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Total 236 results found since Jan 2013.

Oxyneurography: A non-invasive NIRS technique to measure nerve oxygenation
Few people doubt the importance of cerebral blood flow integrity for the preservation of neural tissue. Blood flow compromise, causing a cerebro-vascular accident (CVA), results in nervous tissue damage or stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joe F. Jabre Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves adaptive postural control
Adaptive postural control is essential for almost all aspects of every day life. Impaired postural control results in substantial functional limitations in advanced age (Maki and McIlroy, 1996) and in pathological ageing conditions like stroke (Beyaert et al., 2015), Parkinson ’s disease (Schoneburg et al., 2013) or multiple sclerosis (Huisinga et al., 2012). Although rehabilitation and conditioning programs have shown promising results in recovery of postural control, those interventions are typically time and cost intensive and may only yield moderate effects (Howard- Wilsher et al., 2016; Smania et al., 2011; Yitayeh and Teshome, 2016).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peter Poortvliet, Billie Hsieh, Andrew Cresswell, Jacky Au, Marcus Meinzer Source Type: research

P 68 Novel control concepts and motor re-learning strategy in neurorehabilitation – practically-oriented approach
Persons suffering from functional impairment, due to cerebral palsy, stroke, or Parkinson ’s, often have not reached their full potential for recovery which often is a reason for injures and loss of life due to fall. Motor skill learning and retention of motor skills can be enhanced if a patient assumes control over practice conditions, e.g. timing of exercise instructions and feedback . In our study, we follow a novel conceptual framework (Despotova and Kiriazov, 2015) for optimal control learning of goal-directed motion tasks, like reaching, standing up and walking.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: D. Despotova, P. Kiriazov Tags: Poster Source Type: research

P 4 Bioluminescence imaging visualizes osteopontin-induced neurogenesis and neuroblasts migration in the mouse brain after stroke
The phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is upregulated in the brain following cerebral ischemia, where is exerts neuroprotective properties. We previously demonstrated OPN to increase survival and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in vitro and in vivo. In culture, OPN additionally promotes NSC migration as well as a neuronal differentiation fate. Based on these data, we hypothesized OPN to induce NSC migration as well as neurogenesis in vivo as well. We here aimed to establish and visualize these effects using non-invasive in vivo imaging.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Rogall, A. Pikhovych, A. Bach, M. Hoehn, S. Couillard-Despres, G.R. Fink, M. Schroeter, M.A. Rueger Tags: Poster Source Type: research

P 164 Parietal stroke mimicking the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
The Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease with an occipito-parietal focus.It initially presents with visual disturbances such as visual agnosia or cortical blindness (Kropp et al., 1999).After presentation of early visual symptoms, rapid progression of dementia and death follows.While the Heidenhain variant matches neuropathological criteria of CJD, differential diagnosis from other neurological disorders using biomarkers from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reveal low sensitivity and specificity...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: D. Becker, D. Kramer, W. M üllges, K. Boelmans Tags: Poster Source Type: research

P 145 Deficient body structural description in apraxia
Apraxia is a common cognitive deficit after left hemisphere (LH) stroke. It has been suggested that a disturbed representation of the human body underlies apraxic deficits. Thus, we here tested the hypothesis that a deficient body structural description (BSD), i.e., a deficient representation of a body part ”s position (relative to a standard human body), contributes to apraxia, while controlling for a deficient semantic representation of the human body (body image, BI) and aphasia.A quantitative pointing task to assess putative BSD deficits and an apraxia assessment including imitation and pantomime tasks were applied t...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: H. Salimi Dafsari, A. Dovern, G.R. Fink, P.H. Weiss Tags: Poster Source Type: research

P298 Can music enhance movement intention?
Active participation of patients themselves in rehabilitation is a vital factor for the stroke recovery. Since music can create positive emotion and sometimes trigger spontaneous movements, such as dancing, combination of music and rehabilitation might be beneficial in improving patients ’ mental and physical functions. To clarify the influence of music on human movement intention and to establish the significance of rehabilitation combined with music, we tested whether music may activate the cortical preparation of voluntary movement.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoshie Nakajima, Tatsuya Mima, Yoshiyuki Tadokoro Source Type: research

Evaluating Brain-Computer Interface Performance Using Color in the P300 Checkerboard Speller
A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a specific type of human-machine interaction. BCI is a direct link between the human brain and a computer. BCIs can be defined as invasive utilizing techniques requiring implantation such as electrocorticography (ECoG), or non-invasive techniques utilizing techniques requiring surface electrodes such as electroencephalography (EEG [Wolpaw et al. 2003]). A BCI can provide an important communication outlet for those who are “locked-in” by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brain stem stroke, or head trauma.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: D.B. Ryan, G. Townsend, N.A. Gates, K. Colwell, E.W. Sellers Source Type: research

Fine motor skills predict performance in the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test after stroke
In our daily life, we are highly dependent on the functionality of our hands. Fine motor skills are essential for holding, grasping and manipulating objects. They require an interplay between multiple sensorimotor systems. Visual, haptic, auditory and sensory information has to be integrated with sensorimotor predictions based on mechanical properties of objects being manipulated, such as weight and surface. Additionally, reactive adaptions to changing loads (Nowak et al., 2013) also play an important role.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kathrin Allg öwer, Joachim Hermsdörfer Source Type: research

Intrathecal Baclofen Bolus Reduces Exaggerated Extensor Coactivation during Pre-Swing and Early-Swing of Gait after Acquired Brain Injury
Pathological muscle activation patterns during gait are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). In an early study of 26 stroke patients, Knutsson and Richards (1979) monitored the hip abductor, hip adductors, quadriceps, hamstrings, triceps surae, and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and qualitatively described 3 different patterns of abnormal muscle activation during gait, one of which is characterized by coactivation of several muscle groups during the end of swing and throughout the main part of the stance phase.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: John W. Chow, Stuart A. Yablon, Dobrivoje S. Stokic Source Type: research

Individual difference in β-band corticomuscular coherence and its relation to force steadiness during isometric voluntary ankle dorsiflexion in healthy humans
Stabilizing muscle force is an important ability for mobility of daily activities. This function is often referred as “force steadiness”, and is quantified by calculating the magnitude of fluctuations in isometric muscle force around the averaged value. Indeed, this measure has been often calculated in the field of exercise and/or clinical neurophysiology, primarily to examine changes in motor function caused b y several factors such as aging (Galganski et al., 1993; Tracy and Enoka, 2002; Vaillancourt and Newell, 2003), lack of muscle use (Shinohara et al., 2003; Clark et al., 2007), and neural disorders such as strok...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 7, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Junichi Ushiyama, Junya Yamada, Meigen Liu, Junichi Ushiba Source Type: research

Influence of Attention Alternation on Movement-Related Cortical Potentials in Healthy Individuals and Stroke Patients
Brain computer interface (BCI) systems translate patterns of brain activity to provide an artificial communication and control channel between the brain and the external environment without using peripheral nerves or muscles. Event-related synchronization/desynchronization, readiness potentials and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) extracted from the time or frequency domain of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are just some examples of signals that have been successfully implemented within BCIs (Jiang et al., 2015; Xu et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2016).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Vladimir Kostic, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Sasa Radovanovic, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Laura Petrini, Kim Dremstrup, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting Source Type: research

Small world brain network characteristics during EEG Holter recording of a stroke event
Several studies revealed that cerebral ischemia provokes transient or permanent disruption of functional connections both locally and distantly from the lesion. Recently, brain connectivity has been described using graph theory, a mathematical approach which depicts the brain as a network in order to simplify its complex topology. The human brain consists of complex inhibitory and excitatory circuits located in specialized areas, which are engaged in sharing and integrating information with a time-varying interplay at resolution in the millisecond range.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Angela Romano, Placido Bramanti, Paolo Maria Rossini Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Is long-term electroencephalogram more appropriate than standard electroencephalogram in the elderly?
Epilepsy is frequent in the elderly; the estimated prevalence is 1-2% in people over the age of 60 (Brodie and Kwan, 2005; Hauser et al., 1993) and 7.7% in institutionalized patients over 65 (Garrard et al., 2003).The increasing incidence of epilepsy in the elderly has been linked to the increase in “structural” causes - especially stroke (So et al., 1996) and dementia. However, around 25% of cases are “idiopathic” (Ramsay et al., 2004), which suggests that the brain is predisposed to generate epileptic seizures.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Chochoi, L. Tyvaert, P. Derambure, W. Szurhaj Source Type: research

Loss of electrical anisotropy is an unrecognized feature of dystrophic muscle that may serve as a convenient index of disease status
Anisotropy refers to any directionally dependent property of tissue. A common use of the term is in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in which the direction-dependent diffusion of water is defined as the tissue ’s fractional anisotropy (Basser et al. 1994; Le Bihan et al. 2001). This MRI technique has been especially useful in the field of neurology, allowing for the evaluation of white matter tracts in the brain and spinal cord, in disorders ranging from stroke (Werring et al. 2000) to multiple sclerosi s (Werring et al.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 13, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Seward B. Rutkove, Jim S. Wu, Craig Zaidman, Kush Kapur, Sung Yim, Amy Pasternak, Lavanya Madabusi, Heather Szelag, Tim Harrington, Jia Li, Adam Pacheck, Basil T. Darras Source Type: research

EP 84. Motor control and learning strategy for efficient neurorehabilitation
Parkinson ’s, stroke, and other neurological diseases may significantly affect the control of voluntary, ballistic-like movements that normally are performed automatically and optimally as regards position accuracy, energy expenditure and movement execution time. The control functions (neural signals to mus cles) are to be re-learnt and re-optimised with respect to these performance indices. In our study, a natural approach for efficient motor learning in goal-directed motion tasks, incl. walking is proposed.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: D. Despotova, P. Kiriazov Tags: ePoster Presentations – Free Topics Source Type: research

EP 74. Comparison of freehand B-mode and power-mode 3D ultrasound for visualisation and grading of internal carotid artery stenosis
Currently, colour-coded duplex sonography (2D-CDS) is clinical standard for detection and grading of ICAS (1,2) as a relevant risk factor for ischaemic stroke (3,4). Unlike angiographic imaging modalities, 2D-CDS assesses ICAS by its haemodynamic effects rather than luminal changes1. Therefore, aim of this study was to evaluate freehand 3D ultrasound (3DUS) for direct visualisation and quantification of ICAS.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Weinreich, D. Saur, J. Pelz Tags: ePoster Presentations – Neuroimaging II Source Type: research

EP 59. Multi-modal imaging of neural correlates of motor speed performance in the trail making test
The assessment of motor and executive functions following stroke or traumatic brain injury is a key aspect of impairment evaluation and used to guide further therapy. In clinical routine such assessments are largely dominated by pen-and-paper tests. While these provide standardized, reliable and ecologically valid measures of the individual level of functioning, rather little is yet known about their neurobiological underpinnings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate brain regions and their associated networks that are related to upper extremity motor function, as quantified by the Motor Speed subtest of the...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Camilleri, A. Reid, V. M üller, C. Grefkes, K. Amunts, S. Eickhoff Source Type: research

EP 8. The role of contralesional motor areas in early motor recovery – evidence from event-related (“online”) TMS
TMS studies examining the role of the unaffected hemisphere in motor function after stroke have mainly focused on the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1), revealing both supporting (Lotze et al., 2006; Rehme et al., 2011) as well as disturbing (Vollmer et al., 2015; Nowak et al., 2008) influence for recovery of function. However, the relevance of other contralesional motor areas for paretic hand function has rarely been examined, especially with respect to motor recovery in the first days and weeks after stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: K. Lemberg, C. Tscherpel, L. Hensel, M. Vollmer, L. Volz, G. Fink, C. Grefkes Source Type: research

FV 10. Motor imagery supported by neurofeedback: Age-related changes in EEG and fNIRS lateralization patterns
Motor imagery (MI) supported by neurofeedback has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. Though the main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, research so far is largely focused on young, healthy adults. We therefore examined in two experiments the influence of age on the neural correlates of motor imagery (MI) in a real-time electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback framework.In a first experiment MI-induced activity was studied in MI and neurofeedback na ïve young (N=39; 18–30years) and elderly (N=36;>55years) healthy adults.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: C. Zich, S. Debener, L.-C. Chen, C. Kranczioch Tags: Orals – Neuromodulation Source Type: research

FV 1. Perilesional activation in poststroke language recovery
Poststroke aphasia recovery evolves in time. Increased perilesional activity associated with treatment-related language improvements has been confirmed in the chronic phase (Fridriksson et al., 2011), but has not yet been systematically demonstrated during the early phases of stroke recovery. The pathophysiology of stroke suggests that perilesional reorganisation evolves within days, lasting for months after stroke, while increased neuronal excitability might provide a basis for perilesional neuroplasticity (Schiene et al., 1999).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Stockert, J. Klingbeil, M. Wawrzyniak, K. Wrede, D. Saur Tags: Orals – Functional Imaging Source Type: research

EP 121. Motor sequence learning in patients with limb apraxia – The effects of long-term training
Recent studies show that limb apraxia is often not recognized as a higher motor impairment in patients suffering from a stroke. Because it is adversely affecting every-day life and personal independence, a successful rehabilitation of apraxia is critical for personal well-being (Cappa et al., 2005; Dovern et al., 2012). Yet, evidence of an effective treatment approach with long-lasting effects and generalization to untrained actions is still missing (Binkofski and Klann, 2013; Dovern et al., 2011).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Reitze, M. Heister über, A. Karni, C. Gal, J. Doyon, B.R. King, J. Classen, J.- J. Rumpf, G. Buccino, J. Klann, F. Binkofski Source Type: research

71. Sturge –Weber syndrome+cortical dysplasia. A dual pathology case report
Sturge –Weber syndrome is a rare disorder that occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 per 50,000. The disease is characterized by an intracranial vascular anomaly like leptomeningeal angiomatosis. Facial cutaneous vascular malformations, seizures, and glaucoma are among the most common symptoms and s igns. The clinical course is highly variable and some children experience intractable seizures, mental retardation, and recurrent stroke-like episodes.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Areli Rosario Suarez-Roman, Enoe Cruz-Martinez, Yokary Amor Mellado-Ortiz, Ernesto Ramirez-Navarrete, Paul Shkurovich-Bialik Source Type: research

What is the optimal task difficulty for reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation?
Neurofeedback and brain-interface technology are being increasingly applied in fields of research aiming to restore upper-limb functionality in stroke survivors. Greater gains are currently being achieved by subacute (Pichiorri et al., 2015) than by chronic patients (Ang et al., 2014). On the basis of the neurophysiological correlates of motor imagery (Kaiser et al., 2011) and motor cortex excitability (Takemi et al., 2013; Kraus et al., 2016a), such as modulation of β-power (15–30Hz), these devices may provide an effective backdoor to the motor system (Sharma 2006; Bauer et al., 2015), particularly when the subject rec...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Robert Bauer, Mathias Vukeli ć, Alireza Gharabaghi Source Type: research

A Dilemma in Stroke Application: Standard or Modified Motor Unit Number Index?
The recent advent of motor unit number index (MUNIX) technique has provided a convenient and clinically applicable approach to estimating motor unit population changes in a muscle (Nandedkar et al., 2004, 2010). It uses compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and surface electromyogram (EMG) at different voluntary contraction levels to produce an index associated with motor unit number changes in the muscle. Compared with laborious motor unit number estimation (MUNE) techniques, the MUNIX protocol is easy and quick to implement and can minimize discomforts caused by electrical stimuli.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ping Zhou, Xiaoyan Li, Sheng Li, Sanjeev D. Nandedkar Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Functional and structural cortical characteristics after restricted focal motor cortical infarction evaluated at chronic stage – indications from a preliminary study
Motor disability is among the most common consequences of ischemic stroke. Following focal ischemic damage, the reorganization of the cortical functions begins (Ward and Cohen, 2004). Some initial improvement after the acute phase occurs due to resolution of the perilesional edema and recovery of other tissue functions surviving the ischemia (Hallett, 2001). However, it is thought that the long-term recovery occurs primarily due to brain plasticity through functional and structural reorganization (Hallett, 2001; Hodics et al., 2006).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Petro Julkunen, Sara Määttä, Laura Säisänen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Mervi Könönen, Pekka Jäkälä, Ritva Vanninen, Selja Vaalto Source Type: research

Changes in electrocorticographic beta frequency components precede spreading depolarization in patients with acute brain injury
Spreading depolarization (SD) occurs during the first two weeks after traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), malignant hemispheric stroke (MHS) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In patients with SAH, focal clusters of SDs are observed in brain areas where new ischemia occurs. After SAH and TBI, SDs are associated with DIND (delayed ischemic neurological deficit) and worsened outcome (Dreier et al. 2006; Dreier et al. 2011; Hartings et al. 2011a, Hartings et al. 2011b). In patients with subacute MHS, the incidence of SDs is particularly high (Dohmen et al.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Daniel N. Hertle, Marina Heer, Edgar Santos, Michael Schöll, Christina M. Kowoll, Christian Dohmen, Jennifer Diedler, Roland Veltkamp, Rudolf Graf, Andreas W. Unterberg, Oliver W. Sakowitz Source Type: research

Normal and impaired control of functional movements in stroke: Role of neural interlimb coupling
While close cooperation of muscle activation between the two legs during gait has been known for several years, only during recent years has it become evident that the mechanism of “neural interlimb coupling” plays a major role in the control of a number of functional movements. Neural interlimb coupling is defined as a flexible, task-specific, physiologically meaningful linkage of limbs during complex movements. Experimentally, this mechanism can be demonstrated through the analysis of reflex responses.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Volker Dietz, Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt Source Type: research

Control of functional movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects: Role of neural interlimb coupling
While close cooperation of muscle activation between the two legs during gait has been known for several years, only during recent years has it become evident that the mechanism of “neural interlimb coupling” plays a major role in the control of a number of functional movements. Neural interlimb coupling is defined as a flexible, task-specific, physiologically meaningful linkage of limbs during complex movements. Experimentally, this mechanism can be demonstrated through the analysis of reflex responses.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Volker Dietz, Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt Tags: Review Source Type: research

In-depth performance analysis of an EEG based neonatal seizure detection algorithm
Full term neonates with neurological conditions such as hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), stroke and meningitis are at high risk of developing seizures. There is accumulating evidence from animal models (Wirrell et al., 2001) and human studies (Glass et al., 2009) that neonatal seizures impose additional damage to the brain above and beyond the underlying aetiology. Prompt detection and treatment of seizures is therefore of paramount importance to optimize developmental outcome.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Mathieson, J. Rennie, V. Livingstone, A. Temko, E. Low, R.M. Pressler, G.B. Boylan Source Type: research

Comparison of brainstem reflex abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis, Behçet and stroke and its topodiagnostic value
Our current understanding of brainstem reflex physiology comes chiefly from the classic anatomical–functional correlation studies that traced the central circuits underlying brainstem reflexes and establishing reflex abnormalities as markers for specific areas of lesion. Our aim is to investigate the correlation between the brainstem reflex abnormalities and lesion localization in three different diseases with brainstem lesions.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Inan, F. Yavlal, M.E. Kiziltan, G. Kiziltas, S. Saip, U. Uygunoglu Source Type: research

The Japanese rTMS experience – Present and future
Fig. 8 coil, which is popular now, was invented by Prof. Ueno in 1988 and spread globally. The rTMS machines were developed in Europe and imported to Japan from 2001 and spread over Japan. The clinical treatments with rTMS have been mainly used for Parkinson’s syndrome, neuropathic pain, depression and rehabilitation after stroke. rTMS of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Neuronetics Inc) for depression is already used in Japanese private clinic, and will be approved by Japanese government in the near future.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Y. Saitoh, K. Hosomi, H. Nakamura, T. Shimizu Source Type: research

rTMS and disorders of the motor system
Recent guidelines of the IFCN (Lefaucheur et al., 2014) on the therapeutic use of rTMS list the are variety of diseases. Here the focus will be laid on movement disorders, stroke and ALS.No recommendation for the antiparkinsonian effect can be made for high frequency (HF) or low frequency (LF) rTMS of the hand representation in M1 and for HF rTMS of the SMA. Only a possible antiparkinsonian effect of HF rTMS of bilateral (multiple) sites in M1 (Level C) emerged from this meta-analysis. A probable antidepressant effect of HF rTMS of the left DLPFC in Parkinson’s disease (Level B) emerged from the literature analysis.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: W. Paulus Source Type: research

ID 29 – Focal lesion on the hand knob re-localizes motor function laterally compared to the unaffected hemisphere
To evaluate the differences in cortical muscle representations between affected and unaffected hemispheres in stroke patients using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Kallioniemi, L. Säisänen, P. Julkunen, M. Könönen, R. Vanninen, P. Jäkälä, S. Määttä, S. Vaalto Source Type: research

ID 366 – Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in a female patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS): Case presentation
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is reported to be a risk factor for arterial ischemic stroke, however, relationship between OSAS and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains uncertain.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: H. Rashed, A. Marei, M. Tork, A. Abdelnasser Source Type: research

ID 306 – Mirror-box training in healthy subjects and a patient with hemiparesis
Mirror therapy (MT) is an approach of neurorehabilitation improving motor functions after stroke. MT represents a mental process by which an individual rehearses a given motor action by reflecting movements of the non-paretic side in a mirror as if it were the affected side. Although a number of small-scale research studies have shown encouraging results, there is no clear consensus about the effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this study is to investigate objective changes in EEG after MT.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Rosipal, N. Porubcová, B. Cimrová, I. Farkaš Source Type: research

ID 100 – Chronic post stroke central pain: Increased success rate of chronic epidural motor cortex stimulation using somatotopic, navigated repetitive TMS for patient selection and implant placement
The outcome at group level of neuromodulation for central pain using stimulation of motor cortices is limited, though for some, there are large effects. Thus, there is a need for selection of patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Thordstein, G. Pegenius, K. Gatzinsky Source Type: research

ID 381 – Functional neuroimaging study of patients with disorders of consciousness. Value of default mode network (DMN)
Resting FMRI allows estimation the neural networks activation, connectivity in the brain with present or absent evidence of consciousness. Patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) show selective activation of the default mode network (DMN) as consciousness level increases. The study aim was to evaluate the DMN activation parameters in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimal consciousness state (MCS). Material and methods: 4 patients with DOC: 1-anoxic, 1-traumatic, 1-hemorrhagic stroke, 1-acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L. Legostaeva, E. Zmeykina, E. Kremneva, A. Poydasheva, A. Chervyakov, D. Sergeev, I. Sychev, J. Ryabinkina, N. Suponeva, M. Piradov Source Type: research

ID 394 – Polarity independent suppression of long-term associative plasticity in the human SMA–M1 network by simultaneous tDCS
Excitability and connectivity of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex (M1) are important for motor rehabilitation after stroke. Previously, we demonstrated that paired associative stimulation of SMA and M1 (SMA–M1-PAS) by dual coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may induce STDP-like plasticity in this network. Here, we tested the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on SMA–M1 plasticity.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: H. Faber, C. Zipser, J. Tünnerhoff, F. Müller-Dahlhaus, U. Ziemann Source Type: research

ID 252 – Auditory startle reflex (ASR) in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke
To evaluate the influence of cortical and subcortical vascular lesions on ASR.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Yagüe, M. Veciana, J. Pedro, P. Cardona, H. Quesada, H. Kumru, C. Flores, J. Montero, J. Valls-Solé Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for rehabilitation of poststroke dysphagia: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Dysphagia is a common and potentially fatal complication following stroke (Martino et al., 2005). It afflicts a large number of patients with hemispheric stroke (Martino et al., 2005) and brain-stem infarction (Horner et al., 1991). Poststroke dysphagia is associated with an increased risk of mortality, and it may lead to severe complications including malnutrition, dehydration, and aspiration pneumonia (Teasell et al., 1994; Dziewas et al., 2004; Martino et al., 2005). Most patients recover from dysphagia within a few weeks, but the extent of recovery of swallowing varies widely from patient to patient (Martino et al., 2005).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan Du, Fang Yang, Ling Liu, Jingze Hu, Biyang Cai, Wenhua Liu, Gelin Xu, Xinfeng Liu Source Type: research

Adult onset ictal aphasia with epileptic discharges in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas
Aphasia can sometimes present with epileptic seizures, especially in temporal lobe epilepsy affecting the dominant hemisphere. Child-onset epilepsy with aphasia is known as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (Caraballo et al., 2014), whereas adult-onset epilepsy presenting with aphasia is quite rare, as aphasia more often presents with stroke in adult patients. Here we describe a patient with adult-onset epilepsy exhibiting ictal aphasia, and whose epileptic discharges were detected by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the motor and sensory speech areas.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 19, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shin-ichi Tokushige, Yasuo Terao, Naohiro Uchio, Shoji Tsuji, Masato Yumoto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Descending neural drives to ankle muscles during gait and their relationships with clinical functions in patients after stroke
Gait is a fundamental component of human daily life. Patients who have suffered central nervous system (CNS) lesions that impair descending motor pathways have difficulty walking independently (Dietz et al., 1995; Jørgensen et al., 1995; Rossignol, 2000). Thus, walking in humans depends on the integrated action of hierarchical levels of supraspinal and spinal neural control (Nielsen, 2003; Yang and Gorassini, 2006), within which the contributions of the primary motor cortex and corticospinal tract are particularly important (Barthélemy et al., 2011; Petersen et al., 2012).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 3, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryosuke Kitatani, Koji Ohata, Yumi Aga, Yuki Mashima, Yu Hashiguchi, Masanori Wakida, Ayaka Maeda, Shigehito Yamada Source Type: research

Evoked potentials as predictors of adverse outcomes after intracranial vascular procedures
Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring (NIOM) as a discipline struggles with outcome study design because of the ethical prohibition against placing patients in harm’s way. Now that NIOM has gained general acceptance based upon certain outcome reports, case series, historical controls, animal literature, an understanding of the physiology, and community acceptance, one cannot reasonably justify classical randomized controlled scientific study designs that risk stroke or paraplegia in the unmonitored arm.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Marc R. Nuwer Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic hand motor impairment after stroke
This study investigated the combined effects of anodal tDCS and intensive motor training (MT) vs. sham stimulation with MT (control intervention) on grip strength, motor performance and functional use of the affected arm.A total of 14 patients were randomly assigned to active stimulation treatment or a control intervention in a double-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel design. Each group received intensive MT for 45min/day, 5days/week, for 2weeks, preceded by 20min of 2mA anodal tDCS over the ipsilesional M1 vs.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 9, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: N.V. Ilić, S. Milanović, E. Dubljanin-Raspopović, U. Nedeljković, T.V. Ilić Source Type: research

The role of neurovascular ultrasound in intensive care units
The neurovascular ultrasound methods are cheap and noninvasive methods that are performed at the bedside of critically ill patients. Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), transcranial color Doppler sonography (TCCD) and ultrasound examination of the neck vessels can provide valuable information for timely treatment decisions. In patients with acute stroke, TCD can detect intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease and presence of collateral flow. The recanalization rate after reperfusion treatment can be monitored with serial TCD recordings in acute ischemic stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 9, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: D. Jovanović, M. Stefanović Budimkić Source Type: research

Co-incidence or causality? Seizures after slow rTMS in stroke patients
Modulation of brain activity and excitability via non-invasive brain stimulation techniques is increasingly used for treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases in the last years. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is the most intensively studied method in this field. The appeal of these techniques is that they alter basic physiological mechanisms relevant for clinical symptoms in many CNS diseases, i.e. pathological alterations of cortical excitability and activity. They allow a relatively targeted intervention, as compared to pharmacological therapy, and usually respective stimulation protocols are well tolerated.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 6, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Michael A. Nitsche Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Can low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation precipitate a late-onset seizure in a stroke patient?
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy is being increasingly used in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Literature suggests accidental seizure induction as the most serious adverse effect of rTMS. Several incidents of seizure induction were reported prior to the advent of safety guidelines for TMS parameters (Wassermann, 1998; Rossi et al., 2009). But after the publications of updated safety guidelines (Rossi et al., 2009), only two cases of seizure induction have been reported where rTMS was used within the safety framework.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 23, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nand Kumar, MV Padma Srivastava, Rohit Verma, Hina Sharma, Tamonud Modak Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cooperative hand movements in post-stroke subjects: Neural reorganization
Bimanual tasks are assumed to require a specific form of interlimb coordination controlled by distributed neural networks, involving cortical and subcortical areas (Donchin et al. 1998; Kazennikov et al. 1999; Kermadi et al. 2000; Debaere et al. 2001; Swinnen 2002). Alongside these general control mechanisms, task-specificity of neural control seems to exist for different bimanual movements (Ohki and Johansson 1999; Bracewell et al. 2003; Wiesendanger and Serrien 2004; White et al. 2008; Alberts and Wolf 2009).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 8, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt, Volker Dietz Source Type: research