Gut Microbial Regulation of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms.
Abstract Relationships between gut microbiome perturbation and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been observed in several human studies, but the functional implications and molecular mechanisms by which microbes may influence disease symptomology remain enigmatic. A recently published study by Sharon et al. offers evidence that the gut microbiome has a causative role in ASD and highlights the importance of early-life gut microbial metabolites in shaping mammalian behavior. PMID: 32972817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Panzer AR, Lynch SV Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training: Methodological Considerations for Interpreting Results and Conducting Research.
Abstract In recent years, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has gained prominence in the health and fitness area, becoming a worldwide trend. Given the positive results of HIIT, researchers have compared it with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). However, much of that research has presented methodological challenges. Therefore, the aim of this opinion article is to address an important risk of bias common in research comparing HIIT and MICT: the lack of equalisation among protocols. This limitation can be considered a risk of bias that limits the conclusions of many studies. Thus, it is necessary...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Andreato LV Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Biased Opioid Receptor Ligands: Gain without Pain.
PMID: 32943311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - September 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Beck TC, Dix TA, Norris RA Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Muscle Lipid Droplets: Cellular Signaling to Exercise Physiology and Beyond.
In conclusion, future directions for muscle LD research are identified. The primary focus will be on human studies, with inclusion of select animal/cellular/non-muscle studies as appropriate, to provide the underlying mechanisms driving the observed findings. PMID: 32917515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Seibert JT, Najt CP, Heden TD, Mashek DG, Chow LS Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The Sex Bias of Cancer.
Santos CRA Abstract In hormone-dependent organs, sex hormones and dysregulated hormone signaling have well-documented roles in cancers of the breast and female reproductive organs including endometrium and ovary, as well as in prostate and testicular cancers in males. Strikingly, epidemiological data highlight significant differences between the sexes in the incidence of various cancers in nonreproductive organs, where the role of sex hormones has been less well studied. In an era when personalized medicine is gaining recognition, understanding the molecular, cellular, and biological differences between men and w...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - September 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Costa AR, Lança de Oliveira M, Cruz I, Gonçalves I, Cascalheira JF, Santos CRA Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Melatonin: A Potential Therapeutic Option for Breast Cancer.
Abstract Melatonin has significant inhibitory effects in numerous cancers, especially breast cancer. In estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer, the oncostatic actions of melatonin are mainly achieved by suppressing ER mRNA expression and ER transcriptional activity via the MT1 receptor. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of nuclear receptors, estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, and the expression of related genes. Furthermore, melatonin suppresses tumor aerobic glycolysis, critical cell-signaling pathways relevant to cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and overcomes drug resistance. Studies...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - September 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kong X, Gao R, Wang Z, Wang X, Fang Y, Gao J, Reiter RJ, Wang J Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endocrine and Metabolic Insights from Pancreatic Surgery.
Abstract Although it is well established that diabetes can also develop as a result of diseases or maneuvers on the exocrine pancreas, the complex relationship between glucose disorders and underlying pancreatic disease is still debated. There is evidence that several features linked to pancreatic diseases can modify endocrine and metabolic conditions before and after surgery. However, pancreatic surgery provides a rare opportunity to correlate in vivo endocrine and metabolic pathways with ex vivo pancreatic samples, to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of acute islet removal, and finally to clarify the ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - August 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mezza T, Cefalo CMA, Cinti F, Quero G, Pontecorvi A, Alfieri S, Holst JJ, Giaccari A Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metabolism-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs).
Abstract Metabolic diseases pose a tremendous health threat in both developed and developing countries. The pathophysiology of metabolic diseases is complex but has been shown to be closely associated with sterile inflammation, which is initiated by various danger molecules derived from metabolic overload, such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDLs), free fatty acids (FFAs), glucose, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and cholesterol. These danger signals are sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to activate proinflammatory signaling pathways and promote the release of proinflammatory mediator...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wang X, Wang Y, Antony V, Sun H, Liang G Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Prospects of Rescuing Young Eggs for Oncofertility.
Abstract Childhood cancer patients undergoing cancer therapy can be rendered infertile during adulthood. With more girls surviving cancer, fertility preservation in young cancer patients is a major clinical challenge. Advances in egg culture may offer benefits for the fertility of these patients in the future. PMID: 32807599 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bertoldo MJ, Smitz J, Wu LE, Lee HC, Woodruff TK, Gilchrist RB Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein E Effects on Mammalian Ovarian Steroidogenesis and Human Fertility.
do JR Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a glycoprotein consisting of 299 amino acids, highly produced in the mammalian ovaries. The main function of the ApoE is to transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to be metabolized in the liver. In humans, the ApoE gene is polymorphic, with three alleles in a single chromosome-19 locus: APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. ApoE has also been implicated in cholesterol transport within ovarian follicles to regulate steroidogenesis. Ovarian thecal and granulosa cell cholesterol uptake requires ApoE either by participating in the lipoprotein-receptor complex or lipid endocytosi...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - July 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Oriá RB, de Almeida JZ, Moreira CN, Guerrant RL, Figueiredo JR Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Estrogen-Mediated Gaseous Signaling Molecules in Cardiovascular Disease.
Abstract Gender difference is well recognized as a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Estrogen, the primary female sex hormone, improves cardiovascular functions through receptor (ERα, ERβ, or G protein-coupled estrogen receptor)-initiated genomic or non-genomic mechanisms. Gaseous signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon monoxide (CO), are important regulators of cardiovascular function. Recent studies have demonstrated that estrogen regulates the production of these signaling molecules in cardiovascular cells to exert its cardiovascular protec...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - July 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Teoh JP, Li X, Simoncini T, Zhu D, Fu X Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Role of Energy Excretion in Human Body Weight Regulation.
Abstract Food intake and energy expenditure are the typical determinants of body weight. Yet, recent observations underscore that a third and often-neglected factor, fecal energy loss, can influence energy balance. Here, we explore how macronutrient excretion modulates human energy homeostasis and highlight its potential impact on the propensity to gain weight. PMID: 32674987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - July 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lund J, Gerhart-Hines Z, Clemmensen C Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metabolic Signatures of Distinct Endothelial Phenotypes.
iet P Abstract Angiogenesis is crucial for the development of the blood vasculature during embryogenesis, but also contributes to cancer and other diseases. While therapeutic targeting of endothelial cells (ECs) through growth factor inhibition is limited by insufficient efficacy and resistance, a new paradigm for modulating angiogenesis by targeting EC metabolism has emerged. Findings from the past decade highlight how ECs adapt their metabolism to proliferate or migrate during vessel sprouting, or to maintain the vascular barrier and protect themselves against oxidative stress in the high-oxygen environment they...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - July 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dumas SJ, García-Caballero M, Carmeliet P Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity Susceptibility.
Abstract The prevalence of obesity and associated diseases has reached pandemic levels. Obesity is often associated with overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, but clearly other factors also increase the susceptibility of metabolic disease states. Ancestral and direct exposures to environmental toxicants and altered nutrition have been shown to increase susceptibility for obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Environmental insults can reprogram the epigenome of the germline (sperm and eggs), which transmits the susceptibility for disease to future generations through epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. In t...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - June 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: King SE, Skinner MK Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Interplay between Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential and Metabolism.
Abstract Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), defined as a clone of hematopoietic cells consisting of a single acquired mutation during a lifetime, has recently been discovered to be a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). As such, this phenomenon has sparked interest into the role that these single mutations may play in CVD. Atherosclerotic CVD is a complex disease and we have previously shown that atherosclerosis can be accelerated by metabolic- or autoimmune-related risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we discuss the r...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - June 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lee MKS, Dragoljevic D, Bertuzzo Veiga C, Wang N, Yvan-Charvet L, Murphy AJ Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Polyphenols as Caloric Restriction Mimetics Regulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Mitophagy.
Abstract The tight coordination between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy can be dysregulated during aging, critically influencing whole-body metabolism, health, and lifespan. To date, caloric restriction (CR) appears to be the most effective intervention strategy to improve mitochondrial turnover in aging organisms. The development of pharmacological mimetics of CR has gained attention as an attractive and potentially feasible approach to mimic the CR phenotype. Polyphenols, ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, have emerged as well-tolerated CR mimetics that target mitochondrial turnover. Here, we ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - June 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Davinelli S, De Stefani D, De Vivo I, Scapagnini G Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Tibolone as Hormonal Therapy and Neuroprotective Agent.
to GE Abstract Tibolone (TIB), a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR) in clinical use by postmenopausal women, activates hormonal receptors in a tissue-specific manner. Estrogenic activity is present mostly in the brain, vagina, and bone, while the inactive forms predominate in the endometrium and breast. Conflicting literature on TIB's actions has been observed. While it has benefits for vasomotor symptoms, bone demineralization, and sexual health, a higher relative risk of hormone-sensitive cancer has been reported. In the brain, TIB can improve mood and cognition, neuroinflammation, and reacti...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - June 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Del Río JP, Molina S, Hidalgo-Lanussa O, Garcia-Segura LM, Barreto GE Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Partial Leptin Reduction: An Emerging Weight Loss Paradigm.
Abstract Leptin-based obesity pharmacotherapies were originally developed according to the lipostatic view that elevated circulating leptin levels promote a negative energy balance. A series of independent preclinical findings suggest, however, that a partial reduction in circulating leptin levels (either by immunoneutralization, a peripherally restricted CB1 receptor inverse agonist, or bariatric surgery) can paradoxically lead to weight loss. PMID: 32396841 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hankir MK, Seyfried F Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Debunking the Myth of the Endogenous Antiangiogenic Vegfaxxxb Transcripts.
Abstract In this opinion article we critically assess evidence for the existence of a family of antiangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfaxxxb) transcripts, arising from the use of a phylogenetically conserved alternative distal splice site within exon 8 of the VEGFA gene. We explain that prior evidence for Vegfaxxxb transcripts in tissues rests heavily upon flawed RT-PCR methodologies, with the extensive use of 5'-tailing in primer design being the main issue. Furthermore, our analysis of large RNA-seq data sets (human and ovine) fails to identify a single Vegfaxxxb transcript. Therefore, we challen...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dardente H, English WR, Valluru MK, Kanthou C, Simpson D Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

How May GIP Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of GLP-1?
Abstract Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists improve glucose homeostasis, reduce bodyweight, and over time benefit cardiovascular health in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, dose-related gastrointestinal effects limit efficacy, and therefore agents possessing GLP-1 pharmacology that can also target alternative pathways may expand the therapeutic index. One approach is to engineer GLP-1 activity into the sequence of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Although the therapeutic implications of the lipogenic actions of GIP are debated, its ability to improve lipid and glucose meta...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Samms RJ, Coghlan MP, Sloop KW Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Inositols in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Overview on the Advances.
tion' Abstract This review details the physiologic roles of two insulin sensitizers, myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI). In the human ovary, MI is a second messenger of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and DCI is an aromatase inhibitor. These activities allow a treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to be defined based on the combined administration of MI and DCI, where the best MI:DCI ratio is 40:1. Moreover, MI enhances the effect of metformin and clomiphene on the fertility of PCOS women seeking pregnancy. As impaired intestinal transport may lead to unsuccessful inositol treatment, we also ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Facchinetti F, Unfer V, Dewailly D, Kamenov ZA, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Laganà AS, Nestler JE, Soulage CO, Group of 'Inositol in PCOS and Reproduction' Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Nanomedicine-Based Strategies for Diabetes: Diagnostics, Monitoring, and Treatment.
Abstract Traditional methods for diabetes management require constant and tedious glucose monitoring (GM) and insulin injections, impacting quality of life. The global diabetic population is expected to increase to 439 million, with approximately US$490 billion in healthcare expenditures by 2030, imposing a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Recent advances in nanotechnology have emerged as promising alternative strategies for the management of diabetes. For example, implantable nanosensors are being developed for continuous GM, new nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging approaches that quantify subtle c...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lemmerman LR, Das D, Higuita-Castro N, Mirmira RG, Gallego-Perez D Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metabolic Implications of Circadian-HIF Crosstalk.
Abstract Research over the past few decades has shed light on the mechanisms underlying the link between circadian disruption and the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. However, how the clock network interacts with tissue-specificnutrient-sensing pathways during conditions of nutrient stress or pathological states remains incompletely understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the circadian clock can 'reprogram' the transcriptome to control distinct sets of genes during altered nutrient conditions, such as high fat diet, aging, and exercise. In this review, I discuss...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Peek CB Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The Immune System in Cushing's Syndrome.
Abstract Cushing's syndrome (CS), or chronic hypercortisolism, induces a variety of alterations in the immune system, often leading to severe clinical complications such as sepsis and opportunistic infections. Prolonged exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GC), changes in the circadian rhythm, and the comorbidities associated therewith all combine to cause profound changes in the immune profile of affected patients. While traditionally associated with generalized immune suppression, such changes actually comprise a much more complex scenario, sharing traits with chronic inflammatory disorders. Persistently ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hasenmajer V, Sbardella E, Sciarra F, Minnetti M, Isidori AM, Venneri MA Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Integrating Hunger with Rival Motivations.
Abstract Motivated behaviors have fascinated neuroscientists and ethologists for decades due to their necessity for organism survival. Motivations guide behavioral choice through an intricate synthesis of internal state detection, external stimulus exposure, and learned associations. One critical motivation, hunger, provides an accessible example for understanding purposeful behavior. Neuroscientists commonly focus research efforts on neural circuits underlying individual motivations, sacrificing ethological relevance for tight experimental control. This restrictive focus deprives the field of a more nuanced under...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - May 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sutton AK, Krashes MJ Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis: Animal Models and Therapeutic Advances.
Abstract Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), mainly arising from loss-of-function mutation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), is a life-threatening inherited cardiometabolic disorder with limited therapies. In a recent study, Zhao et al. created a new model of FH and demonstrate that LDLR gene editing protects against both FH and atherosclerosis. PMID: 32305096 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Xu S, Weng J Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Deconstructing the Role of PKC Epsilon in Glucose Homeostasis.
Abstract The failure of insulin to suppress glucose production by the liver is a key aspect of the insulin resistance seen in type 2 diabetes. Lipid-activated protein kinase C epsilon has long been identified as an important mediator of diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance and the current view emphasizes a mechanism involving phosphorylation of the insulin receptor by the kinase to inhibit downstream insulin action. However, the significance of this direct effect in the liver has now been challenged by tissue-specific deletion of PKCε, which demonstrated a more prominent role for...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Schmitz-Peiffer C Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Trained Immunity: Linking Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease across the Life-Course?
Abstract Obesity, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood. Recent developments have challenged the dogma of immunological memory occurring exclusively in the adaptive immune system and show that the innate immune system has potential to be reprogrammed. This innate immune memory (trained immunity) is characterized by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of myeloid cells following endogenous or exogenous stimulation, resulting in enhanced inflammation to subsequent stimuli...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bekkering S, Saner C, Riksen NP, Netea MG, Sabin MA, Saffery R, Stienstra R, Burgner DP Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Gut Microbial Metabolites of Aromatic Amino Acids as Signals in Host-Microbe Interplay.
Abstract Gut microbial metabolism is intimately coupled with host health and disease. Aromatic amino acid (AAA) catabolism by the gut microbiome yields numerous metabolites that may regulate immune, metabolic, and neuronal responses at local and distant sites. Such a chemical dialog between host cells and the gut microbiome is shaped by environmental cues, and may become dysregulated in gastrointestinal and systems diseases. Increasing knowledge of the bacterial pathway and signaling basis may shed additional light on metabolic host-microbiome crosstalk that remains untapped for drug discovery. Here, we update our...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Liu Y, Hou Y, Wang G, Zheng X, Hao H Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Maternal Lifestyle Interventions: Targeting Preconception Health.
Abstract About one-third of women of reproductive age are obese, predisposing both mother and baby to unfavourable pregnancy outcomes and initiating an intergenerational cycle of chronic metabolic disorders. Here we summarise recent research on the influence of maternal metabolic health on offspring susceptibility to future cardiometabolic diseases. Current primary lifestyle approaches (i.e., diet and exercise interventions) to halt the succession of inherited and epigenetic metabolic abnormalities have met with limited success due to late implementation, poor adherence, and/or generic guidelines. In our opinion, ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Moholdt T, Hawley JA Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Gut Microbiome and Radioiodine-Refractory Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Pathophysiology.
Abstract Gut microbiome (GM) might be associated with radioiodine (RAI)-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) through different mechanisms related to sodium/iodide (Na+/I-) symporter (NIS) regulation. However, whether thyroid carcinoma (TC), especially RAI-refractory PTC, causes dysbiosis, or vice versa, is still unknown. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism between GM and RAI-refractory PTC. PMID: 32273149 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Samimi H, Haghpanah V Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mitochondria and T2D: Role of Autophagy, ER Stress, and Inflammasome.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the main current threats to human health. Both T2D and its numerous clinical complications are related to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Over the past decade, great progress has been made in extending our knowledge about the signaling events regulated by mitochondria. However, the links among mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and activation of the inflammasome still need to be clarified. In light of this deficit, we aim to provide a review of the existing literature concerning the complicated crosstalk...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rocha M, Apostolova N, Diaz-Rua R, Muntane J, Victor VM Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Placenta Disrupted: Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Pregnancy.
Abstract Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are chemicals that can interfere with normal endocrine signals. Human exposure to EDCs is particularly concerning during vulnerable periods of life, such as pregnancy. However, often overlooked is the effect that EDCs may pose to the placenta. The abundance of hormone receptors makes the placenta highly sensitive to EDCs. We have reviewed the most recent advances in our understanding of EDC exposures on the development and function of the placenta such as steroidogenesis, spiral artery remodeling, drug-transporter expression, implantation and cellular invasion, fusion...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - April 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gingrich J, Ticiani E, Veiga-Lopez A Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition by Metformin: Drug-Exercise Interactions.
Calbet JAL Abstract Metformin has antidiabetic, anticancer, and prolongevity effects, but seems to interfere with aerobic training mitochondrial adaptations. The primary mechanism of action has been suggested to be the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Recent papers (Wang et al. and Cameron et al.), however, provide evidence to deny the hypothesis of a direct action of metformin on complex I. PMID: 32187522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - March 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Martín-Rodríguez S, de Pablos-Velasco P, Calbet JAL Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Acromegaly and Vertebral Fractures: Facts and Questions.
Abstract Here I review vertebral fractures (VFs) as an emerging complication of acromegaly through a pathway of key questions in order to help clinicians manage the disease. Peculiarities of acromegalic osteopathy are that VFs are common but not explained by low bone mineral density (BMD) being related to disease duration and activity, and occurring even after remission. PMID: 32187523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - March 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giustina A Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

M üller Cell Metabolic Signatures: Evolutionary Conservation and Disruption in Disease.
Müller Cell Metabolic Signatures: Evolutionary Conservation and Disruption in Disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr;31(4):320-329 Authors: Pfeiffer RL, Marc RE, Jones BW Abstract Müller cells are glia that play important regulatory roles in retinal metabolism. These roles have been evolutionarily conserved across at least 300 million years. Müller cells have a tightly locked metabolic signature in the healthy retina, which rapidly degrades in response to insult and disease. This variation in metabolic signature occurs in a chaotic fashion, involving some central metabolic pathways....
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - March 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pfeiffer RL, Marc RE, Jones BW Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Time for a New Perspective on Prolactin in Metabolism.
Abstract The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates a variety of functions beyond reproduction. The association between physiological (pregnancy) and pathological (prolactinoma) hyperprolactinemia and metabolic alterations led to the concept of this hormone being diabetogenic. However, large cohort clinical studies have recently shown that low circulating PRL levels are associated with metabolic disease and represent a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), whereas high PRL levels are beneficial. Moreover, PRL acts on the pancreas, liver, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus to maintain and promote metabolic home...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Macotela Y, Triebel J, Clapp C Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Meditation and Endocrine Health and Wellbeing.
Abstract Meditation is a popular practice for reducing stress and improving mental health and wellbeing. Its effects are mediated largely by the endocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and energy homeostasis. The limited evidence available indicates that changes associated with endocrine function following meditation correspond with improvements in mental health. However, this field of study is hampered by a lack of consensus as to definition and types of meditation and the mixed quality of reported ...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pascoe MC, Thompson DR, Ski CF Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Sexual Dimorphism in Metabolism: Dissecting the Role of Sex Hormones.
Abstract Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are of pivotal importance in human physiology. Glucocorticoid signaling is complex in nature and dependent on many interacting factors. As glucocorticoids exhibit sexually dimorphic effects on several key processes including in metabolism, crosstalk with the sex steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens) is relevant. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art knowledge on glucocorticoid sexual dimorphism and sex hormone crosstalk. We include current insight in the molecular mechanisms that underlie nuclear steroid receptor crosstalk, and sex hormone effects...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kroon J, Pereira AM, Meijer OC Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Adaptations in the Growing Heart.
acute;, Cordero MD, Hidalgo A Abstract The heart pumps blood throughout the whole life of an organism, without rest periods during which to replenish energy or detoxify. Hence, cardiomyocytes, the working units of the heart, have mechanisms to ensure constitutive production of energy and detoxification to preserve fitness and function for decades. Even more challenging, the heart must adapt to the varying conditions of the organism from fetal life to adulthood, old age, and pathological stress. Mitochondria are at the nexus of these processes by producing not only energy but also metabolites and oxidative byproduc...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sánchez-Díaz M, Nicolás-Ávila JÁ, Cordero MD, Hidalgo A Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Frozen IVF Cycles to Circumvent the Hormonal Storm on Endometrium.
ana E Abstract Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) determines an anticipation of endometrial maturation and a premature occurrence of the implantation window, as shown by histological, histochemical, and molecular studies and indirectly by clinical trials. There is growing agreement that in patients hyper-responding to COH and in those undergoing transfer at the blastocyst stage, deferring the transfer in a subsequent frozen cycle could increase pregnancy outcomes. For blastocysts, implantation after a fresh transfer may be limited as the implantation window is already closed while, in hyper-responders to CO...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Viganò P, Alteri A, Busnelli A, Vanni VS, Somigliana E Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hypothalamic IRX3: A New Player in the Development of Obesity.
so LA Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified SNPs of the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene as the most important risk alleles for obesity. However, how the presence of risk alleles affect phenotype is still a matter of intense investigation. In 2014, a study revealed that long-range enhancers from the intronic regions of the FTO gene regulate iroquois-class homeobox protein (IRX)3 expression. IRX3 is expressed in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and changes in its expression levels affect body adiposity by modifying food intake and energy expenditure. These findings have pla...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: de Araújo TM, Velloso LA Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Wharton's Jelly MSCs: Potential Weapon to Sharpen for Our Battle against DM.
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a devastating metabolic disease. Stem cell therapy provides great hope to all diabetic patients. Umbilical cord (UC) Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) specifically provides a potential cell therapy for DM. In this article, we discuss major advantages of WJ-MSCs and challenges facing their clinical utility in DM. PMID: 32035737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kassem DH, Kamal MM Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Chronic Diabetes Complications: The Need to Move beyond Classical Concepts.
e;s M Abstract Chronic-diabetes-related complications simultaneously compromise both the micro- and macrovascular trees, with target organs considered as the paradigm of large vessel injury also entailing microangiopathic changes. However, complications independent or partially independent from vascular damage are often overlooked. This includes neuronal dysfunction (e.g., retinal neurodegeneration), interstitial injury (e.g., tubulointerstitial disease), metabolic damage (e.g., in the heart and liver), and nonclassical conditions such as cognitive decline, impaired pulmonary function, or increased risk of cancer....
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mauricio D, Alonso N, Gratacòs M Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A Novel Role for CETP as Immunological Gatekeeper: Raising HDL to Cure Sepsis?
Abstract Raising HDL using cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors failed to show a clinically relevant risk reduction of cardiovascular disease in clinical trials, inviting reconsideration of the role of CETP and HDL in human physiology. Based on solid evidence from studies with isolated macrophages, rodents, and humans, we propose that a major function of CETP may be to modulate HDL in order to help resolve bacterial infections. When gram-negative bacteria invade the blood, as occurs in sepsis, Kupffer cells lose their expression of CETP to increase HDL levels. This rise in HDL prevents systemic end...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Blauw LL, Wang Y, Willems van Dijk K, Rensen PCN Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Melatonin Effects on Glucose Metabolism: Time To Unlock the Controversy.
Abstract The past decade has witnessed a revival of interest in the hormone melatonin, partly attributable to the discovery that genetic variation in MTNR1B - the melatonin receptor gene - is a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite intensive investigation, there is considerable confusion and seemingly conflicting data on the metabolic effects of melatonin and MTNR1B variation, and disagreement on whether melatonin is metabolically beneficial or deleterious, a crucial issue for melatonin agonist/antagonist drug development and dosing time. We provide a conceptual framework - an...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Garaulet M, Qian J, Florez JC, Arendt J, Saxena R, Scheer FAJL Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metabolism, Epigenetics, and Causal Inference in Heart Failure.
Abstract Eukaryotes must balance the metabolic and cell death actions of mitochondria via control of gene expression and cell fate by chromatin, thereby functionally binding the metabolome and epigenome. This interaction has far-reaching implications for chronic diseases in humans, the most common of which are those of the cardiovascular system. The most devastating consequence of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, is not a single disease, diagnosis, or endpoint. Human and animal studies have revealed that, regardless of etiology and symptoms, heart failure is universally associated with abnormal metabolism an...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - December 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kimball TH, Vondriska TM Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Uterine Luminal Epithelium as the Transient Gateway for Embryo Implantation.
Abstract The uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is the first maternal contact for an implanting embryo. Intrauterine fluid resorption, cessation of LE proliferation and apoptosis, and LE structural changes are prerequisites for establishing transient uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. Vesicle trafficking in the LE and receptor-mediated paracrine and autocrine mechanisms are crucial both for LE preparation and LE communications with the embryo and stroma during the initiation of embryo implantation. This review mainly covers recent in vivo studies in LE of mouse models from 0.5 days post-coitus (D0...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - December 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ye X Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Science and Health Policies to Tackle Chronic Diseases in Chile.
Abstract Chile has experienced rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by decreasing infant mortality, population aging, and a shift towards obesity with an increase in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Today, tobacco, alcohol, and ultraprocessed foods are the main risk factors for these diseases. Based on Chile's experience in tobacco control, we discuss paths to make progress in population evidence-based strategies to improve overall community health. PMID: 31859214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM)
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - December 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bambs C, Bravo-Sagua R, Margozzini P, Lavandero S Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Metabolic Syndrome: From Physiology to Disease.
Abstract Over the past decade, several studies have shown that activity of extra-renal mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) regulates vascular tone, adipogenesis, adipose tissue function, and cardiomyocyte contraction. In mice, abnormal activation of MR in the vasculature and in adipose tissue favors the occurrence of several components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as hypertension, obesity, and glucose intolerance. Accordingly, high levels of aldosterone are associated with obesity and MetS in humans, suggesting that altered activation of aldosterone-MR system in extra-renal tissues leads to profound metabol...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM - December 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Feraco A, Marzolla V, Scuteri A, Armani A, Caprio M Tags: Trends Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research