Strikingly Decreased Community-acquired Pneumonia Admissions in Children Despite Open Schools and Day-care Facilities in Switzerland
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Tularemia in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Bacille Calmette–Guérin Osteitis After Newborn Vaccination
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Tic Disorder in an 8-Year-old Boy
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Fibrosing Mediastinitis Associated With Tuberculosis in Children
Two children developed fibrosing mediastinitis following past tuberculosis disease. Both were microbiologically negative for tuberculosis at presentation. One was treated with steroids and supportive therapy, but developed active tuberculosis with complications. He ultimately succumbed to healthcare-associated infection. The other recovered with steroids, administered along with antituberculosis treatment. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Coinfection in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients
In this study, children under 24 months of age hospitalized with respiratory compromise due to COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed according to the event of coinfection with respiratory syncytial virus. Of 32 patients, 18.7% had coinfection and these had a significantly longer length of stay. There were no differences regarding need for intensive care, mechanical ventilation or mortality rates. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

COVID-19-Related Potential Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Childhood in a Neonate Presenting as Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
A term infant with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn developed clinical and laboratory features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood (MIS-C) between days 12 and 14. Mother and baby were anti-SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG positive and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM negative on day 18, with negative COVID-19 PCR on repeated testing; possible first documentation of neonatal MIS-C following passive transfer of maternal antibodies. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Acute Pancreatitis in a Teenager With SARS-CoV-2 Infection
In this report, we present the case of 14-year-old boy with acute abdominal pain, with laboratory and radiologic findings consistent with acute pancreatitis, without any risk factors except for a SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Mistaken MIS-C: A Case Series of Bacterial Enteritis Mimicking MIS-C
We describe 5 children with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms initially concerning for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children who were ultimately diagnosed with bacterial enteritis, highlighting the diagnostic challenges presented by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-Antibodies in Danish Children and Adults
In conclusion, children and adults were infected to a similar low degree. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Severe Pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection Requiring Veno-venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
We report a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an otherwise healthy adolescent because of MP. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

VA-MENGOC-BC Vaccination Induces Serum and Mucosal Anti Neisseria gonorrhoeae Immune Responses and Reduces the Incidence of Gonorrhea
Conclusion: These results suggest a mechanism for the influence of a Proteoliposome-based meningococcal BC vaccine on gonococcal incidence. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Impact of the Rotavirus Vaccination Program in Norway After Four Years With High Coverage
Background: Use of rotavirus vaccines worldwide since 2006 has led to a significant impact on the burden of rotavirus disease. However, only a third of European countries have introduced rotavirus vaccination in their immunization programs. In October 2014, rotavirus vaccination was introduced for Norwegian infants under strict age restrictions. Exclusive use of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) and high vaccination coverage from the beginning enabled evaluation of the impact of this vaccine during the first 4 years after introduction. Methods: Prospective laboratory-based surveillance among children (Sourc...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Zygomycosis in a Preterm Neonate Associated With Contaminated Probiotics
A neonate of 29 weeks’ gestation who received probiotics developed clinical signs suggesting surgical necrotizing enterocolitis. A specimen of resected ileum revealed fungal forms within the bowel wall. Rhizopus oryzae was detected via DNA sequencing from probiotic powder and tissue specimens from the infant. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking gastrointestinal zygomycosis to the administration of contaminated probiotics. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Late-onset Neonatal Infections 1997 to 2017 Within a Cohort in Western Sweden—The Last 21 Years of a 43-Year Surveillance
The objective of the study was to assess the epidemiology of late-onset (LO) neonatal invasive infections with surveillance covering 43 years, starting from 1975. Methods: Observational epidemiologic, retrospective study including a cohort of infants born in western Sweden in 1997–2017, who had a positive blood and cerebral spinal fluid culture between 3 and 120 days of age. A comparison was made of the incidence between 1997–2007 and 2008–2017. Data on LO infections during 3–27 days of life were assessed from 1975. Results: A total of 473 cases of LO infections were registered in 437 ...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Geographic Range of Recreational Water-associated Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, United States, 1978–2018
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstracts Source Type: research

An 11-Year-old Male With X-linked Agammaglobulinemia and Persistent Abdominal Pain
We describe a child with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and chronic abdominal pain diagnosed with a multiorganism infection (Helicobacter cinaedi, Campylobacter coli and Parainfluenza) identified by various diagnostic tools, including plasma metagenomic next-generation sequencing. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology and Host Response Source Type: research

Prophylaxis With Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Is Not Necessary in Children With Solid Tumors Treated With Low–medium Intensity Chemotherapy
Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a standard of care for children with hematologic malignancies, while its use in solid tumor patients is still debated. A retrospective study focusing on the use of PJP prophylaxis in patients with solid tumors was performed among 16 AIEOP centers: 1046/2863 patients did not receive prophylaxis and no cases of PJP were reported. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology and Host Response Source Type: research

Awareness of and Attitudes Toward Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Predominantly Heterosexual Black Adolescents and Young Adults and Their Guardians in an Urban Area With HIV Epidemic in the United States
Among 185 Black, cis-gender, predominantly heterosexual adolescents and young adults (AYA) and 35 guardians surveyed in Washington, DC, the majority of AYA (96.8%) and guardians (94.3%) were unaware of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); 62.2% of AYA were uncertain if PrEP was safe or effective against HIV. Of 41.6% of AYA willing to use PrEP, 24.9% reported concern about PrEP-related social stigma. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

ART Initiation for Infants Diagnosed With HIV Through Point of Care and Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing in Kenya: A Case Series
We sought to understand the sequence of testing and treatment among nine infants offered both conventional and point-of-care testing and diagnosed as HIV-positive by 6 months of age in Kenya. One infant received per protocol testing and treatment. Patient-level (late presentation and disengagement), provider-level (reluctance and error/oversight) and system-level (stock outs, errors) challenges delayed diagnosis and treatment. Early point-of-care testing can streamline testing; however, challenges mitigate benefits. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Mortality in Perinatally HIV-infected Adolescents After Transition to Adult Care in Spain
Conclusions: Young adults PHIV infected who transition to AC without virologic suppression or proven ability to adhere to ART are at high risk of mortality. Mortality was noted as a consequence of advanced HIV disease, frequent mental health problems and poor adherence to ART. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Nevirapine Pharmacokinetics in Neonates Between 25 and 32 Weeks Gestational Age for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
Eleven newborns from 25 to 32 weeks of gestational age, weighting from 0.66 to 1.60 kg received 2 mg/kg doses of nevirapine syrup. In 15 samples, collected 8.75–89 hours after drug intake, concentrations ranged from 0.65 to 16.68 mg/L. Three nevirapine dose of 2 mg/kg at day 0, 2 and 6 days of life achieved nevirapine concentrations above the proposed nevirapine target for HIV prophylaxis for at least 11 days. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Against Contemporary Pathogens From Urinary Tract Infections and Intra-abdominal Infections Collected From US Children During the 2016–2019 INFORM Surveillance Program
Conclusions: Contemporary UTI and IAI pathogens collected from US children from 2016 to 2019 exhibited similar prevalence and susceptibilities as isolates collected from adult patients. CAZ-AVI exhibited potent activity against these pathogens. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Use of a Procalcitonin-guided Antibiotic Treatment Algorithm in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Conclusions: We found no difference in antibiotic DOT between study arms. This trial was underpowered but demonstrates feasibility of using a procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment algorithm with AS audit and feedback in the PICU. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Global Divergence of Antifungal Prescribing Patterns: Data From the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children Surveys
Background: Globally, invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have a significant impact in human health. With an increasing pediatric population at risk of IFD, effective antifungal drugs access and affordability should be ensured universally. The aim of our study was to characterize the global antifungal drug use in neonates and children and its variability between countries in different income groups. Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing and Efficacy in Neonates and Children Point Prevalence Survey project, consisting in 1 pilot and four 1-day Point Prevalence Survey betwe...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Sulfadiazine Hypersensitivity and Desensitization in Children With Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Report on Two Cases
Combination therapy for toxoplasmosis consists of sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and leucovorin. Although sulfadiazine can cause hypersensitivity reactions, such as fever, rash and liver dysfunction, there is no consensus on an effective therapy for congenital toxoplasmosis (CTox) without sulfadiazine. We attempted desensitization to sulfadiazine in 2 patients with CTox and sulfadiazine hypersensitivity. Desensitization was achieved for 1 patient. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Single-dose Tedizolid Phosphate in Children 2 to
We describe a single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety study of tedizolid phosphate, a new oxazolidinone under investigation for the treatment of ABSSSIs in children, in hospitalized participants 2 to (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Schools Closures During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Catastrophic Global Situation
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Invasive Bacterial and Fungal Infections After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Single-center Experience
Conclusions: The rate of postoperative bacterial or fungal infection at our institution is comparable to current literature. High surgical complexity score and prolonged length of PICU stay were risk factors for bacterial or fungal infections in this patient population. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Validation of the Rule of 7’s for Identifying Children at Low-risk for Lyme Meningitis
Conclusions: The Rule of 7’s accurately identified children with meningitis at low-risk for Lyme meningitis for whom clinicians should consider outpatient management while awaiting Lyme disease test results. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Acute Gastroenteritis Disease Burden in Infants With Medical Risk Conditions in the Netherlands
Conclusion: The observed AGE incidence, severity and healthcare usage among medical risk infants confirms substantial disease burden. Norovirus and rotavirus are the dominant pathogens and severe episodes occurred most frequently in children with rotavirus infection. AGE prevention in medical risk infants should be prioritized. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Childhood Outcomes Following Parechovirus Infections in a US Young Infant Cohort
Conclusions: Parent concerns were identified frequently following infant PeV-A3 disease. Eleven percent had neurodevelopmental impairment at 3 years of age. Severity at presentation did not correlate with adverse childhood outcomes. Longitudinal developmental monitoring following infantile PeV-A3 disease is warranted. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Virus Shedding in Patients With Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Induced by EV71, CA16 or CA6: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Background: As the highly contagious hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) spreads rapidly among children, isolation is the most effective way to control its spread. However, studies on the duration of virus shedding of the HFMD-related enterovirus and a reasonable quarantine period for HFMD patients are inconsistent. Methods: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the viral shedding of patients with HFMD caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and coxsackievirus A6. Results: A total of 17 observational studies evaluating 626 participants were included. In the f...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Kawasaki Disease and Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome Hospitalization Rates in the United States, 2006–2018
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a febrile illness of unknown etiology. Patients with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) may present with clinical signs of poor perfusion and systolic hypotension in addition to typical KD features. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzes and interprets large hospitalization databases as a mechanism for conducting national KD surveillance. Methods: The Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID), the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS), and the IBM MarketScan Commercial (MSC) and MarketScan Medicaid (MSM) databases were analyzed to determin...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Intestinal Microbiota in Children With Symptomatic Dientamoeba fragilis Infection: A Case-control Study
Conclusion: Intestinal microbiota does not seem to play a key role in the presence of clinical symptoms in children with D. fragilis. The pathogenicity of D. fragilis and pathophysiologic pathways underlying the development of gastrointestinal symptoms remains yet to be clarified. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19 in Children
Conclusions: Extremes of age, comorbid conditions, and elevated CRP are predictors of severe disease in children. Findings from this study can inform pediatric providers and public health officials to tailor clinical management, pandemic planning, and resource allocation. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Evaluation of COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal in Parents
Objective: The frequency of vaccine refusal, which is associated with many factors, is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to predict the frequency of vaccine refusal against domestic and foreign COVID-19 vaccines and identify the factors underlying refusal. Methods: A survey consisting of 16 questions about COVID-19 vaccination was conducted either face-to-face or online with 428 parents who agreed to participate in the study. The parents had children who were inpatients or outpatients in the Children’s Hospital of Ankara City Hospital. In the survey, parents were asked about family sociodemog...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Among Youth
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

An 11-Year-old Male Presenting With Fever and Vomiting
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Isavuconazole as Salvage Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Coccidioidal Meningitis
We describe a case of refractory pediatric coccidioidal meningitis with disease stabilization and improvement on isavuconazole after failing treatment with other antifungal agents. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Toxic Shock Syndrome in Patients Younger than 21 Years of Age, United States, 2006–2018
We examined the incidence of toxic shock syndrome in the United States during 2006–2018 among persons (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Clinically Mild Encephalitis/Encephalopathy with a Reversible Splenial Lesion Associated with Rhinovirus
A 2-year-old girl with fever and seizures was diagnosed as having clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging. Virologic analysis identified human rhinovirus A49 in her serum. Although human rhinovirus rarely involves the central nervous system, such involvement could result in mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in Tropical French Reunion Island
Conclusion: The overall prevalence of NTM in tropical Reunion Island is 3 times higher than in metropolitan France. A different environmental exposure in a tropical climate or risk factors related to cystic fibrosis or its treatment in Reunion patients could explain it. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Systemic Cat-Scratch Disease: a “Troublesome” Diagnosis
Diagnosis of systemic cat scratch disease may be challenging. Here, we describe a case of an immunocompetent girl exhibiting fever and multifocal hepatosplenic abscesses. Diagnostic tests for Bartonella henselae infection (enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction) were found steadily negative and the diagnosis, suspected on the basis of the Margilet’s criteria, was finally confirmed by indirect immunofluorescent antibodies. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vertical Transmission from an Asymptomatic Mother
We report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vertical transmission from asymptomatic mother, with molecular detection in mother’s blood at delivery and neonatal nasopharyngeal swabs at 5 and 28 hours of life and later IgG seroconversion. The newborn was asymptomatic. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Abnormal Nailfold Capillaroscopy in a Patient With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
We report a case of MIS-C in a toddler that presented with persistent fever, gastrointestinal symptoms and rash. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was abnormal, suggesting microcirculatory disease in the setting of MIS-C. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children During SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. Is it All COVID-19? Comparison Between COVID and Non-COVID Pneumonia
Our study describes more than 100 children hospitalized with pneumonia during lockdown in the first pandemic wave with only 20% attributable to SARS-CoV-2. The serologic study during follow-up only helped to detect 4%. Other etiologies were common. Older age, presence of headache, vomiting, lymphopenia and thrombopenia were associated with COVID-19 pneumonia. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Implementation Experience With Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccines in the United States: Impact of a Nonroutine Recommendation
Conclusions: Five years of evidence regarding the MenB vaccination implementation experience suggest that the nonstandard recommendation for MenB vaccines is partly responsible for low vaccine coverage. Further, inconsistent implementation of ACIP recommendations could be limiting access to MenB vaccines. Providers need additional support and guidance to implement the shared clinical decision-making recommendation, in turn ensuring equitable access for vaccine-eligible adolescents to enable comprehensive protection against meningococcal disease. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of Vero Cell Culture-derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine in Pediatric and Young Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients
Conclusions: The inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine may be safe and effective for immunization against JE virus in children and young adults who have undergone HSCT. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Enhanced Protection Against Diarrhea Among Breastfed Infants of Nonsecretor Mothers
Diarrhea is a major cause of infant mortality. Being a “nonsecretor” (having an inactive fucosyltransferase-2 gene) protects against diarrhea by inhibiting enteric infections. Breastfeeding also protects against diarrhea; however, the impact of maternal secretor status is unknown. In the ALSPAC cohort (N = 4971), we found that breastfeeding by nonsecretor mothers was especially protective against diarrhea, which could inform new prevention strategies. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research