Re: “Perinatally Acquired Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Children”
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Perinatally Acquired Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Vision Loss in an 8-Year-Old Immunocompetent Boy with Cryptococcal Meningitis
Cryptococcal meningitis is an opportunistic fungal infection commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Information on cryptococcal meningitis is scarce in immunocompetent children. The authors report an 8-year-old immunocompetent boy with cryptococcal meningitis and bilateral vision loss. The role of repeated therapeutic lumbar puncture in the management of raised intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis is discussed. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Macro- and Microvascular Parameters After Toxic Shock Syndrome
Whether individuals who had toxic shock syndrome in childhood have differences in macro- and retinal microvascular parameters indicative of increased cardiovascular risk is unknown. We found no evidence of adverse macrovascular changes in 22 toxic shock syndrome participants compared with 60 control participants. Microvascular comparisons showed a reduction in retinal total fractal dimension, which has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in children. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Age of Infection with Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus and Subsequent Antibody Values Among Children in Uganda
We investigated associations between Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroconversion age and KSHV antibody values in Ugandan children. Every annual delay in KSHV seroconversion age was associated with a reduction of 19% (P (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

A Physician’s Recommendation for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: What Makes African–American Mothers Compliant?
Conclusions: A physician’s recommendation should advise AA mothers on the risk of HPV and the importance of HPV vaccination at an early age to reduce cervical cancer risk. It should further address mothers’ perceived disadvantages of HPV vaccination (eg, side effects). Incorporating this information in physician recommendation practices could increase HPV vaccination rates with implications in reducing the cervical cancer burden among this high-risk population. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Treatment of Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Infection in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Purple Pages Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of Primary and Booster Vaccinations of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine in Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Germany and the Czech Republic
To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11–15 months of age. Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (group 1; N = 266) or a reconstituted DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (group 2; N = 263) and a booster of the same vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) and rotavirus vaccine wer...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Effect of Rotavirus Vaccination on Acute Diarrheal Hospitalizations Among Low and Very Low Birth Weight US Infants, 2001–2015
Background: The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in low and very low birth weight infants (LBW and VLBW) weighing (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Children With Neurologic Disorders and Their Siblings, July 2006 to June 2014
Children with neurologic disorders are at high risk for influenza-associated complications. We identified 184,460 children 1–17 years of age with neurologic disorders and 204,966 siblings in a commercial insurance claims database from July 2006 to June 2014. Among children with neurologic disorders, coverage increased from 22.4% in 2006–2007 to 42.3% in 2013–2014, but remained suboptimal. A lower proportion of siblings were vaccinated. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Effect of Age at Vaccination on Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness in Bolivian Infants
Conclusions: Our results indicate that early administration may improve VE and support the current World Health Organization recommendations for the RV1 schedule. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Update on Neonatal Herpes Simplex Epidemiology in the Netherlands: A Health Problem of Increasing Concern?
This article provides an update on the incidence of neonatal herpes, guideline adherence by health care professionals (HCP) and trends in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to all hospitals inquiring about numbers and characteristics of neonatal and maternal HSV infections, and guideline adherence between 2012 and 2015. Longitudinal trends were investigated from 1999 onward using survey data and Perinatal Registry of the Netherlands data (Perined). Trends were smoothed with Poisson regression splines. Risk indicators for neonatal and matern...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Interleukin-6 in the Diagnosis of Sepsis and Discriminating Sepsis Induced by Gram-negative Bacteria
Conclusions: CRP, IL-6 and PCT are applicable to the differential diagnosis of sepsis and differentiating the sepsis induced by Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria. Appropriate combinations of these indicators are capable of increasing differential diagnosis efficiency. These indicators can be used as markers of antibiotics usage, but whether they can be used as markers to withdraw antibiotics is still needed to be observed. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology Reports Source Type: research

Temporal Improvements in Long-term Outcome in Care Among HIV-infected Children Enrolled in Public Antiretroviral Treatment Care: An Analysis of Outcomes From 2004 to 2012 in Zimbabwe
Background: Increasing numbers of children are requiring long-term HIV care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in public ART programs in Africa, but temporal trends and long-term outcomes in care remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed outcomes in a longitudinal cohort of infants ( (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

A Cross-sectional Study to Compare Hepatitis B Immunity in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Kenyan Children After Primary Hepatitis B Immunization
To evaluate protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Kenyan children, this study enrolled 531 children. In the HIV-infected group, only 18.3% had protective hepatitis B surface antigen compared with 74.4% in the HIV-uninfected group (P (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Among HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database
Background: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database. Methods: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Malnutrition, Growth Response and Metabolic Changes Within the First 24 Months After ART Initiation in HIV-infected Children Treated Before the Age of 2 Years in West Africa
Background: There is limited information about malnutrition, growth evolution and metabolic changes among children initiated early on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. Methods: HIV-1-infected children, age (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Isoniazid for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Isoniazid did not reduce the incidence of TB in CLHIV. All included studies were performed in regions with high prevalence of TB making the overall generalizability limited. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Moxifloxacin in Pediatric Patients With Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections: Results of the MOXIPEDIA Randomized Controlled Study
Conclusions: MXF treatment was well tolerated in children with cIAIs. However, a lower clinical cure rate was observed with MXF treatment compared with COMP. This study does not support a recommendation of MXF for children with cIAIs when alternative more efficacious antibiotics with better safety profile are available. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

The Epidemiology of Healthcare-associated Infections in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Units
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent serious complications for patients within pediatric cardiac intensive care units (CICU). HAIs are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of HAIs across the entire spectrum of patients (surgical and nonsurgical) receiving care in dedicated pediatric CICUs. Methods: Retrospective analyses of 22,839 CICU encounters from October 2013 to September 2016 across 22 North American CICUs contributing data to the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. Results: ...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Economic Evaluation of Selective Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination of High-risk Infants in Ireland
Conclusions: In the absence of changes to other aspects of TB control, a switch to selective vaccination will result in increased cases of childhood TB. Although not considered cost-effective, selective vaccination may be preferable to no vaccination until other changes to TB control may be implemented to reduce the risk of TB in children. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Adverse Economic Impact Associated With Blood Culture Contamination in a Pediatric Emergency Department
Conclusions: Interventions associated with BCC were common and accounted for significant adverse economic impact on pediatric patients. Regular education and monitoring were effective in reducing BCC and its related costs. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Trichinellosis Outbreak Linked to Consumption of Privately Raised Raw Boar Meat—California, 2017
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Literature Abstract Source Type: research

Preventive Effects of Vitamin D on Seasonal Influenza A in Infants: A Multicenter, Randomized, Open, Controlled Clinical Trial
Conclusion: High-dose vitamin D (1200 IU) is suitable for the prevention of seasonal influenza as evidenced by rapid relief from symptoms, rapid decrease in viral loads and disease recovery. In addition, high-dose vitamin D is probably safe for infants. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Pneumonia Risk Stratification Scores for Children in Low-Resource Settings: A Systematic Literature Review
Conclusions: While pediatric pneumonia-specific risk scores have been developed and validated, it is yet unclear if implementation is feasible, what impact, if any, implemented scores may have on child outcomes, or how broadly scores may be generalized. To increase the feasibility of implementation, future research should focus on developing scores based on routinely collected data. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Human Astrovirus in Children With Gastroenteritis, Northern Italy
Conclusions: Our data showed that the detection rate of astrovirus in diarrheal children (18.87%) was higher than observed in other countries, where they were reported in diarrheal children in 10.3%–0.8% of patients and a mean incidence worldwide of 11%. Our data showed that the detection rate of astrovirus in pediatric gastroenteritis was greater than previously reported in Italy. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Childhood Infections and Subsequent School Achievement Among 598,553 Danish Children
Background: Hospitalizations for infections have been associated with subsequent decreased cognitive ability, but it is uncertain if childhood infections influence subsequent scholastic achievement (SA). We aimed to estimate the association between infections during childhood and SA. Methods: Nationwide prospective cohort study including 598,553 children born in Denmark between 1987 and 1997 and their parents. Exposures were hospitalization for infections and treatment with anti-infective agents. Outcomes were completion of ninth grade and ninth grade test scores. Data were analyzed with logistic and linear regression...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Linking Health and Education: Commentary on “Childhood Infections and Subsequent School Achievement Among 598,553 Danish Children”
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Mycoplasma-Induced Rash and Mucositis in a Father and Son: A Case Report
This case report describes a father and son with recurrent Mycoplasma-induced rash and mucositis (MIRM). A father with a remote history of a similar rash in childhood presented to the hospital with a severe rash with mucosal involvement, and elevated Mycoplasma pneumoniae immunoglobulin M titers, consistent with MIRM. Four years later, a similar rash developed in his son with a positive M. pneumoniae polymerase chain reaction assay, which was consistent with MIRM. His course was complicated by recurrence of disease shortly after discharge from the hospital. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe recurr...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Relapse Among Infants Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis in Finland
In a prospective cohort of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined the rate of and characteristics associated with bronchiolitis relapse. Bronchiolitis relapse was documented in 22 (6%) of 391 children, and median time to relapse was 2 (interquartile range, 1–7) days. Relapse occurred more often in males. Prenatal smoking and smoke exposure in the home were also associated with relapse. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Extensive Necrotic Skin Lesions Due to Post-varicella Protein S Deficiency
We report a case of extensive necrotic skin lesions of acute onset 7 days after varicella in a 4-year-old girl. Protein S antigen and activity were (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Infections in Children with Cancer in the Era of Infant HIB Immunization Programs (1991–2014): A Report From the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active
We studied the epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections among children with cancer admitted to Canadian pediatric hospitals. From 1991 to 2014, 13 cases among children with cancer were identified through active surveillance. Average age was 6.7 years. Six of 7 cases eligible for infant immunization were age-appropriately immunized (vaccine failures). Children with cancer may benefit from booster Hib immunization. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Commentary: The Conquest of Haemophilus influenzae Type B—The Importance of Protecting High-Risk Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Probiotics for Modification of the Incidence or Severity of Respiratory Tract Infections
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Emergence of Monkeypox—West and Central Africa, 1970–2017
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstract Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Otitis Media With Otorrhea Among Bangladeshi Children: Baseline Study for Future Assessment of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Impact
Conclusions: Nontypeable Hi (NTHi) and Spn are predominant causes of OM in Bangladesh. PCV10, introduced in March 2015, is likely to reduce pneumococcal and overall OM burden. Data collected post-PCV10 will provide comprehensive insight into the effects of this vaccine on these pathogens. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Preterm Children Have Higher Risk Than Full-term Children of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease During the First 2 Years of Life
Conclusions: Preterm children had an increased risk of IPD. After introduction of PCV7, the rate of IPD was reduced among preterm and full-term children from 6 months of age. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and PHiD-CV When Coadministered With MenACWY-TT in Infants: Results of an Open, Randomized Trial
Conclusions: Primary and booster vaccinations of infants/toddlers with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and PHiD-CV coadministered with MenACWY-TT were immunogenic with clinically acceptable reactogenicity profiles. These results support the coadministration of MenACWY-TT with routine childhood vaccines. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Characteristics of Children With Invasive Pneumococcal Disease After the Introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in England and Wales, 2010–2016
Background: In England and Wales, replacement of childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) with a 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in 2010 was associated with a significant reduction in PCV13-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), with a small increase in IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes. Here, we describe the clinical presentation, comorbidity prevalence, serotype distribution and outcomes of childhood IPD during the first 6 years after PCV13 introduction. Methods: Public Health England conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England and Wales, with detailed information requested from general practitione...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Review on Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinovirus–Associated Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in African and Southeast Asian Children
Conclusions: These data highlight the need for large-scale surveillance projects to determine the attributable etiologic role of HRV in respiratory disease. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Hospital, Maternal and Birth Factors Associated With Hepatitis B Vaccination at Birth: West Virginia, 2015
Background: Hepatitis B virus is a bloodborne pathogen typically transmitted through sexual contact, injection drug use or perinatally. A hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is available; the first dose is recommended at birth. We sought to identify hospital policy, maternal characteristics and birth factors associated with HepB receipt at birth in West Virginia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of West Virginia live births in 2015 using vital records matched to immunization registry records to determine frequency of HepB birth dose receipt ( (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Race, Income and Insurance Status Affect Neonatal Sepsis Mortality and Healthcare Resource Utilization
We examined the association of insurance payer status, income, race and gender on neonatal sepsis mortality and healthcare resource utilization. Methods: We used the Kid’s Inpatient Database, a nationwide population-based survey from 2006, 2009 and 2012. Neonates diagnosed with sepsis were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression (mortality) and multivariable linear regression (length of stay and total hospital costs) were constructed to determine the association of patient and hospital characteristics. Results: Our study cohort included a weighted sample of 160,677 septic neonates. Several soci...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Response of Symptomatic Persistent Chronic Disseminated Candidiasis to Corticosteroid Therapy in Immunosuppressed Pediatric Patients: Case Study and Review of the Literature
Conclusions: In children with persistent symptomatic CDC, despite adequate antifungal therapy, administration of corticosteroids may yield rapid resolution of symptoms and decreased inflammatory markers. In patients who do not respond to steroids, the addition of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be considered. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology Reports Source Type: research

Risk for Speech and Language Impairments in Preschool Age HIV-exposed Uninfected Children With In Utero Combination Antiretroviral Exposure
Background: Perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children have elevated risk of late language emergence at 1 year of age, with possible links to in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We investigated possible risks for speech impairments (SIs) and language impairments (LI) in preschool monolingual HEU children in the United States. Methods: Speech and language assessments were conducted as part of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities study at ages 3 (N = 208) and 5 (N = 429) years. Domains of speech, overall language, vocabulary and grammar were assessed. SI and LI wer...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Psychiatric Disorders, Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and Viremia in a Cohort of Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults
Conclusions: Addressing psychiatric disorder and SUD among PHIV+ AYA may improve ART adherence outcomes in this population. Targeted interventions should be developed and tested. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Characteristics of Treatment-experienced HIV-infected African Children and Adolescents Initiating Darunavir and/or Etravirine-based Antiretroviral Treatment
Conclusions: In our study, a significant proportion of treatment-experienced African children and adolescents had one or more DRV-RM and ETR-RM. For the new regimen, more than a third of pediatric patients failing second-line ART were prescribed NRTI-sparing regimens. Better understanding of the current approaches to pediatric ART sequencing in resource-limited settings is needed. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Structural Neuroimaging and Neuropsychologic Signatures in Children With Vertically Acquired HIV
Background: Children with vertically acquired HIV exhibit persistent cognitive impairments, yet the corresponding neuroimaging signature of vertical infection remains unclear. Methods: Fifty healthy control children and 51 vertically infected children were included in the study. The HIV-infected group consisted of survivors who had not received antiretroviral therapy at birth. The HIV-infected group averaged 11.4 (2.5) years of age, with a median CD4 count of 683 cells/mm3. Most (71%) of the HIV-infected children were on antiretroviral therapy for a median of 34 months (range: 33–42) with HIV RNA (Source: The Pe...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

Nephrotoxicity With Vancomycin in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Though the rate of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity is increased in pediatric patients with higher vancomycin troughs, other factors such as intensive care unit admission, hypovolemia and concurrent nephrotoxic drug use appear to contribute to the development of nephrotoxicity. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Lessons From an Outbreak of Varicella Infection in Pediatric Hemato-oncology Patients
Conclusions: Our experience in the management of hospitalized immunocompromised patients exposed to varicella was that a positive IgG serology did not confer protection after exposure to varicella infection and thus can not serve as a marker for immunity. Unlike the isolation period sufficient for immunocompetent patients, crusted lesions can be contagious and thus require extended isolation for immunocompromised patients. Patients receiving rituximab are at greater risk of having persistent or recurrent disease. Studies with a larger sample size should be performed to better assess the management of immunocompromized pa...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Pathogen Clearance and New Respiratory Tract Infections Among Febrile Children in Zanzibar Investigated With Multitargeting Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction on Paired Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples
Conclusion: The results suggest that children with acute febrile illness in Zanzibar rapidly clear respiratory tract infections but frequently acquire new infections within 14 days. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research