Denouement
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Denouement Source Type: research

A Teenage Girl With Aseptic Meningitis and Abdominal Pain
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Utility of Clinical and Laboratory Decision Rules in Identifying Bacterial Meningitis Among Children with Suspicion of Central Nervous System Infections in a Malaria-Endemic Area, Mbarara, Uganda
Several decision rules combining clinical and biological parameters have been proposed to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis, but have not been evaluated in Africa. In children hospitalized with suspected central nervous system infections in Uganda, we found that the Bacterial Meningitis Score and Meningitest showed lower performance than in European children, and that a decision rule designed specifically using parameters associated with bacterial meningitis also showed inadequate diagnostic performance for clinical use. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Specimen Pooling as a Diagnostic Strategy for Microbiologic Confirmation in Children with Intrathoracic Tuberculosis
Three-hundred four young children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis had a gastric aspirate, induced sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate collected on each of 2 consecutive weekdays. Specimens collected on the second day were pooled in the laboratory for each child individually. The diagnostic yield by Xpert and culture from pooled specimens was not significantly different to a single gastric aspirate. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

ESPID Awards
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Awards Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine 6 Years After MenC Priming as Toddlers
Background: We assessed immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of the meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in children primed as toddlers with MenC vaccine. Methods: This open, multicenter extension study enrolled children 84–95 months of age who had received one dose of the combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine (HibMenC group) or Hib-TT and monovalent MenC (MCC)-CRM197 vaccines (Hib+MCC group) at 12–18 months of age, in the primary study. All participants received one dose of MenACWY-TT. We assessed immunogenici...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Respiratory Microbiota Predicts Clinical Disease Course of Acute Otorrhea in Children With Tympanostomy Tubes
Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infections, generally thought to be caused by ascension of bacteria from the nasopharynx (NP) to the middle ear. Using 16S ribosomal RNA–based sequencing, we evaluated the relationship between the NP and middle ear fluid (MEF) microbiota in children with AOM with tympanostomy tubes (AOMT) as a proxy for AOM and explored whether microbiota profiling predicts natural disease course. Methods: Microbiota profiles of paired NP and MEF samples of 94 children below 5 years of age with uncomplicated AOMT were determined. Results: Local diversity...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research

Outbreak of Yersiniabactin-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Conclusions: Yersiniabactin-producing K. pneumoniae can display a high pathogenicity in extremely premature infants with low chronologic age. This outbreak also underlines the considerable potential of today’s infection control systems for recognizing and controlling nosocomial infections in highly vulnerable populations. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Overestimation of an Outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Germany, 2015
Conclusions: Forty-one suspected patients were cohorted and the NICU was temporarily closed. Further analyses revealed that only 16 cases belonged to the outbreak. Only close interdisciplinary collaboration and highly discriminatory genotyping methods allowed to clearly differentiate between cases and noncases in this E. cloacae outbreak. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or From Pakistan—United States, 2016–2018
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstracts Source Type: research

Determinants of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination Uptake in Pregnancy: A Multicenter Questionnaire Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professionals
Conclusion: Misconceptions exist regarding safety/efficacy of antenatal vaccination, and framing information towards the child’s safety may increase uptake. Education of HCPs is essential, and vaccine promotion should be incorporated into routine antenatal care, with an emphasis on women from ethnic minorities. Administration of vaccines in primary care presents logistical barriers; however, support for alternative sites appears low among HCPs. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Group B Streptococcal Neonatal and Early Infancy Infections in Iceland, 1976–2015
Background: Despite a risk-based peripartum chemoprophylaxis approach in Iceland since 1996, Streptococcus agalactiae [group B streptococci (GBS)] remains an important cause of early-onset [ (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Virologic Outcomes Among Tanzanian Youth Living With HIV
This study evaluated risk behavior, virologic outcomes and HIV resistance mutations in Tanzanian youth living with HIV. Participants were primarily perinatally infected and of mean age 16.7 years; among them 41.5% had VF. Those receiving first-line therapy demonstrated over 90% resistance to their current therapy. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States in the Era of Its Elimination
The number of infants born with HIV in the United States has decreased for years, approaching the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s incidence goal for eliminating perinatal HIV transmission. We reviewed recent literature on perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. Among perinatally HIV-exposed infants (whose mothers have HIV, without regard to infants’ HIV diagnosis), prenatal and natal antiretroviral use has increased, maternal HIV infection is more frequently diagnosed before pregnancy and breast-feeding is uncommon. In contrast, mothers of infants with HIV are tested at a lower rate for HI...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Gingival Recession and Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Among HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
This study reports on the prevalence of these conditions among children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: A cross-sectional study on HIV-infected children and adolescents attending a Pediatric HIV clinic in Gauteng, South Africa, between January 2013 and June 2016. Patients received an oral examination and oral hygiene instructions, irrespective of oral- or dental-related complaints. Hard and soft tissue pathology was managed and recorded, together with relevant demographic and clinical data. Statistical analysis was performed in Stata 14 with P (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Acceptability of a Novel Levofloxacin Dispersible Tablet Formulation in Young Children Exposed to Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis
Levofloxacin is used for the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children, but current adult formulations are poorly palatable. A questionnaire administered to caregivers of 27 children taking a novel 100 mg dispersible taste-masked levofloxacin tablet found the new formulation to be more palatable (69%) and easier to prepare (81%) than the adult formulation. This formulation may assist children to better adhere to anti-tuberculous therapy. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Impact of Ceftazidime Use on Susceptibility Patterns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Conclusions: Ceftazidime use did not appear to affect susceptibility rates for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins for most Gram-negative organisms in the short-term of 1.5 years. However, susceptibility rates for P. aeruginosa decreased when evaluating duplicate isolates. Long-term monitoring is needed to assess the true impact. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Pattern of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bloodstream Isolates From Chinese Neonates
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Community Origins and Regional Differences Highlight Risk of Plasmid-mediated Fluoroquinolone Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections in Children
Conclusions: The strong association of infection with MDR organisms showing FQR with patient residence rather than with traditional risk factors suggests that the community environment is a major contributor to spread of these pathogens in children. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease and Mortality Risk Factors in Argentina: 18 Years of Active Surveillance in a Children’s Hospital
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children. We aimed to describe the clinical-epidemiologic pattern and risk factors for mortality associated with RSV infection. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study of acute lower respiratory infection in children admitted to the Children’s Hospital during 2000 to 2017. Viral diagnosis was made by fluorescent antibody techniques or real-time-polymerase chain reaction. We compared clinical-epidemiologic characteristics of RSV infection in nonfatal versus fatal cases. Multiple logistic regression w...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Analysis and Epidemiology of Kawasaki Disease in Western New York: A 16-Year Review of Cases Presenting to a Single Tertiary Care Center
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the leading causes of acquired heart disease in children in developed nations. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that KD is related to an infectious agent; however, the cause remains unknown. Yearly incidence in Japan has been steadily increasing, but few long-term databases of KD cases from North America have been reviewed. Methods: We reviewed the epidemiology of local cases over a 16-year period to study incidence with time and temporal and geographic clustering of cases in a representative cohort in North America. Results: The yearly incidence in cases per population (S...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Etiology of Childhood Otorrhea in Luanda, Angola, and a Review of Otitis Media in African Children
Conclusions: In Angola, Gram-negative rods emerged as common causative agents of otorrhea in children followed by S. aureus. The magnitude of chronic otorrhea in Africa represents a cause for public health concern. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Campylobacter Gastroenteritis in New Zealand Children and the Effect of The Campylobacter Strategy: A 20-year Observational Study
This study aimed to describe epidemiologic trends in disease notifications and hospital admissions because of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in NZ children from 1997 to 2016. Methods: In this population-based descriptive study, age-specific and age-standardized notification and hospitalization rates were analyzed for Campylobacter infections in children (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptom Severity in Healthy Children
This study assessed whether wintertime high-dose vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU/day) reduces URTI symptom severity compared with standard-dose (400 IU/day) supplementation in preschool children. Secondary objectives were to assess effects of high-dose supplementation on outpatient physician visits, emergency department (ED) visits and antibiotic prescriptions for URTI. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a multisite randomized clinical trial involving 703 healthy 1- to 5-year-old children in Toronto, Canada. High-dose or standard-dose oral vitamin D was randomly assigned for 1 winter season. For each URTI, par...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Impact of Rapid On-demand Molecular Diagnosis of Pediatric Seasonal Influenza on Laboratory Workflow and Testing Costs: A Retrospective Study
Background: Seasonal influenza imposes a considerable burden worldwide. We aimed to evaluate impact of rapid pediatric seasonal influenza diagnosis on laboratory workflow and cost using a rapid antigen detection-based test combined with either a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or the Alere i Influenza A and B (Alere i) assay for confirmation of negative results as well as single Alere i testing on nasopharyngeal aspirates. A secondary objective was assessing performance of Alere i against RT-PCR. Methods: Effects of implementing the 3 diagnostic algorithms were assessed in the Emergency Depart...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Pertussis Morbidity in Children 12–59 Months of Age: A NSW Public Health Network Study
Conclusions: Substantial morbidity was observed in this age group with some evidence that the reintroduction of an 18-month acellular pertussis booster lessened disease severity. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Measles Hospitalizations at a United States Children’s Hospital 2011–2017
Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of measles complications and treatment. Public and private health efforts should continue to focus on immunization, given significant implications of measles infections for patients and healthcare systems. Future studies may assess complications of measles across the United States as individual outbreaks often occur in specific populations, making generalization of results challenging. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Low Ureaplasma Polymerase Chain Reaction Positivity Rate Among Newborns in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Intermediate Special Care Nursery
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Point-of-care Ultrasound for Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Denouement
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Pseudoparalysis of the Right Arm in a 6-week-old Infant
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Respiratory Viruses Frequently Mimic Pertussis in Young Infants
Bordetella pertussis is prevalent among infants, but its diagnosis is complicated by the fact that its signs and symptoms overlap with respiratory viruses. Indeed, when evaluating the etiology of infants less than 1 year of age suspected of having pertussis, we found that respiratory viruses frequently mimic B. pertussis and are more likely to be the causative agent. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Positive 2-Tiered Lyme Disease Serology is Uncommon in Asymptomatic Children Living in Endemic Areas of the United States
Knowing the frequency of positive Lyme disease serology in children without signs of infection facilitates test interpretation. Of 315 asymptomatic children from Lyme disease endemic regions, 32 had positive or equivocal C6 enzyme-linked immunoassays, but only 5 had positive IgG or IgM supplemental immunoblots (1.6%; 95% confidence interval: 0.7%–3.7%). (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Central Nervous System Infections Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus: Ventricular Shunt Infection in Two Pediatric Patients and Literature Review
Abstract: A 4-year-old former 24-week gestation male and an 18-month-old former 26-week gestation female, both with history of intraventricular hemorrhage resulting in hydrocephalus, presented with Mycobacterium abscessus ventricular shunt infections affecting both the shunt track and the ventricular fluid. Both children required prolonged combination antimycobacterial therapy; the 4 years old required more than 2 months of triple intravenous antibiotics and intraventricular amikacin to sterilize the cerebrospinal fluid. Each infection came under control only after removal of all foreign material and multiple and extensi...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Immunopathology of Aspergillus Infections in Children With Chronic Granulomatous Disease and Cystic Fibrosis
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Rotavirus Vaccination Does Not Increase Type 1 Diabetes and May Decrease Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents
Conclusions: RV vaccination using RotaTeq did not alter the occurrence of DM1 but decreased the prevalence of CD in childhood and adolescence. We propose that wild-type RV may trigger CD and the triggering effect can be prevented or reduced by RV vaccination. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Dengue Vaccine Booster in Healthy Adolescents and Adults in Latin America: Evaluation 4–5 Years After a Primary 3-Dose Schedule
Conclusions: Antidengue NAb levels can be boosted to levels at least as high as, or higher than those observed after completion of the primary 3-dose series, with an additional dose of CYD-TDV 4–5 years after the standard 3-dose vaccination schedule. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

High-density Bacterial Nasal Carriage in Children Is Transient and Associated With Respiratory Viral Infections—Implications for Transmission Dynamics
Conclusions: For Sp and Hi, the association between young age and higher bacterial DNA density was explained by more frequent viral infection and increased nasal discharge, while the associations between some viral specie’s and some bacterial species’ density appear to be stronger than others. Increased colonization density and rhinitis may promote transmission of these commonly carried organisms. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research

Minimum Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Based on Blood Culture in Rule Out Neonatal Sepsis
The objective of the study was to analyze time to positive blood culture in rule out sepsis and estimate the minimum duration of antibiotics. Methods: Retrospective analysis of blood culture at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, McMaster Children’s Hospital (January 2004 to December 2013) using BacT/Alert® 3D microbial system was conducted. We calculated average time taken for blood culture samples to emit a positive signal and compared it between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to detect positive culture were generated. A Cox proportional hazard regression model with the...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Predictors of Poor Outcomes Among Infants With Respiratory Syncytial Virus–associated Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Botswana
Among children 1–23 months of age with respiratory syncytial virus–associated acute lower respiratory infection in Botswana, young age ( (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Is Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Dried Blood Spots Reliable for the Diagnosis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection?
Conclusions: The sensitivity of CMV rt-PCR in DBS in our series was low and correlated with the bVL. Thus, a negative DBS result would not rule out cCMV infection, especially in patients with a low viremia level at birth. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Group B Streptococci: Declining Incidence in Infants in Germany
This study is the first to assess changes in the incidence of invasive GBS in Germany after the implementation of the guidelines for intrapartum prophylaxis for pregnant women colonized with GBS. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Report of Resistant Varicella Zoster Infection Treated With Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in a Pediatric Oncology Patient
We report an 8-year-old boy with disseminated, life-threatening, drug treatment-resistant varicella zoster infection occurring during standard treatment for neuroblastoma in whom viral clearance and cure was effected by donor Lymphocyte infusion from his HLA (Human leukocyte antigen)-identical twin sibling. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology Reports Source Type: research

Predictors of Perinatal HIV Transmission Among Women Without Prior Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting: The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition Study
Conclusions: These findings confirm that lowering maternal HIV viral load is most important in preventing perinatal MTCT and support efforts to address food shortage, STI and tuberculosis prevention, while informing programs to improve ART coverage in pregnancy. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

High Levels of HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Children Who Acquired HIV Infection Through Mother to Child Transmission in the Era of Option B+, Haiti, 2013 to 2014
Conclusions: This study showed high rates of resistance to NRTIs and non-NRTIs among newly HIV-diagnosed children in Haiti, suggesting that in the era of “Option B+” (initiation of lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy to pregnant women with HIV), the majority of children who acquire HIV infection through mother-to-child transmission of HIV have resistant HIV. These results have led the National HIV Program to revise the pediatric guidelines to include protease inhibitors in first-line regimens for all HIV-positive newborns. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Maternal Perinatal HIV Infection Is Associated With Increased Infectious Morbidity in HIV-exposed Uninfected Infants
Background: The aging population of females with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) are having their own children. HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEU-N) born to women living with non-perinatally-acquired HIV (NPHIV) experience higher infectious morbidity compared with HIV-unexposed infants (HUU). Little is known about the infectious morbidity risk of HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEU-P) born to PHIV women. Methods: We evaluated prevalence of infectious cause hospitalizations (ICH) during the first year of life among HEU-P, HEU-N and HUU infants in a United States (U.S) tertiary care center. Maternal HIV status was cat...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Maintaining Concentration of Ribavirin in Cerebrospinal Fluid by a New Dosage Method; 3 Cases of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Treated Using a Subcutaneous Continuous Infusion Pump
Conclusion: The target RBV concentration in the CSF could be maintained continuously by intraventricular administration using a subcutaneous continuous infusion pump. The accumulation of further cases is necessary to confirm the safety and efficacy of this medical treatment. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

A Multi-Centered Case-Case-Control Study of Factors Associated With Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections in Children and Young Adults
Conclusions: Pediatric patients with KPC-CRE infection suffer from high multi-system disease/device burdens and exposures to carbapenems and aminoglycosides. Different from adult reports, non-ST258 KP strains were more common, and LOS and mortality rates were similar in all groups. Pediatric CRE control in should focus on modifiable risk factors including antibiotic and device utilization. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Influenza Cataclysm, 1918
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstracts Source Type: research

Cefoxitin Prophylaxis During Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Retrospective Exploration of Postoperative Trough Levels
Conclusions: Cefoxitin trough concentrations vary significantly in the first 24 hours after pediatric cardiac surgery. Both serum creatinine and body weight showed independent associations with cefoxitin concentration. The PD target was not obtained in the vast majority of the explored population, regardless of the target bacteria. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research