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Notes From the Field: Cronobacter sakazakii Infection Associated With Feeding Extrinsically Contaminated Expressed Human Milk to a Premature Infant—Pennsylvania, 2016
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstracts Source Type: research

Expanding the Spectrum of Post-malaria Neurologic Syndrome in the Pediatric Population
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Use of Linezolid in a Child With Tuberculous Meningitis
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Lemierre’s Syndrome Presenting as Multifocal Pyomyositis in a Young Child
We present here a case of multifocal pyomyositis caused by Fusobacterium spp. in a young child. Fusobacterium should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multifocal pyomyositis of unclear etiology. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Would Parents Consent to a Comparative Effectiveness Trial of Oral Doxycycline Versus Intravenous Ceftriaxone for the Treatment of Children with Lyme Meningitis?
Children with Lyme meningitis are often treated with intravenous ceftriaxone, although oral doxycycline may be effective. Parents were surveyed after observing a video describing a hypothetical Lyme meningitis treatment trial. Eighty-four of 102 (82%) would consent to their child participating. Parents would accept 2 additional days of symptoms (noninferiority margin) with doxycycline even if ceftriaxone hastened symptom resolution. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium Species are Frequently Present But Rarely Detected in Clinical Samples From Children with Diarrhea in a Developed Country
Two studies were done on cryptosporidiosis in children. A retrospective survey showed that from 2005 to 2015, Cryptosporidium species was detected by microscopy of stool from 0.25% of children with diarrhea. In a subsequent prospective study, polymerase chain reaction detected Cryptosporidium species in 4 (1.3%) of 304 children. Cryptosporidium species is as frequent as other intestinal pathogens in childhood diarrhea. Testing is relevant. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Clinical Manifestations of Cryptosporidiosis and Identification of a New Cryptosporidium Subtype in Patients From Sonora, Mexico
The aim of this study was to identify the clinical manifestations of cryptosporidiosis and the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes in children in Sonora, Mexico. Two subtypes of C. parvum, including IIaA15G2R1 and IIcA5G3a, and 6 subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA12G3, IdA23, IeA11G3T3, and a new subtype IaA14R11, were identified. Cryptosporidium as an etiologic agent for acute gastroenteritis is discussed. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative Blood Stream Infections in Children With Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Outcome
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Visceral Leishmaniasis—Optimum Treatment Options in Children
Visceral leishmaniasis affects 200–400 thousands people annually worldwide. For last few decades, there has been a steady decline in the response to pentavalent antimonial (Sbv), the drug that has been used for treating visceral leishmaniasis for almost a century. Oral miltefosine and amphotericin B are alternative drugs being been used in the treatment of leishmaniasis in children. Liposomal amphotericin B has the advantage over conventional amphotericin B is that higher doses can be given with fewer adverse effects. Liposomal amphotericin B in combination with other drugs is the preferred treatment option globally ...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Safety and Immunogenicity of Seven Dosing Regimens of the Candidate RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Vaccine Integrated Within an Expanded Program on Immunization Regimen: A Phase II, Single-Center, Open, Controlled Trial in Infants in Malawi
Conclusions: Initiation of RTS,S/AS01E vaccination above 6 weeks of age tended to improve anti-CS antibody responses. Neonatal vaccination was well tolerated but produced a comparatively lower immune response. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Immune Responses to Booster Vaccination With Meningococcal ABCWY Vaccine After Primary Vaccination With Either Investigational or Licensed Vaccines: A Phase 2 Randomized Study
Conclusions: MenABCWY may be suitable for prime-boost schedules against meningococcal disease, including regimens involving a primary series of either 4CMenB or MenACWY-CRM licensed vaccines. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Vaccinations and Malaria Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescents Traveling From Greece to International Destinations: A Nine-Year Prospective Study
Conclusions: Only a small number of adolescents from Greece traveling abroad seek pretravel counseling. We found significant gaps in typhoid fever and rabies vaccinations of adolescents traveling to endemic areas. We also found gaps in prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis for those traveling to high-risk areas. There is a need to develop communication strategies to access adolescent travelers and improve appropriate vaccination and use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Resurgence of Pertussis and Emergence of the Ptxp3 Toxin Promoter Allele in South Italy
This study aimed to describe the pertussis epidemiology in the Puglia region in 2006–2015 and to identify recent polymorphisms in Bordetella pertussis virulence-associated genes. Methods: The pertussis cases in 2006–2015 were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the Information System of Infectious Diseases. Samples of pertussis cases in 2014–2016 that were confirmed by the Regional Reference Laboratory were subjected to ptxA, ptxP and prn gene sequencing and, in 10 cases, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Results: In Puglia in 2006–2015, the pertus...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Acquired Infection and Antimicrobial Utilization During Initial NICU Hospitalization in Infants With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
Background: In addition to substantial medical and surgical intervention, neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia often have concurrent concerns for acquired infection. However, few studies focus on infection and corresponding antimicrobial utilization in this population. Methods: The Children’s Hospital Neonatal Database was queried for congenital diaphragmatic hernia infants hospitalized from January 2010 to February 2016. Patient charts were linked to the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. Descriptive clinical data including delivery history, cultures sent, diagnosed infection, antimicrobial...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Immunoglobulin Substitution and Supportive Measures Prevent Infections in MECP2 Duplication Syndrome
We report on a 20-year-old patient with MECP2 duplication syndrome, IgG2/IgG4/IgA/IgM deficiency and polysaccharide-specific antibody deficiency, who had 46 episodes of pneumonia in his first 13 8/12 years of life. Immunoglobulin substitution, daily antibiotic prophylaxis with two agents and supportive measures reduced occurrence of pneumonia to four episodes in the following 6 2/12 years of life. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology Reports Source Type: research

Vaccination in Pregnancy—Recent Developments: ERRATUM
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Efficacy of Maraviroc in Treatment-experienced Pediatric Patients Infected With CCR5-Tropic HIV-1
Conclusions: The maraviroc dosing strategy resulted in participants achieving the target Cavg, with exposure ranges similar to those observed in adults on approved doses. The safety and efficacy of maraviroc in this pediatric population were comparable to those seen in adults. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization and Impact of a Single Dose of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Indian Children With HIV and Their Unvaccinated Parents
Conclusion: While there was no difference in acquisition of VT nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in CLH and HUC after one dose of PCV13, earlier access to ART may impact response to PCV13 in CLH. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children With Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: Evidence for optimal treatment options for HIV/TB coinfected children is limited. As the global community strives to reach the fast-track HIV treatment targets and eliminate childhood TB deaths, it must ensure that coinfected children are included in key treatment studies and expand this neglected but crucial area of research. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Pneumococcal Immune Response in Infants Whose Mothers Received Tetanus, Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy: ERRATUM
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Analysis of Hypokalemia as a Side Effect of Liposomal Amphotericin in Pediatric Patients
Background: Liposomal amphotericin (L-AMB) is a widely used broad-spectrum antifungal drug. Although L-AMB demonstrates better safety compared with amphotericin, renal dysfunction and hypokalemia are well-known adverse effects of L-AMB. Method: We analyzed 56 episodes in 40 children and adolescents who received L-AMB therapy to determine risk factors of hypokalemia. Results: Hypokalemia ( (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Children With Respiratory Viruses Detected by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Conclusions: Providers are more likely to use antibiotics in non-RSV–infected patients compared with RSV. These trends likely represent concern about bacterial superinfection and may reflect lack of familiarity with these pathogens. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Commentary: Quantifying the Impact of Maternal Influenza Vaccination—Beyond Laboratory-Confirmed Efficacy
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Maternal Influenza Immunization and Prevention of Severe Clinical Pneumonia in Young Infants: Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Conducted in Nepal, Mali and South Africa
Conclusions: Maternal influenza immunization may reduce severe pneumonia episodes among infants—particularly those too young to be completely vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Improvements in Antimicrobial Prescribing and Outcomes in Pediatric Complicated Appendicitis
Conclusions: Complicated appendicitis is an important target for antimicrobial stewardship and quality improvement efforts. A condition-specific CPG can improve both antimicrobial utilization and clinical outcomes. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Potential Diarrheal Pathogens Common Also in Healthy Children in Angola
Background: Globally, diarrhea kills almost 1500 children daily. In diagnostics, molecular methods are replacing traditional assays. We aimed to investigate enteropathogens in children with and without diarrhea in Luanda, the capital of Angola. Methods: One hundred and ninety-four stool samples from 98 children with acute diarrhea and 96 children without diarrhea were investigated for 17 enteropathogens with multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The median age of children was 10.5 months. Enteropathogens, bacteria, viruses and parasites were detected in 91%, 78%, 50% and 25%, respectively. A posit...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Childhood Visceral Leishmaniasis: Distinctive Features and Diagnosis of a Re-emerging Disease. An 11-year Experience From a Tertiary Referral Center in Athens, Greece
Conclusions: VL still affects children in our area. Fever, splenomegaly, anemia and appetite loss are the typical findings in children. Noninvasive techniques (immunofluorescent antibody test, rK39) in combination with bone marrow microscopy are useful in the diagnosis of pediatric VL. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Arthroscopic Versus Open Treatment for Acute Septic Arthritis of the Knee in Children
Conclusions: For acute pediatric septic knee arthritis, arthroscopic irrigation is associated with less repeat surgical irrigations and allows earlier knee ranging and weight-bearing compared with open irrigation. At long-term follow-up, no significant difference was found between groups. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Resource Allocation Strategies to Increase the Efficiency and Sustainability of Gavi’s Health System Strengthening Grants
Conclusions: To increase the efficiency and sustainability of Gavi’s HSS grants, recipient countries need to consider health workforce and leadership/governance prior, or in parallel to strengthening other building blocks of their health systems. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Long-term Central Venous Catheter–associated Bloodstream Infections in Children
Conclusions: CLABSI prevention is of particular concern for children with a prior BSI. Furthermore, the antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens should be monitored to enable the empiric selection of appropriate antibiotics in patients with long-term CVCs. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Concurrent Community Transmission of Enterovirus D68 With Human Rhinoviruses and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Among Children in Sendai, Japan
Background: In the autumn of 2015, we experienced a surge in the number of pediatric cases of wheeze in our hospital, which was suspected to be caused by enterovirus (EV)-D68 transmission in the community. Thus, we implemented an ad hoc retrospective surveillance for EV-D68. Methods: Patients (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Refined Lab-score, a Risk Score Predicting Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Children Less Than 3 Years of Age
Background: The identification of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children with fever without source remains a challenge. A risk score called Lab-score, based on C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and urinary dipstick results was derived to predict SBI. However, all biomarkers were initially dichotomized, leading to weak statistical reliability and lack of transportability across diverse settings. We aimed to refine and validate this risk-score algorithm. Methods: The Lab-score was refined using a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort study of children with fever without source via multilevel regression model...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccination Before 3 Years of Age and Subsequent Development of Asthma: A 14-year Follow-up Study
Conclusions: We found no evidence of increased risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis among children younger than 3 years of age who received LAIV compared with placebo. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Commentary: Roger Baxter
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

36th ESPID Annual Meeting in Malmo, Sweden May 28th – June 2nd 2018
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID News Source Type: research

Amikacin Monotherapy for Treatment of Febrile Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

A Clear-cut Case of Acute Rheumatic Fever After Group G Streptococcal Pharyngitis in New Zealand
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Re: “Mycobacterial Disease in Immunocompromised Children in a High Endemic Area”
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Sapovirus in Rectal and Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples of Children with Symptoms of Acute Gastroenteritis
The study included 102 hospitalized children 0–72 months of age, with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. One fecal and one nasopharyngeal swab sample were obtained from each child. Samples were screened for sapovirus and viral loads were determined. Sapovirus was detected in 18.6% of fecal samples and in 36.3% of nasopharyngeal swab samples. High viral loads were detected. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Cerebral Infarction and Refractory Seizures in a Neonate with Suspected Zika Virus Infection
This report may impact the evolving definition of congenital Zika syndrome. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Early-onset Neonatal Pneumococcal Sepsis: A Fatal Case Report and Brief Literature Review
We report a fatal case of invasive pneumococcal disease in a term neonate whose mother was healthy and did not receive any pneumococcal vaccine. Investigation of the infection source yielded negative results. Acquisition of infection through the birth canal was considered unlikely. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Fulminant Haemophilus Influenzae Type a Infection in a 4-year-old with Previously Undiagnosed Asplenic Heterotaxy
The post Hib-vaccine era has resulted in increased cases of invasive, non-Hib, Haemophilus influenzae infections. One of the encapsulated species, type a, displays the most similarity in virulence to type b. Our patient, a fully vaccinated 4-year-old female, with newly diagnosed asplenia in the setting of heterotaxy, had a prolonged hospital course with disseminated Haemophilus influenzae type a infection. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

No Detection of Entamoeba Histolytica by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in Children With Acute Non-bloody Diarrhea in Guatemala
Entamoeba histolytica is believed to be a ubiquitous cause of pediatric non-bloody diarrhea. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay, we identified stool pathogens in 298 Guatemalan children presenting with acute, non-bloody diarrhea. Despite a high overall pathogen burden, we identified no cases of E. histolytica. Knowledge of local epidemiology is important to inform E. histolytica therapeutic strategies in low-income settings. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Disseminated Cryptococcosis With Severe Increased Intracranial Pressure Complicated With Cranial Nerve Palsy in a Child
Cryptococcosis is less common in children than in adults but remains an important cause of pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Intracranial hypertension commonly complicates cryptococcal meningitis and may cause significant visual and neurologic morbidity and mortality. Early and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension in accordance with established guidelines reduces the risk of long-term complications and death. In this case report, we present a 12-year-old girl with cryptococcal meningitis, pneumonitis and dermatitis complicated with cranial nerve palsy an...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Case of Infantile Legionella Pneumonia After Bathing in Reheated and Reused Water
A 1-month-old girl developed respiratory failure due to bilateral interstitial pneumonia after bathing in reheated and reused water. A molecular test for sputum and an environmental culture detected Legionella pneumophila serotype 1. This is the first report of infantile legionellosis contracted from a bathtub at home. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Malaria—Update on Antimalarial Resistance and Treatment Approaches
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Differences in Immunization Site Pain in Toddlers Vaccinated With Either the 10- or the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Conclusions: PCV-10 administration was associated with slightly less acute pain compared with the injection of PCV-13, but the size of the difference was small and is of unknown clinical significance. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Safety and Immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine in 4–6-year-old Girls: Results to Month 12 From a Randomized Trial
Background: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Decreased Acute Otitis Media With Treatment Failure After Introduction of the Ten-valent Pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine
Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) nonresponsive to antibiotics is most commonly caused by antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. A strategy for treating these infections with parenteral ceftriaxone was adopted at the Children’s Hospital Iceland. The 10-valent pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine was introduced into the vaccination program in Iceland in 2011. The aim was to study its effect on the incidence of AOM with treatment failure. Methods: This retrospective observational study included children who visited the Children’s Hospital Iceland becaus...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Pneumococcal Vaccination and Pneumonia Associated With Pleural Effusion in a Pediatric Population
Objective: The aim was to assess the effect of the nonsystematic pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on incidence of pneumonia associated with parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Methods: Cases were patients (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research