensor weakness accompanied by flexor spasticity. Here, NMES could provide assistance and substitute lost function. Studies in healthy controls have shown, however, that the rapid onset of muscle fatigue is a critical limitation for practical use.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: F. Quandt, J. Feldheim, J.C. Loitz, D. Wolff, M. Rohm, R. Rupp, W.H. Krautschneider, F.C. Hummel Source Type: research

EP 4. Recruitment of premotor cortices in subacute stroke patients – A longitudinal fMRI study
In order to investigate changes in functional representation of hand movement after stroke we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an active motor task of the affected hand before and after a three week comprehensive motor training.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: U. Horn, S. Roschka, K. Eyme, A.D. Walz, T. Platz, M. Lotze Source Type: research

EP 3. Impact of energy expenditure and cognitive function on long- term outcome after stroke
Stroke leads to lesion-induced deficits like hemiparesis and aphasia. Furthermore patients suffer from low aerobic endurance and high energy expenditure of walking as well as from cognitive decline. Motor and Activity of daily living (ADL) rehabilitation might be negatively impacted by these factors. Here, our aim was to evaluate how (a) energy expenditure of walking and (b) cognitive function in the subacute phase after stroke correlate to long-term outcomes (gait speed, activities of daily life).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: T. Rackoll, C. Werner, A. Fl öel Source Type: research

EPV 19. Dissociable regions for recognition and execution of conceptual and spatio-temporal action characteristics in acute stroke patients
The ability to recognize and respond to actions performed by others is fundamental for a wide range of activities involving social interactions. However, despite an enormous number of functional imaging studies, a precise delineation of the brain regions crucial for distinct aspects of action recognition has remained elusive. Moreover, the degree of overlap between regions involved in active action performance is controversial.To elucidate these issues, 98 acute stroke patients (68 male, age meanSD, 6513 years) were examined in the acute period after stroke (meanSD 4.42 days after symptom onset).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Martin, A. Dressing, L. Beume, T. Bormann, I. Mader, M. Rijntjes, C.P. Kaller, C. Weiller Source Type: research

Resolution of cerebral pathophysiology immediately following thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke: Monitoring via quantitative EEG
Quantitative EEG (QEEG) has demonstrated value in assessment of cerebral pathophysiology following acute ischaemic stroke (AIS; e.g., (Finnigan et al., 2013). Various reports indicate that EEG/QEEG can promptly detect cerebral responses to successful reperfusion therapy, even when this cannot be assessed clinically (Finnigan et al., 2006; de Vos et al., 2008, Finnigan et al., 2013). Additionally QEEG can indicate lack of favourable response to therapy, (e.g. unsuccessful alteplase) and may help expedite decisions regarding intra-arterial interventions (e.g.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Emma Schleiger, Andrew Wong, Stephen Read, Alan Coulthard, Simon Finnigan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Improved cerebral pathophysiology immediately following thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke: Monitoring via quantitative EEG
Quantitative EEG (QEEG) has demonstrated value in assessment of cerebral pathophysiology following acute ischaemic stroke (AIS; e.g., Finnigan and van Putten, 2013). Various reports indicate that EEG/QEEG can promptly detect cerebral responses to successful reperfusion therapy, even when this cannot be assessed clinically (Finnigan et al., 2006; de Vos et al., 2008, Finnigan and van Putten, 2013). Additionally QEEG can indicate lack of favourable response to therapy, (e.g. unsuccessful alteplase) and may help expedite decisions regarding intra-arterial interventions (e.g.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Emma Schleiger, Andrew Wong, Stephen Read, Alan Coulthard, Simon Finnigan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to “The usefulness of diffusion tensor tractography for estimating the state of corticobulbar tract in stroke patients”
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging technique used to demonstrate the structural integrity of white matter tracts. DTI has a unique advantage in visualizing the neural fiber tracts in the proximity of cerebral infarction by use of constructing three-dimensional images of white matter fiber tracts (Mori and van Zijl, 2002). A diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) study by Dr Jang investigated the injury of the corticobulbar tract (CBT) in stroke patients with dysarthria, and suggested that the evaluation of the CBT using DTT provides important information in stroke patients with bulbar sym...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan Du, Fang Yang, Xinfeng Liu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The usefulness of diffusion tensor tractography for estimating the state of corticobulbar tract in stroke patients
The development of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), which is derived from diffusion tensor imaging data, has enabled the reconstruction and estimation of the corticobulbar tract (CBT) in the live human brain (Mori et al., 1999). As a result, injury of the CBT following stroke could be estimated three dimensionally using DTT (Kwon et al., 2016). Several studies using DTT have reported on the detailed anatomical location of the CBT in the subcortical white matter, and this knowledge has enabled clinicians to presume injury of the CBT in stroke patients without DTT for the CBT (Pan et al., 2012; Yim et al., 2013).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sung Ho Jang, So Min Shin Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Do quiet standing centre of pressure measures within specific frequencies differ based on ability to recover balance in individuals with stroke?
Falls risk is increased in individuals with stroke compared to age-matched healthy individuals, and falls are one of the most frequent complications experienced during post-stroke recovery (Batchelor et al., 2012). Up to 73% of individuals with stroke fall following their return to community living after discharge from rehabilitation (Weerdesteyn et al., 2008), and individuals with stroke are 2-4 times more likely to suffer a fall-related injury compared to age-matched controls (O’Loughlin et al., 1993; Graafmans et al., 1996; Jørgensen et al., 2002).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Jonathan C. Singer, Elizabeth L. Inness, Avril Mansfield Source Type: research

Somatosensory and auditory startle reflex in patients with stroke and spinal cord injury
Somatosensory startle reflex (SSSR) was recently studied in healthy subjects. Following corticospinal tract lesions caused by stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI), auditory startle reflex (ASR) has been reported to enhance due to reorganization of circuits rostral and caudal to the lesion. To further understand changes in SSSR and ASR, we investigated both responses in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M.E. Kiziltan, M. Sohtaoglu, A. Gunduz, M. Bozluolçay, N. Uzun Source Type: research

ID 99 – Functional connectivity study on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for central post-stroke pain
This study aimed to investigate functional connectivity specific to CPSP and functional connectivity alteration associated with pain relief by rTMS.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: K. Hosomi, T. Shimizu, T. Maruo, Y. Watanabe, H.M. Khoo, N. Tani, Y. Goto, H. Kishima, T. Yoshimine, Y. Saitoh Source Type: research

ID 30 – Influence of M1 hand knob ischemic stroke on motor activation: An fMRI study in chronic stage
To evaluate whether stroke lesion focused on the primary motor cortex hand knob re-localizes the hand motor area in the affected hemisphere.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Kallioniemi, M. Könönen, L. Säisänen, P. Julkunen, R. Vanninen, P. Jäkälä, S. Määttä, S. Vaalto Source Type: research

ID 452 – Sympathetic skin response in stroke patients
Sympathetic dysfunction could lead to life-threatening complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the size, location, nature of the lesion, and the sympathetic skin response (SSR).Thirty patients with stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included in this study. All patients were investigated by using brain imaging and clinical scales. SSRs were elicited on four extremities in both groups. Latency and amplitude values of the responses were measured. In the patient group, SSR were analyzed both in the early (in the first month) and the late stages (one month later first recording) of the patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: H. Erdem Tilki, G. Oztas Source Type: research

ID 12 – Cortical recovery from primary motor cortex (stroke) infarction evaluated at chronic stage
To assess function of the motor cortex in chronic stroke patients who had suffered a restricted focal ischemic lesion affecting primarily anatomical hand representation.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: P. Julkunen, L. Säisänen, S. Määttä, M. Könönen, E. Kallioniemi, R. Vanninen, P. Jäkälä, S. Vaalto Source Type: research

ID 312 – Sensorimotor modulation by botulinum Toxin A in post-stroke arm spasticity: Passive hand movement
The aim of the study was to locate brain activation changes in stroke patients treated with Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT) for arm spasticity using functional MRI (fMRI).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: P. Hok, T. Veverka, P. Hlustik, A. Krobot, P. Kanovsky Source Type: research

ID 430 – The value of the P300 event related potential in the ischemic stroke
So far, only little is known about the impact of stroke on Event Related Potentials. The aim of this prospective study was to follow-up P300 latencies and choice reaction time in stroke patients and evaluate their changes over a prospective 1-year follow-up period.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Dejanovic, V. Ivetic, V. Nestorovic, Z. Milanovic, M. Miric Source Type: research

ID 448 – Brain-guided therapy in post-stroke aphasia
Find a novel approach for therapy of post-stroke aphasia utilizing personal-emotional words identified in a pre-therapy brain function assessment.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Willmott, S.C. Purdy Source Type: research

ID 297 – Changes in finger tapping-related desynchronization during motor stroke recovery
Complex mechanisms underlying stroke recovery and modulations of associated brain activities are still far to be well elucidated. Here we investigated the potential effects of motor stroke recovery on finger tapping-related (FTR) brain dynamics by using high-power EEG with 128 channels and 2048Hz sampling rate. A follow-up study was carried out on six patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were instructed to perform finger tapping with their right or left index finger at a pace determined by a visual cue.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: B. Weiss, J. Körmendi, A. Papp, M. Dombovári, Z. Nagy Source Type: research

ID 290 – Differences in sleep microstate curves among healthy sleepers and patients after stroke
Sleep deprivation, whether from disorder or lifestyle, poses a significant risk in daytime performance. Ischemic stroke resulting in cerebral lesions is a well-known acute disorder that leaves affected patients strongly vulnerable to sleep disturbances that often lead to the above-mentioned impairments. The aim of this study is to identify objective sleep patterns being potential sources of disturbed sleep in stroke patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Z. Rošt‘áková, R. Rosipal Source Type: research

ID 127 – Small world characteristics of cortical connectivity in acute stroke
After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. Recently, brain complexity has been described using the graph theory, an elegant approach which depicts important properties of complex systems by quantifying topologies of network representations. We tested whether ischemic stroke may determine changes in smallworldness of cortical networks as measured by cortical sources of EEG.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: P. Caliandro, F. Vecchio, F. Miraglia, C. Iacovelli, G. Della Marca, G. Lacidogna, G. Reale, N. Di Giannantoni, L. Padua, P.M. Rossini Source Type: research

ID 126 – Cortical connectivity and lesion volumes correlation in acute stroke patients: A study via graph theory from EEG data
Functional connectivity is essential for brain functions. Focal brain lesions could have important remote effects on the functions of distant brain regions even if outside the damaged area. Network dysfunction may contribute to neurological deficits observed for example after stroke. We explored how functional network characteristics, measured via EEG recordings, correlate with the lesion volume on MRI.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: F. Vecchio, P. Caliandro, F. Miraglia, F. Piludu, C. Iacovelli, G. Lacidogna, G. Reale, C. Colosimo, P.M. Rossini Source Type: research

ID 243 – Enhancement of cortical excitability in stroke patients after combined repetitive transcranial and peripheral magnetic stimulation
To determine the effect of combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) on cortical excitability in stroke patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Kuznietsova, N. Skachkova, O. Semonova Source Type: research

ID 131 – The use of continuous theta-burst repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke
To investigate the therapeutic effects of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: T. Argun, A. Soysal, B. Ciftci Kavaklioglu, B. Guveli, D. Ataklı Source Type: research

Ascending vestibular drive is asymmetrically distributed to the inferior oblique motoneuron pools in a subset of hemispheric stroke survivors
Spasticity is a frequent and often disabling sequel to hemispheric stroke (Watkins et al., 2002; Urban et al., 2010; Wissel et al., 2013). It is characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in the resistance of a limb to passive stretch, coupled with exaggerated tendon jerks resulting from hyperexcitability of the segmental reflex arc (Dietz and Sinkjaer, 2007; Lance, 1980). The etiology of spasticity is complex, and while emerging evidence implicates changes in motoneuron excitability (i.e., decreased reflex threshold; spontaneous motoneuron firing at sub-threshold levels) as central to the genesis of post-stroke spasti...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Derek M. Miller, James F. Baker, W. Zev Rymer Source Type: research

Symmetry of corticomotor input to plantarflexors influences the propulsive strategy used to increase walking speed post-stroke
Following stroke, the majority of survivors are unable to regain sufficient walking function to allow for ambulation at speeds that are safe and effective for community function and participation (van de Port et al., 2008). In addition to typically slower walking speeds compared to neurologically-intact individuals, persons post-stroke are left with a reduced capacity to increase walking speeds (van de Port et al., 2008). The ability to modulate walking speed is clinically meaningful because it underlies an individual’s capacity for safe and effective community function (Jonkers et al., 2009; van de Port et al., 2008).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 12, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacqueline A. Palmer, HaoYuan Hsiao, Louis N. Awad, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for rehabilitation of post-stroke dysphagia: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Dysphagia is a common and potential fatal complication following stroke (Martino et al., 2005). It afflicts a great number of patients with hemispheric stroke (Martino et al., 2005) and brainstem infarction (Horner et al., 1991). Post-stroke dysphagia is associated with an increased risk for mortality, and it may lead to severe complications including malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration pneumonia (Teasell et al., 1994; Dziewas et al., 2004; Martino et al., 2005). Most patients recover from dysphagia within a few weeks, but the extent of recovery in swallowing varies widely from patient to patient.(Martino et al., 2005).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan Du, Fang Yang, Ling Liu, Jingze Hu, Biyang Cai, Wenhua Liu, Gelin Xu, Xinfeng Liu Source Type: research

Report of a delayed seizure after low frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a chronic stroke patient
We report a seizure in a stroke patient 24 hours after exposure to 1 Hz repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 6, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sara Agosta, Emanuela Galante, Francesco Ferraro, Alvaro Pascual Leone, Joel Oster, Lorella Battelli Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Defining abnormal slow EEG activity in acute ischaemic stroke: delta/alpha ratio as an optimal QEEG index
Ischaemic stroke (IS) produces abnormal, slow EEG activity - particularly in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz) - and attenuation of normative, faster activity, particularly in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz; e.g., Jordan, 2004; Hirsch et al., 2013). A recent review (Finnigan and van Putten, 2013) emphasises that particular QEEG indices, which are sensitive to such cerebral pathophysiology following IS, can inform clinical decision-making including: (1) continuous monitoring to inform about the efficacy of acute reperfusion therapies, and; (2) outcome prognostication and clinical management decisions based on brief, pre-discharge EEG.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 21, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Simon Finnigan, Andrew Wong, Stephen Read Source Type: research

V9. Distinct contributions of dorsal and ventral streams to imitation of transitive and intransitive gestures: Evidence from acute stroke patients
Meaningful gestures are one of the key features of social interaction and comprise both object-associated transitive movements (e.g. hammering) as well as intransitive movements referring to a communicative content (e.g. waving goodbye). The ability to imitate meaningful gestures is frequently impaired in apraxia due to left-hemispheric stroke. However, the pathophysiology behind these deficits so far remained unresolved. A dual stream-model for a dichotomized organisation of higher cognitive functions such as language or praxis has been proposed, with a dorsal stream involved in sensorimotor processing and a ventral strea...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Dreßing, L. Beume, D. Kümmerer, C. Schmidt, T. Bormann, I. Mader, M. Rijntjes, C. Kaller, C. Weiller, M. Hören Source Type: research

V37. Interactions between primary and secondary motor areas for recovered hand functions after stroke
Goal oriented hand movements are the final product of complex interplay between multiple cortical regions of the frontoparietal cortex. Following stroke, recovery of function might be related to structural and functional modifications in the surviving brain networks. Strikingly, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) plays a crucial role in the sensorimotor processing engaged in shaping finger movements and shares extensive reciprocal projections to the primary motor cortex (M1), making the PMv a promising structure involved in hand motor recovery after stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Zimerman, S. Weide, M. Wessel, R. Schulz, J.E. Timmermann, M. Bönstrup, T. Morishita, P. Koch, C. Gerloff, F.C. Hummel Source Type: research

P11. Connectivity-based predictions of hand motor outcome at the sub-acute stage after stroke
Predicting motor recovery after stroke is a recognized aim in stroke rehabilitation. Here, we combine two different neuroimaging methods to test their prognostic power at the sub-acute stage after stroke. We measured resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in 19 stroke patients within the first days (5–9days) after stroke and investigated short term (3months) and long term (6months) motor outcome.Resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) showed no relevant predictive value for motor outcome.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Lindow, M. Domin, M. Grothe, W. Byblow, M. Lotze Source Type: research

P105. Network dynamics engaged in the modulation of motor behavior in chronic stroke patients
Affected hand movements are associated with a successive increase of neural activity in both hemispheres in the first weeks after stroke, which then return to levels observed in healthy controls, particularly in patients making full motor recovery. Little is known about the changes of the interplay of brain regions that enable the modulation of motor performance after stroke. In healthy subjects, an important feature of faster hand movements is mediated by a more effective coupling between distinct cortical and subcortical motor areas.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E.-M. Pool, M. Kutscha, E. Binder, S.B. Eickhoff, G.R. Fink, C. Grefkes Source Type: research

P108. The effect of task effort on recovery-related brain activity following motor stroke assessed with FMRI and EEG
Spontaneous recovery of motor deficits after stroke evolve at a rather unpredictable fashion regarding the time and extend of skill reacquisition (Langhorne et al., Lancet, 2011). Previous longitudinal studies investigating brain activity during recovery from hand motor deficits point to an early overactivation of the motor network with a decrease back to near normal patterns later after stroke (Rehme et al., Neuroimage, 2012). Since patients regain force and skill during recovery, changes in neural activation over time could be explained by a decreased relative task effort over time.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Bönstrup, R. Schulz, B. Cheng, J. Feldheim, G. Thomalla, F. Hummel, C. Gerloff Source Type: research

P109. Parietofrontal motor pathways and their association with motor function after stroke
A stroke results in widespread alterations of motor-related brain activity and interregional interactions in the sensorimotor network. Numerous studies have investigated the functional relevance of the primary motor cortices (M1) and predominantly frontal and prefrontal secondary motor areas. Only few studies focused on the functional role of the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) after stroke. Corticocortical interactions between M1, PMv and posterior parietal motor areas, such as the anterior (aIPS) and caudal intraparietal sulcus (cIPS) are relevant for skilled voluntary hand function.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: P. Koch, R. Schulz, M. Zimerman, M. Wessel, M. Bönstrup, G. Thomalla, B. Cheng, C. Gerloff, F.C. Hummel Source Type: research

P74. 1Hz rTMS over the contralesional dorsal premotor cortex improves dexterity of the affected hand after stroke: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial
The contralesional dPMC may be a new target for rTMS procedures intended to improve dexterity of the affected hand after acute stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Lüdemann-Podubecká, K. Bösl, D.A. Novak Source Type: research

Atypical cortical drive during activation of the paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior is related to gait deficits in chronic stroke
Following a neurological injury, recovery of lower extremity control and the ability to walk is a primary goal of stroke patients (Bohannon et al. 1991). However, many individuals are left with long term disability of functional ambulation following stroke, despite current standard rehabilitation (Bohannon et al. 1991). Gains in neuroscience research over the last several decades have enhanced our understanding of structural changes in the brain that may underlie functional disability following stroke (Kleim and Jones 2008).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacqueline A. Palmer, Alan R. Needle, Ryan T. Pohlig, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod Source Type: research

Sensory stimulation in post-stroke postural imbalance: A novel treatment approach?
Postural disorders represent a frequent sequel after stroke and many patients do not regain undisturbed upright stance. Most often, patients show a so-called “postural imbalance” (PI) which denotes an asymmetric body position during stance as expressed by a lateral displacement of his/her centre of pressure towards the non-paretic leg and an increased lateral sway when measured on a force platform (Perennou 2006). Clinically, the result of this asymmetric body posture is a poorer rehabilitation outcome of those patients with PI, less functional autonomy and a poorer quality of life.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lena Schmidt, Georg Kerkhoff, Kathrin S. Utz Tags: Editorial Source Type: research