Rhabdomyolysis Associated With Primary Human Herpesvirus-6 Infection
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The Volume of Pediatric Blood Culture
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Imported Cases of Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Denouement
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Fever and Papular-purpuric Exanthema in a 7-year-old Boy
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Microbiology of Osteoarticular Infections in Patients with Sickle Hemoglobinopathies at Texas Children’s Hospital, 2000–2018
The association between Salmonella spp. and osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients with major sickle hemoglobinopathies has been well established. However, the contemporary microbiology of these infections in such patients is unknown. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston from 2000 to 2018 to investigate this question. Fifty cases were identified. In 23 (46%) cases, a pathogen was identified. Salmonella was the most common pathogen isolated, accounting for 61% of culture-positive cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.7%). (Source: The Pediatric I...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Contribution of Real-Time Xpert MTB/RIF Testing to Establishing Early Diagnosis of Pediatric Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in a Nonendemic Setting: A Case Series
Microbiologic confirmation of pediatric extrapulmonary tuberculosis remains challenging, leading to diagnostic delays. In our retrospective case series, real-time molecular testing (Xpert MTB/RIF) on respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens resulted in a more rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a nonendemic, high resource setting. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Multiple Cranial Tuberculomas Without Meningitis in Two Infants With Miliary Tuberculosis
We describe 2 cases of miliary tuberculosis in young children with clinically unexpected central nervous system involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be considered part of the initial diagnostic workup for miliary tuberculosis in very young children. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Q Fever and Kingella kingae Endocarditis in a Toddler: A Rare Coinfection Case
A toddler after tetralogy of Fallot graft repair in infancy was diagnosed with endocarditis. Blood cultures were positive for Kingella kingae and serology was positive Coxiella burnetii. He was treated medically and surgically. A postoperative specimen polymerase chain reaction confirmed a coinfection. A comprehensive patient history was imperative for identification of an unlikely infection at this age. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Enteropathogens and Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity in a Cluster Randomized Trial of Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural Zimbabwe
Conclusions: Enteropathogen infections were common around the time of rotavirus vaccination in rural Zimbabwean infants but did not explain poor RVV immunogenicity and were not reduced by a package of household-level WASH interventions. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Early-onset Sepsis Among Preterm Neonates in China, 2015 to 2018
Background: The epidemiology of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in China is poorly understood because of the paucity of high-quality data. We aimed to examine the epidemiology, pathogen distribution and neonatal outcomes of EOS among a large cohort of preterm infants in China. Methods: All infants born at (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Neonatal Meningitis and Subdural Empyema Caused by an Unusual Pathogen
We report a case of neonatal meningitis with subdural empyema, caused by Ureaplasma parvum. In this case, diagnosis was made by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction, after regularly used diagnostic techniques failed. This unusual pathogen should be considered in cases that do not respond to therapy and/or where cultures for typical pathogens in neonatal sepsis and meningitis remain negative. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Growth Patterns in Children With Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
Conclusion: Around 10% of children with CMVc are at ≤2 SD in weight, length and head circumference at 24 ± 3 months. The lack of adequate growth is associated with symptoms at birth, prematurity and motor and neurocognitive impairment. Growth impairment could be incorporated into the symptomatic spectrum of CMVc. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Pathology of Rotavirus-driven Multiple Organ Failure in a 16-month-old Boy
Autopsy investigation of a fatal case of rotavirus severe acute gastroenteritis and multiple organ failure in a 16-month boy with previous intrauterine growth retardation showed colocalization of nonstructural and structural rotavirus proteins within viroplasms in nephrons. This case brings new insights into extraintestinal rotavirus infection and new clues to its abilities to bind to human histo-blood group antigens. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology and Host Response Source Type: research

Spontaneous Generation and an Eighteenth Century Italian Rabbi-Physician
Spontaneous generation is usually stated to have been laid to rest by Louis Pasteur with his swan-necked flask experiments. However, a century and a half earlier an Italian physician-Rabbi, Isaac Lampronti, was so convinced of the falsity of spontaneous generation that he was willing to overturn Jewish legal precedent. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: History of Medicine Source Type: research

Route of Oseltamivir Administration Affects Metabolite Concentrations in Critically Ill Children
We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate oseltamivir administration in critically ill children. We found that enteric tube administration of oseltamivir resulted in lower concentrations of its active metabolite compared with oral delivery. These findings could have significant clinical implications, and more studies are required to better understand the effects of administration route on potential lower systemic metabolite exposure. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Neonatal Antifungal Consumption Is Dominated by Prophylactic Use; Outcomes From The Pediatric Antifungal Stewardship: Optimizing Antifungal Prescription Study
Conclusions: Neonatal antifungal prophylaxis is commonly prescribed outside the recommendations based on known risk profiles. Fluconazole is the main antifungal prescribed in neonates and infants, with underdosing frequently observed when prescribed for treatment. Number of proven IC was very low. These observations should be taken into consideration to develop a national pediatric Antifungal Stewardship program aiming to guide rational prescribing. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Disseminated Gonococcal Infections in Patients Receiving Eculizumab: A Case Series
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstracts Source Type: research

Duration of Pivalate-conjugated Antibiotics and Blood Glucose Levels Among Pediatric Inpatients: Causal Mediation Analyses and Systematic Review
Background: Several cases of hypoglycemia potentially induced by pivalate-conjugated antibiotics have been reported. However, no observational studies have investigated the associations among children. Method: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 814 consecutive inpatients (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile Infection in Children: Epidemiology and Trend in a Swedish Tertiary Care Hospital
Conclusions: There was an increasing trend in CDI in children in Sweden from 2010 to 2018, although not statistically significant. CDI was associated with comorbid conditions and repeated episodes were common. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Identifying Children With Measles for Isolation in a High-volume Pediatric Emergency Department in Singapore
Background: Viral exanthems in the pediatric age group are common. The worldwide increase in the incidence of highly infectious measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases and its impact in emergency departments (EDs) of a cosmopolitan city-state like Singapore are unknown. Our aims were to investigate and describe recent epidemiologic trends of proven measles infection seen in our ED and elucidate risk factors that can potentially impact our ED isolation practice. Methods: This is a retrospective observational cohort study on laboratory-confirmed measles infection in patients admitted through our pediatric ED from...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Comprehensive Detection of Respiratory Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in the Middle Ear Fluid and Nasopharynx of Pediatric Patients With Acute Otitis Media
Conclusions: In many cases, pediatric AOM was found to constitute a respiratory polymicrobial infection. Multiplex PCR was useful to detect multiple respiratory viruses and bacteria in AOM. To understand intractable AOM, further studies regarding the clinical features of each viral and bacterial coinfection are required. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis and Elevated C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13 Value Predict Lyme Borreliosis in Children With Facial Palsy
Conclusions: Because serum serology can be negative at presentation, lumbar puncture is a valuable tool when diagnosing LB among children with facial palsy. Pleocytosis and increased protein and CXCL13 values in the CSF suggest LB as the cause of facial palsy. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Increasing Rates of Pediatric Empyema and Disease Severity With Predominance of Serotype 3 S. pneumonia: An Australian Single-center, Retrospective Cohort 2011 to 2018
Background: The impact of universal 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization on pediatric empyema rates and pathogens in Australia is not known. We aimed to describe empyema epidemiology, clinical characteristics and treatment during an 8-year period. Methods: A retrospective study between 2011 and 2018 of empyema cases admitted to a large pediatric referral hospital, for management with either pleural drainage and fibrinolytics or surgical intervention. Results: There were 195 cases in 8 years. Empyema incidence and ICU admission rates significantly increased during the study with a peak incidence of ...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Extrapulmonary Coccidioidomycosis Among Children in Central California: A Retrospective Review
Conclusions: Extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis in children can be severe and spread to multiple sites and requires prolonged treatment. Non-Hispanics and those ≥10 years of age are more likely to experience severe disease, suggesting a need for early recognition and intervention in these populations. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Prevalence, Clinical Features and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Group A Streptococcal Skin Infections in School Children in Urban Western and Northern Uganda
Conclusion: This study identifies tetracycline-resistant GAS in Ugandan communities, suggests modified skin examination of exposed anatomic locations may be appropriate for population-based GAS skin infection studies, and underscores need for clear case definitions of GAS skin infection. Future studies are needed to evaluate the role of GAS skin infection in development of RHD in Ugandan communities. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Assessment and Validation of Syndromic Case Definitions for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Young Infants: A Latent Class Analysis
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Standardized case definitions that are applicable to variety of populations are critical for robust surveillance systems to guide decision-making regarding RSV control strategies including vaccine evaluation. Limited data exist on performance of RSV syndromic case definitions among young infants or in high-resource settings. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing and potential syndromic case definitions for RSV among young infants in an urban, high-income setting using latent class anal...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Epstein-Barr Virus Seroprevalence and Force of Infection in a Multiethnic Pediatric Cohort, Singapore
Conclusions: The seroprevalence patterns of EBV antibodies in the Chinese and Indian, but not Malay children in Singapore by 19 years of age resemble those previously reported in developed countries. Ideally, any future EBV vaccination strategy would need to target infants (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes Causing Invasive Disease in Pediatric Population in Spain A 12-year Study
Objectives: To perform a comprehensive description of the epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease in the pediatric population in 2 regions of Spain (Catalonia and Gipuzkoa) through 12 years. Methods: All S. pyogenes isolates causing invasive disease in pediatric patients between 2005 and 2016 were included. The emm-type and the presence of 13 exotoxin genes (speA, speB, speC, speF, speG, speH, speI, speJ, speK, speL, speM, smeZ, ssa and slo) were determined in all 93 available isolates and the Multi Locus Sequece Typing in 10% of isolates of each different emm-type. Results: Overall, 103 cases of S....
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Prevalence of Bacterial Infection in Febrile Infant 61–90 Days Old Compared With Younger Infants
The objective is to compare the prevalence of serious bacterial infection (SBI) and invasive bacterial infection (IBI) in febrile infants (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Clinical Course and Management of Dengue in Children Admitted to Hospital: A 5 Years Prospective Cohort Study in Jakarta, Indonesia
Conclusions: Almost a third of children admitted to tertiary care with clinically suspected DF progress to DHF or DSS. Among routinely collected parameters at admission, only fever duration was significantly associated with clinical progression, emphasizing unpredictability of dengue disease course from parameters currently routinely collected. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Nodding Syndrome: Close to Solving the Mystery
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Denouement
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

12-Year-old Female with Mucocutaneous Lesions
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Mycobacterial Blood Culture for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Vietnamese Children
Diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis is notoriously difficult. We investigated the additional yield of blood culture in hospitalized children in Vietnam. Among 554 enrolled clinically suspected patients, an additional 6 cases were diagnosed, while the incremental cost per case was USD500. Addition of blood culture is therefore not recommended for our total patient population, but may be considered in specific groups. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Borderline-Positive Quantiferon in Children
We systematically retested children with borderline-positive quantiferon (0.35–0.99 IU/mL) during the period 2015–2019. Among 647 tests, 27 (4%) were positive (>0.35 IU/mL). Borderline-positive quantiferon accounted for 10 of 27 (37%) positive tests. When retested, 9 of 10 (90%) were negative. Children younger than 5 years had negative tuberculin skin tests. Thus, we found high test variability in the borderline range and, in some children, high suspicion of false positive tests. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administered in a 3 + 1 versus 2 + 1 Dose Schedule Among Infants in China
Conclusions: PCV13 administered as a 3- or 2-dose infant series followed by a toddler dose was immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy Chinese infants and likely protective against PCV13 serotypes; immune responses with a 2-dose schedule were lower for some serotypes. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Nasal Sampling in Children Offers Accurate Pneumococcal Colonization Detection
Nasopharyngeal colonization of potential respiratory pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major source of transmission and precursor of invasive disease. Swabbing deeply the nasopharynx, which is currently recommended by World Health Organization, provides accurate pneumococcal detection but is unpleasant. We showed that nasal lining fluid filter strips offer equal detection sensitivity. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research

Epidemiologic and Molecular Study of EVs in Hospitalized Children With Severe Acute Respiratory Infection
Conclusions: This study showed that EV-positivity rate for our SARI series was 9%. The molecular detection and characterization of EVs allowed for the rapid detection of an EV-D68 outbreak and revealed the presence of emerging EV types that may pose a public health threat. The lack of routine screening and EV characterization in respiratory tract infections hampers the assessment of their epidemiologic and molecular features. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research

Utility of Surface and Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays in Identifying Infants With Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
Of 27 neonates with herpes simplex virus, DNAemia was observed in 100% with disseminated disease, 57% with central nervous system disease and 28% with skin, eye, mouth disease, suggesting DNAemia occurs frequently in these infants. Herpes simplex virus culture and polymerase chain reaction were performed on surface specimens from 13/27 infants, and ~50% tested positive only by polymerase chain reaction, suggesting the superiority of this technique. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cranial Ultrasonography in Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Incidence Trends, Risk Factors, Mortality and Healthcare Utilization in Congenital Syphilis-related Hospitalizations in the United States: A Nationwide Population Analysis
Background: Congenital syphilis (CS) is a devastating yet preventable disease affecting the fetus. Recent increase in cases of CS in the United States has been reported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. There is a lack of data on hospitalization trends and healthcare utilization related to CS. We sought to describe CS hospitalization trends, morbidity and mortality during 2009 through 2016 and related healthcare expenditure. Methods: National inpatient level data collected from Kid’s Inpatient Database and National Inpatient Sample databases from 2009 to 2016 were analyzed. CS hospitalizations were ...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

A Cluster of Bacillus cereus Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Epidemiologic and Whole-genome Sequencing Analysis
Bacillus cereus isolates causing an outbreak in the neonatal intensive care unit were investigated using whole-genome sequencing. The outbreak coincided with construction work performed adjacent to the neonatal intensive care unit and ceased after strict sealing of the construction area. We found the outbreak to be polyclonal, however, the clonality did not correlate with the virulence in vivo. Genotypically similar isolates were associated with both lethal/severe infection and colonization/environmental contamination. Environmental bacterial load may be a major determinant of infection, especially in high-risk patients. C...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Preterm Infants and Later Onset of Asthma
Conclusions: In prematurely born children, there is a moderate association between severe RSV infection, as measured by RSV-H in the first year of life, and asthma up to 5 years of age. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology and Host Response Source Type: research

Prolonged Antiretroviral Therapy in Adolescents With Vertical HIV Infection Leads to Different Cytokine Profiles Depending on Viremia Persistence
Conclusions: Persistent viremia despite ART leads to T cell activation and immune exhaustion with low cytokine production, whereas viral suppression by ART leads to parameters similar to CONTROL, although a different cytokine profile is observed, indicating residual HIV impact despite absence of detectable viremia. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Is Doxycycline Appropriate for Routine Treatment of Young Children With Erythema Migrans?
The frequency of permanent staining of teeth of young children from doxycycline is thought to be lower than from older tetracyclines, but the precise risk is uncertain. Until more definitive data become available, doxycycline should not be used routinely to treat young children with erythema migrans, a manifestation of Lyme disease for which other antimicrobials are highly effective. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

The Use of Colistin for the Treatment of Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Infections in Neonates and Infants: A Review of the Literature
In this review, we report the available data regarding efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of colistin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in neonates and infants. Seventeen clinical studies, involving 312 patients, and 3 pharmacokinetics studies were identified. Blood stream infection was the most common source of infection, followed by pneumonia and meningitis/ventriculitis. In most cases, colistin was administered in association with other antibiotics. The most common route of administration was intravenous, with colistimethate doses ranging from 25,000 to 225,000 IU/kg/day divided into 2 or...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Global Divergence From World Health Organization Treatment Guidelines for Neonatal and Pediatric Sepsis
We used data from 2 global point prevalence surveys of antibiotic prescribing to describe the treatment of sepsis in hospitalized neonates and children. One hundred eighty-five of 824 neonates (22.5%) and 9/786 children (1.1%) received a World Health Organization-recommended first-line treatment; of the remainder, 9/639 neonates (1.4%) and 102/777 children (13.1%) received a World Health Organization-recommended second-line treatment. Reasons for this low adherence to guidance should be explored. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Predictive Model for Discrimination of Tuberculous Pleural Effusion From Severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonic Effusion in Children
Conclusions: Applying a predictive model with clinical and laboratory indices can facilitate the differential diagnosis of TPE from SMPPE in children, which seems helpful when a microbiologic or histologic diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis could not be established. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - October 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research