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Total 236 results found since Jan 2013.

Clinical and electrophysiological investigation of spastic muscle overactivity in patients with disorders of consciousness following severe brain injury
About a third of patients who underwent a stroke or a traumatic brain injury will develop upper motor neuron (UMN) syndrome with spastic muscle overactivity (SMO) (Wissel et al. 2010, 2013; Martens et al. 2018). This syndrome can occur following any central nervous system lesion involving the corticospinal tract and parapyramidal tracts along the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. UMN syndrome is classically described with positive (e.g., SMO) and negative signs (e.g., muscle weakness, fatigability) (Thibaut et al.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: G. Martens, T. Deltombe, M. Foidart-Dessalle, S. Laureys, A. Thibaut Source Type: research

Spasticity in adults with cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis measured by objective clinically applicable technique
Spasticity occurs frequently following lesions of central motor pathways in neurological disorders such as stroke (Malhotra et al., 2009; Sommerfeld et al., 2012), spinal cord injury (Sheean, 2002), multiple sclerosis (MS) (Sinkjaer et al., 1993; Mayer, 1997) and cerebral palsy (CP) (Gracies, 2005). Spasticity is most commonly defined as a velocity dependent increase in muscle tone with exaggeration of the stretch reflex circuitry (Lance, 1980). However, in the clinic a somewhat broader understanding of spasticity, which also includes sustained muscle contractions such as spasms and spastic dystonia as well as alterations ...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Tue Hvass Petersen, Henrik Kirk, Christian Forman, Christian Svane, Mathilde Kofoed-Hansen, Finn Boesen, Jakob Lorentzen Source Type: research

P7. EEG changes in a patient with intracerebral dilatative angiopathy and multiple intracerebral aneurysms – A case report
We report a case of a 76  year old female, who was referred to our hospital by her primary care physician with fatigue, dizziness, psychomotoric slowing and worsening of a known unilateral right palpebral ptosis.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Milby, R. Kollmar, I. Aroyo Source Type: research

P63. Detection of error potentials from EEG and MEG recordings and its value for BMI control
Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) can help to regain communication and mobility in severely disabled persons. Especially spelling devices, rehabilitation of stroke patients and prosthesis control are fields of application. However, noninvasive BMIs, commonly using electroencephalography (EEG), suffer from poor signal quality, resulting in erroneous commands. In order to detect such erroneous commands, error potentials (ErrPs) generated in the brain after a user perceived a negative feedback can be decoded.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: C. Reichert, N. Heinze, T. Pfeiffer, S. D ürschmid, H. Hinrichs Source Type: research

Visual Rehabilitation Training Alters Attentional Networks in Hemianopia: an fMRI study
Post-geniculate damage of the visual system leads to homonymous hemianopia which affects about 30% or more of all cases of stroke or brain trauma (Pambakian et al. , 1997). Hemianopia greatly reduces quality of life, affecting reading, driving and spatial navigating of patients (Das et al. , 2010). Several strategies for visual field restoration have been introduced (for review see Sabel et al. (2011)). For example, Kasten et al. (1998) showed that patients trained with light detection tasks in areas of residual vision (ARV) had significantly enlarged visual fields.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qilin Lu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Lin Li, Bensheng Qiu, Shihui Wei, Bernhard A. Sabel, Yifeng Zhou Source Type: research

Usefulness of EEG-EMG coherence analysis to confirm epileptic nature of spells mimicking hemifacial spasms
We report the utility of EEG-EMG coherence analysis to confirm the epileptic nature of these spells in a patient with a minor pre-rolandic stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Chiara Sueri, Vittoria Cianci, Damiano Branca, Silvana Franceschetti, Ferruccio Panzica, Laura Canafoglia, Umberto Aguglia Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

S3-3. Clinical application of electroencephalogram-based brain-machine interfaces
A large number of electroencephalogram-based brain-machine interface (BMI) systems developed by industry and academia are now available for neurorehabilitation. However, the lack of phase 1 –2 clinical trials for BMI interventions to post-stroke hemiplegia has been limited their treatment outcome. To test the safety and feasibility of BMI interventions, we conducted trials with a customly developed BMI system for patients with acute/subacute hemiparetic stroke. Four inpatients partic ipated in this study in the early phase (7–24 days from stroke onset).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yasunari Hashimoto, Toshiyuki Kakui, Junichi Ushiba, Meigen Liu, Kyousuke Kamada, Tetsuo Ota Source Type: research

S3-2. Rewiring of a damaged neural pathway via a neural interface induces targeted reorganization of an extensive cortical area
Regaining the function of an impaired limb is highly desirable in individuals experiencing paralysis. One possible avenue to achieve this goal is through rewiring of preserved neural structures to bridge the interrupted pathway using a brain-computer interface. Here we demonstrated that monkeys with subcortical stroke were able to learn to use an artificial cortico-muscular connection (ACMC), brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation to the hand muscles, to regain volitional control of a paralyzed hand.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kenji Kato, Masahiro Sawada, Yukio Nishimura Source Type: research

B-16. Artificial neural connection using a computer interface
Functional loss of limb control in individuals with spinal cord injury or stroke can be caused by transection of descending pathways those connects cortical to spinal network, although neural circuits locate above and below the impaired site remains their function. I will show an artificial neuronal connection (ANC) that bridges supra-spinal system and spinal network beyond the lesion site restore lost function. The ANC was produced by a computer interface that can detect the neural activity and converted in real-time to activity-contingent electrical stimuli delivered to nervous system.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yukio Nishimura Source Type: research

B-11. Application of EEG-based brain computer interface to movement and sensory disorders
To examine the effect of the EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) training for patients with stroke, writer ’s cramp and neuropathic pain. Method: Using the EEG recorded with Ag/AgCl electrodes placed at C3 and C4, as designated according to the International 10/20 system, we gave real time visual feedback to the patients with PC monitor which is placed in front of them. Participants were required to im agine the affected wrist extending in stroke and neuropathic pain patients. Patients with writer’s cramp were requested to relax their wrist flexor while extending their wrist.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tetsuo Ota Source Type: research

S3-3. Clinical application of electroencephalogram-based brain-machine interfaces
A large number of electroencephalogram-based brain-machine interface (BMI) systems developed by industry and academia are now available for neurorehabilitation. However, the lack of phase 1 –2 clinical trials for BMI interventions to post-stroke hemiplegia has been limited their treatment outcome. To test the safety and feasibility of BMI interventions, we conducted trials with a customly developed BMI system for patients with acute/subacute hemiparetic stroke. Four inpatients partic ipated in this study in the early phase (7–24 days from stroke onset).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yasunari Hashimoto, Toshiyuki Kakui, Junichi Ushiba, Meigen Liu, Kyousuke Kamada, Tetsuo Ota Source Type: research

S3-2. Rewiring of a damaged neural pathway via a neural interface induces targeted reorganization of an extensive cortical area
Regaining the function of an impaired limb is highly desirable in individuals experiencing paralysis. One possible avenue to achieve this goal is through rewiring of preserved neural structures to bridge the interrupted pathway using a brain-computer interface. Here we demonstrated that monkeys with subcortical stroke were able to learn to use an artificial cortico-muscular connection (ACMC), brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation to the hand muscles, to regain volitional control of a paralyzed hand.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kenji Kato, Masahiro Sawada, Yukio Nishimura Source Type: research

B-16. Artificial neural connection using a computer interface
Functional loss of limb control in individuals with spinal cord injury or stroke can be caused by transection of descending pathways those connects cortical to spinal network, although neural circuits locate above and below the impaired site remains their function. I will show an artificial neuronal connection (ANC) that bridges supra-spinal system and spinal network beyond the lesion site restore lost function. The ANC was produced by a computer interface that can detect the neural activity and converted in real-time to activity-contingent electrical stimuli delivered to nervous system.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yukio Nishimura Source Type: research

B-11. Application of EEG-based brain computer interface to movement and sensory disorders
To examine the effect of the EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) training for patients with stroke, writer ’s cramp and neuropathic pain. Method: Using the EEG recorded with Ag/AgCl electrodes placed at C3 and C4, as designated according to the International 10/20 system, we gave real time visual feedback to the patients with PC monitor which is placed in front of them. Participants were required to im agine the affected wrist extending in stroke and neuropathic pain patients. Patients with writer’s cramp were requested to relax their wrist flexor while extending their wrist.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tetsuo Ota Source Type: research

34. A case of takotsubo syndrome induced by seizures. Review of letterature
We describe a patient who developed TTS after recurrent seizures.A 78years old man with parossistic atrial fibrillation and epilepsy symptomatic of previous ischemic stroke was hospitalized for relapsing of repeated partial seizures.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Mazzoli, E. Fallica, E. Cesnik, V. Govoni, V. Rispoli, E. Contaldi, V. Tugnoli Source Type: research

The effect of optokinetic and galvanic vestibular stimulations in reducing post-stroke postural asymmetry
Improving balance after stroke is of crucial importance because its improvement is strongly correlated to higher patient autonomy and improved quality of life (QoL). The characteristics of postural disturbances following stroke, as observed on a force platform, are of increased sway and a lateral displacement of the centre of pressure (CP) toward the non-paretic limb (Pérennou et al 1997, Rode et al 1998). The lateral displacement of the centre of pressure toward the lesion side is more important in patients with right hemispheric lesion (RHL) and this is thought to partly explain the predominance of postural imbalance in...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: I.V. Bonan, E. Leblong, S. Leplaideur, B. Laviolle, S. Tassel Tonche, A.P. Yelnik Source Type: research

Effects of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Studies report that 50% to 81% of people who have a stroke experience swallowing problems (Hamdy, 2010; Meng et al., 2000). This impact is staggering when the cost implications and morbidity of post-stroke dysphagia are considered. Stroke patients with dysphagia cost more to treat (about $4,510 more per patient than a stroke patient without dysphagia) because their hospital stay is nearly doubled, they require more therapy, and they have more complications with worse outcomes (Bonilha et al., 2014; Altman et al., 2010).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 8, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jessica M. Pisegna, Asako Kaneoka, William G. Pearson, Sandeep Kumar, Susan E. Langmore Source Type: research

1-A-D-4. Effects of repetitive facilitative exercise with neuromuscular electrical stimulation, direct application of vibratory stimulation and repetitive transcranial stimulation of the hemiplegic hand in chronic stroke patients
Repetitive facilitative exercise (RFE) is a recently developed approach to the rehabilitation of hemiplegia. RFE can be integrated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), direct application of vibratory stimulation (DAVS), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to achieve further improvement. The aims of the present study were to retrospectively compare the effects of RFE and NMES+DAVS with those of RFE and rTMS and to determine the maximal effect of the combination of RFE with NMES, DAVS, rTMS and pharmacological treatments in chronic stroke patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Seiji Etoh, Tomokazu Noma, Shuji Matsumoto, Megumi Shimodozono, Kazumi Kawahira Source Type: research

Multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation and upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke: A review and meta-analysis
Stroke is a health concern worldwide and one of the main causes of disability (Kolominsky-Rabas et al., 2001; Albert and Kesselring, 2012). Motor impairment is the main cause of disability after stroke, leading to major health problems (Boggio et al., 2007; Clarke, 1999). In Europe, stroke costs around 64.1 billion euros and in the United Kingdom, around £8.9 billion per annum is spent on community care and rehabilitation of people with stroke (Saka et al., 2009; Gustavsson et al., 2011). At six months, 33% to 66% of people with Upper Extremity (UE) impairments do not present with functional upper limb function and only 5...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L. Tedesco Triccas, J.H. Burridge, A.M. Hughes, R.M. Pickering, M. Desikan, J.C. Rothwell, G. Verheyden Source Type: research

Diffusion imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation assessment of transcallosal pathways in chronic stroke
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of neural fibre tracts that mediate interhemispheric communication. Such interhemispheric communication is especially important for movement, with inhibitory and excitatory signals transmitted between hemispheres based on whether unimanual or synchronous/asynchronous bimanual movement is performed (Carson, 2005). Deficits in motor function are commonly experienced following stroke and increasing evidence suggests that these deficits may be driven, in part, by disruption of transcallosal pathways (Murase et al., 2004; Duque et al., 2005; Gupt...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 14, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cameron S. Mang, Michael R. Borich, Sonia M. Brodie, Katlyn E. Brown, Nicholas J. Snow, Katie P. Wadden, Lara A. Boyd Source Type: research

1. Epileptic seizures in pediatric stroke: Data from the Italian Registry for Childhood Thrombosis
According to data from the Italian Registry for Childhood Thrombosis (R.I.T.I.), in about half cases diagnosis of pediatric stroke occurs after 24h from clinical onset (Baggio et al., SINP2013). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of seizures at stroke onset and their correlation with time to diagnosis in the pediatric stroke patients in the R.I.T.I. We selected the R.I.T.I. children with first acute arterial (AIS) or venous (CSVT) cerebral infarction occurring between January 2007 and June 2012; we studied prevalence, characteristics and recurrence of epileptic seizures, focusing on diagnostic delay.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L. Baggio, S. Sartori, M. Nosadini, C. Gentilomo, P. Saracco, M. Agostini, B. Bassi, A. Palmieri, A.M. Laverda, P. Simioni, A. Suppiej, per il G.I.R.T.I. (Gruppo Italiano Registro Trombosi Infantili) Source Type: research

9. Brain network modulation following motor imagery BCI-assisted training after stroke
To evaluate the influence of Motor Imagery (MI) training assisted via Brain Computer Interface (BCI) on brain network organization in subacute stroke patients. We analyzed EEG-derived brain networks estimated before and after two training strategies (with and without BCI support); correlations between connectivity indices and clinical improvement were performed. Twenty-eight subacute stroke patients were enrolled and assigned to two groups: 14 patients underwent a one-month motor imagery (MI) training supported by a sensorimotor–based BCI (BCI group) while 14 underwent a similar MI training without BCI support (CTRL group).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: F. Pichiorri, M. Petti, G. Morone, M. Molinari, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, M. Inghilleri, D. Mattia Source Type: research

106. Deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with H-coil coupled with cycling in chronic lower limb dysfuncion after stroke: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been recognized as a promising intervention for treatment of post-stroke deficits. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of excitatory Hz rTMS with H-coil over the leg motor areas combined with active cycling on paretic lower limb motor function in chronic post-stroke. rTMS was delivered with the H-coil targeting the lower limbs (real or sham for 11 sessions over 3weeks, with cross-over after 4weeks wash-out, in 12 subjects with first stroke more than 6months before.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Chieffo, F. Giatsidis, E. Houdayer, M. Fichera, A. Nuara, E. Coppi, L. Ferrari, G. Di Maggio, R. Santangelo, A. Poggi, M. Sessa, M. Comola, A. Zangen, G. Comi, L. Leocani Source Type: research

112. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in early phase of rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke aphasia
About 50% of post-stroke patients remain aphasic a condition that greatly impede their reintegration to society. Results of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as supplementary treatment for sub-acute post-stroke aphasia are controversial. We assessed the efficacy of inhibitory rTMS with conventional speech therapy to help recovery language performance in sub-acute stroke aphasia.In a randomised case-control double-blind study 12 non-fluent aphasic were consecutively enrolled. All patients suffered a first-ever stroke in the sub-acute stage defined as time since lesion onset from 1 month post-stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Carrai, A. Grippo, A. Angelini, A. Vettori, T. Atzori, C. Falsini, M. Martini, A. Pizzi Source Type: research

Contributions of Motoneuron Hyperexcitability to Clinical Spasticity in Hemispheric Stroke Survivors
Spasticity, affecting up to 43% of chronic stroke survivors (Wissel et al., 2013), is diagnosed clinically as muscular hypertonia, coupled with other reflex disturbances. This hypertonia is defined as a velocity-dependent resistance to stretching due to exaggerated reflex responses (Lance, 1980). There are also concurrent mechanical changes of the muscular-tendon complex, which also contribute to increased muscle tone. Although spasticity can sometimes be beneficial for certain functional movements (e.g., making locomotion and body weight support possible), it is still a major neurological impairment that frequently limits...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 15, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaogang Hu, Nina L. Suresh, Matthieu K. Chardon, William Z. Rymer Source Type: research

Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke
Motor disorders following childhood stroke are common (Lynch and Nelson, 2001), yet are insufficiently studied (Bejot et al., 2012). Of the observed post-stroke motor sequelae, childhood dystonia is the most frequently occurring disorder (Bejot et al., 2012). Dystonia, as it occurs in children, is defined as a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both (Sanger et al., 2010). Post-stroke dystonia is most commonly observed on the side of the body contralateral to the stroke, and is referred to as hemidystonia.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 14, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sahana N. Kukke, Ana Carolina de Campos, Diane Damiano, Katharine E. Alter, Nicholas Patronas, Mark Hallett Source Type: research

Reply to “Perception of lower extremity loading in stroke”
As reflected by the comments of Kumar et al. (2014), there is an increasing interest in developing quantitative measurements of complex sensorimotor behaviors in people with neurologic injury or disease. In concept, our manuscript “Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors” addresses one of these behaviors, which is likely to be important to gait function in stroke survivors. While we believe that impairment in load perception plays an important role in gait, Kumar et al. raise many important issues related to interpreting data from testing paradigms with higher complexity, and in extrapolating these labo...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virginia W. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian D. Schmit Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Perception of lower extremity loading in stroke
We read with great interest the article entitled “Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors” by Chu et al. (2014). There is a dearth of studies regarding perception of loading in stroke population. We applaud the authors for the contemporary thoughts on the method of measuring lower extremity dynamic load perception. We take this opportunity to share few scientific facts related to the scope of this article.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 25, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Senthil N.S. Kumar, Leonard H Joseph, Ahmad Pharmy Jalil Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

P11. Quality of Life after pediatric ischemic stroke: Five year follow-up of swiss children
Children after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) are known to suffer from neurological and neuropsychological impairments but limited data is available concerning quality of life (QoL) outcome. The aim of this present study is to examine long-term effects on QoL in a population-based AIS sample from Switzerland.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Kornfeld, S. Winkelbeiner, M. Studer, E. Boltshauser, A. Capone Mori, A. Datta, J. Fluss, D. Mercati, A. Hackenberg, E. Keller, O. Maier, J.P. Marcoz, G.P. Ramelli, C. Poloni, R. Schmid, T. Schmitt-Mechelke, E Wehrli, T. Heinks, M. Steinlin Source Type: research

Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors
The loss of load perception in the impaired leg likely impacts control of walking in stroke survivors (Bohannon, 2003). While the gait impairments experienced by stroke survivors could result directly from damage to motor areas of the brain (Collen et al., 1990; Enzinger et al., 2008), the lack of proper inputs from the environment (sensory information) clearly has an impact on the body’s ability to control movement. In order to walk without losing balance, the motor control system needs to receive accurate sensory information from the limbs.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 11, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virginia W. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian D. Schmit Source Type: research

Stroke gait rehabilitation: Is load perception a first step towards load control?
Stroke is often considered to be primarily a motor deficiency, yet sensory deficits play a major role in motor behavior and therefore should not be overlooked. This is particularly true for locomotion. Basically one major aim of gait is to support the body against gravity. Hence, not surprisingly, it has been found that load receptors play a very important role in the regulation of gait in a wide variety of animals (Duysens et al., 2000). Load receptors are present in extensor muscles (Golgi tendon organs) and in the foot sole (cutaneous receptors).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 9, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacques Duysens, Firas Massaad Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Startling acoustic stimuli can evoke fast hand extension movements in stroke survivors
Movement deficits following stroke are particularly prevalent in the hand leading to significant reduction in independence and the ability to participate in daily functions (Latham, 1989). Therefore, new therapies that target the hand are extremely valuable. Startle-elicited movements have recently been implicated as a possible therapy target. The classic startle reflex that occurs during exposure to a startling stimulus, e.g. loud sound, results in the adoption of a protective stance (flexion of the upper joints).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claire Fletcher Honeycutt, Ursina Andrea Tresch, Eric Jon Perreault Source Type: research

Activation deficit correlates with weakness in chronic stroke: Evidence from evoked and voluntary EMG recordings
Weakness after stroke is widely observed clinically, and is reported to be the primary contributor to impaired voluntary force control (Chang et al., 2013) and to functional impairments in chronic stroke (Kamper et al., 2006). Weakness is highly correlated with the severity of initial damage to the corticospinal tracts in the acute phase (Small et al., 2013). In the course of recovery, both central and peripheral mechanisms contribute to weakness as a result of neural plasticity, adaptation, exercises and therapies.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 3, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sheng Li, Jie Liu, Minal Bhadane, Ping Zhou, W. Zev Rymer Source Type: research

Asymmetries in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in chronic stroke survivors with spastic hypertonia: Evidence for a vestibulospinal role
Spastic hypertonia or “spasticity” is a frequent and often disabling sequel to hemispheric stroke (Watkins et al., 2002; Urban et al., 2010). It is a motor disorder, manifesting as a sharply lateralized muscular hypertonia on the contralesional side with exaggerated phasic and tonic stretch reflex activity (Lance, 1980). Clinically, spasticity presents as an increase in the resistance of a passive limb to externally applied joint motion and is commonly associated with deficits in both motor and functional performance (Bohannon et al., 1987; O’Dwyer et al., 1996; Watkins et al., 2002; Sommerfeld et al., 2004).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Derek M. Miller, Cliff S. Klein, Nina L. Suresh, William Z. Rymer Source Type: research

How do the physiology and transcallosal effects of the unaffected hemisphere change during inpatient rehabilitation after stroke?
In this issue of Clinical Neurophysiology, Takechi and colleagues publish a paper entitled “Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke” that represents a long-overdue examination of changes in interhemispheric interactions during an important period for the recovery of motor function after stroke. It has been suspected that this type of recovery to neuronal damage represents a type of neuroplasticity, potentially with both adaptive and maladaptive processes.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: George F. Wittenberg, Michael A. Dimyan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke
Motor circuit reorganization in the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to recovery following stroke. This reorganization can be examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using measures of corticospinal and intracortical excitability (Liepert et al., 2000; Shimizu et al., 2002; Liepert et al., 2005; Talelli et al., 2006; Wittenberg et al., 2007; Bütefisch et al., 2008; Manganotti et al., 2008; Swayne et al., 2008; Takeuchi et al., 2010). TMS measures such as motor threshold (MT) and recruitment curve (RC) reflect corticospinal excitability, whereas intracortical excitability is reflected by cortical silent pe...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Utako Takechi, Kaoru Matsunaga, Ryoji Nakanishi, Hiroaki Yamanaga, Nobuki Murayama, Kosuke Mafune, Sadatoshi Tsuji Source Type: research

How do the physiology and transcallosal effects of the unaffected hemisphere change during inpatient rehabilitation after stroke?
In this issue of Clinical Neurophysiology, Takechi and colleagues publish a paper entitled “Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke” that represents a long-overdue examination of changes in interhemispheric interactions during an important period for the recovery of motor function after stroke. It has been suspected that this type of recovery to neuronal damage represents a type of neuroplasticity, potentially with both adaptive and maladaptive processes.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: George F. Wittenberg, Michael A. Dimyan Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke
Motor circuit reorganization in the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to recovery following stroke. This reorganization can be examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using measures of corticospinal and intracortical excitability (Liepert et al., 2000; Shimizu et al., 2002; Liepert et al., 2005; Talelli et al., 2006; Wittenberg et al., 2007; Bütefisch et al., 2008; Manganotti et al., 2008; Swayne et al., 2008; Takeuchi et al., 2010). TMS measures such as motor threshold (MT) and recruitment curve (RC) reflect corticospinal excitability, whereas intracortical excitability is reflected by cortical silent pe...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Utako Takechi, Kaoru Matsunaga, Ryoji Nakanishi, Hiroaki Yamanaga, Nobuki Murayama, Kosuke Mafune, Sadatoshi Tsuji Source Type: research

Reply to “The effects of functional electrical stimulation on upper extremity function and cortical plasticity in chronic stroke patients”
I appreciate the very important and developed suggestions by Dr. Cecatto for our article (). The proposals on the reasons why EMG-controlled FES (EMG–FES) could shift the brain hemispheric-dominant perfusion in our study provided our study further development and progress. The motor output and corresponding muscle and joint proprioceptive feedback may be tightly coupled and coordinated with movement by EMG–FES. As Dr. Cecatto proposed, these neural reorganisation mechanisms should be explored. The sensory components of large afferent fibre activation, proprioceptive input and increased cognitive sensory attention are a...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 10, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yukihiro Hara Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The effects of functional electrical stimulation on upper-extremity function and cortical plasticity in chronic stroke patients
I was pleased to read the study by . ‘The effects of electromyography-controlled functional electrical stimulation on upper extremity function and cortical perfusion in stroke patients’ published in the Clinical Neurophysiology journal.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 22, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rebeca Boltes Cecatto Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Deficits in startle-evoked arm movements increase with impairment following stroke
Conclusions: We conclude that the task-inappropriate flexor activity likely results from cortical or corticospinal damage leading to an unsuppressed or hypermetric classic startle reflex that interrupts startReact elbow extension.Significance: Given startReact’s functional role in compensation during environmental disturbances, our results may have important implications for our understanding deficits in stroke survivor’s response to unexpected environmental disturbances.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 10, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claire Fletcher Honeycutt, Eric Jon Perreault Tags: Movement, Motor Control and Movement Disorders Source Type: research

Priming sensorimotor cortex to enhance task-specific training after subcortical stroke
Conclusion: Primary motor cortex iTBS not only modulates M1 corticospinal excitability but also increases M1 receptiveness to sensory input.Significance: Priming with iTBSiM1 may enhance ipsilesional sensorimotor integration and facilitate better quality sensorimotor training after subcortical stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 23, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suzanne J. Ackerley, Cathy M. Stinear, P. Alan Barber, Winston D. Byblow Tags: Neural Plasticity, Functional Adaptation and Recovery Source Type: research

Corticomuscular coherence in acute and chronic stroke
Conclusions: The changes in CMC parameters in acute stroke could result from a temporary decrease in inhibition, which normalizes in the course of recovery. As all patients showed very good motor recovery, the modulation of CMC amplitude and frequency over time might thus reflect the process of motor recovery.Significance: We demonstrate for the first time the dynamical changes of corticomuscular interaction both at acute and chronic stage of stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 6, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Katherina von Carlowitz-Ghori, Zubeyir Bayraktaroglu, Friederike U. Hohlefeld, Florian Losch, Gabriel Curio, Vadim V. Nikulin Tags: Movement, Motor Control and Movement Disorders Source Type: research

Temporal evolution of event-related desynchronization in acute stroke: A pilot study
Conclusion: The two evolutions presumably reflect the reorganization of brain networks and functional recovery after acute stroke. The significant increase of ipsilesional Sm in patients with a good recovery suggests an important role of this hemisphere during recovery.Significance: Improved understanding of ERD in acute stroke may assist in prognostication and rehabilitation.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 2, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chayanin Tangwiriyasakul, Rens Verhagen, Wim L.C. Rutten, Michel J.A.M. van Putten Tags: Cerebral Function and its Development Source Type: research

Neuromagnetic beta and gamma oscillations in the somatosensory cortex after music training in healthy older adults and a chronic stroke patient
Conclusions: The proposed stimulation paradigm captures the integrity of primary somatosensory hand representation. Source position and synchronization between the stimuli and gamma activity are indices, sensitive to music-supported training. Responsiveness was also observed in a chronic stroke patient, encouraging for the music-supported therapy. Notably, changes in somatosensory responses were observed, even though the therapy did not involve specific sensory discrimination training.Significance: The proposed protocol can be used for monitoring changes in neuronal organization during training and will improve the underst...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 2, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shahab Jamali, Takako Fujioka, Bernhard Ross Tags: Sensation, Central Sensory Pathways and their Disorders Source Type: research