Kingella kingae Displaced Staphylococcus aureus as the Most Common Etiology of Septic Arthritis Only Below Six Years of Age
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

First Report of Micrococcus luteus Native Valve Endocarditis Complicated With Pulmonary Infarction in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Literature Review
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Coronavirus Disease 2019-associated Cytotoxic Lesions of the Corpus Callosum Diagnosis As a Result of Hallucination in a Child With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

COVID-19 Vaccination Outcomes at a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

MIS-C, Can Latency Interval Help in Diagnosis?
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

An Eleven-year-old Boy With Arthritis of the Hip Joint, and an 8-year-old Boy With Sacroiliitis
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment for Acute Focal Bacterial Nephritis With Renal Abscess Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation
A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed with left acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) complicated with renal abscess (RA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is useful for diagnosing AFBN and RA complications. He was administered antibiotics for 3 weeks on evaluation of MRI findings. Evaluation of apparent diffusion coefficient values over time may be useful as an index of treatment of RA. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Primary Pyomyositis in Children is No More a Rare Condition: Presentation of 2 Clinical Cases
Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial muscle infection which may lead to abscess formation and severe complications. Although this condition has long been considered “tropical” and rare, mostly affecting immunocompromised patients, cases of pyomyositis have recently raised significantly among healthy children in temperate climates. With these 2 cases we highlight the importance of an early recognition of this condition, allowing an immediate treatment and reducing complications. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

First Report of SARS-CoV-2 Detection in Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Child With Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Underlying mechanisms on the association between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and neurologic complications are still poorly understood. Cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) have been linked to the SARS-CoV-2 infection as the result of dysregulated immune response with damage in neuronal tissues. In the current report, we present the first pediatric case of GBS with detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CFS). This unique case of COVID-19-associated GBS with detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the CSF indicates direct viral involvement inducing peripheral nerve infl...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Estimated SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Healthy Children and Those with Chronic Illnesses in the Washington Metropolitan Area as of October 2020
The estimated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence in children was found to be 9.46% for the Washington Metropolitan area. Hispanic/Latinx individuals were found to have higher odds of seropositivity. While chronic medical conditions were not associated with having antibodies, previous fever and body aches were predictive symptoms. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

COVID-19 as a Cause of Acute Neonatal Encephalitis and Cerebral Cytotoxic Edema
We present a case of severe encephalitis with cytotoxic brain edema in a newborn with COVID-19. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

COVID-19-Associated Cerebral White Matter Injury in a Newborn Infant With Afebrile Seizure
We present the first case of neuroradiologic abnormality associated with COVID-19 in a newborn infant with afebrile seizure. This case underlines the possible neurologic involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in this age group. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Neonatal Brain Injury From SARS-CoV-2: Fact or Fiction?
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

The Longest Infectious Virus Shedding in a Child Infected With the G614 Strain of SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19 spread globally and caused over 97 million cases with more than 2 million deaths. There is still ongoing discussion on the duration of infectious interval SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic children had longer virus shedding and there are some reports of prolonged infectious virus shedding in adults particularly patients having an immunocompromised status. A missense mutation, D614G, in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which has emerged as a predominant clade in Europe and is spreading worldwide that can result in higher viral loads in patients. Herein, we described the longest infectious virus shedding in a previo...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Rationale of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange as Rescue Immunomodulatory Treatment for MIS-C With Multiorgan Failure
We present an infant with severe MIS-C, refractory to usual treatment, successfully treated with plasmapheresis. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Infections and Chronic Diarrhea in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ESPID Reports and Reviews Source Type: research

Stable Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children in Northern France From 2014 Through 2018
Conclusion: The incidence of IPD resulting in hospitalization remained stable in northern France during the study period, with no significant increase in nonvaccine types. Further surveillance is needed to adjust the vaccination strategy if necessary. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Pertussis in the Newborn in Publicly and Privately Insured Mother-infant Pairs in the United States
Conclusions: Prenatal Tdap vaccination reduces the risk of pertussis infections in the infants’ first 6 months by 36%. Vaccination soon after 27 weeks of pregnancy, before when deliveries began, ensures vaccination includes those born preterm, who are at highest risk for pertussis and benefit particularly from this vaccination. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

New Approach to the Surveillance of Pediatric Infectious Diseases From Ambulatory Pediatricians in the Digital Era
Background: Many ambulatory networks in several countries have established syndromic surveillance systems to detect outbreaks of different illnesses. Here, we describe a new Pediatric and Ambulatory Research in Infectious diseases network that combined automated data extraction from the computers of primary care pediatricians. Methods: Pediatricians who used the same software, AxiSanté 5-Infansoft for electronic medical records were specially trained in infectious diseases, encouraged to comply with French treatments’ recommendations, use of point-of-care tests and vaccination guidelines. Infectious...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research

Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery Due to Nonreassuring Fetal Heart Rate and the Risk of Pediatric Infectious Morbidity-related Hospitalizations of the Offspring
Objectives: One of the most common indications for intrapartum cesarean delivery (CD) is nonreassuring fetal heart rate (NRFHR) patterns. We aimed to study the long-term effect of CD due to NRFHR on the risk for subsequent childhood infectious morbidity-related hospitalizations of the offspring. Study Design: A population-based cohort study was performed, comparing total and different subtypes of infectious morbidity-related pediatric hospitalizations among offspring born by CD due to NRFHR versus labor dystocia (failure of labor to progress during the 1st or 2nd stage). The analysis included all singletons born...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Regional Variation of Early-onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention Strategies in Mainland China
Conclusions: Different strategies for preventing EOGBS may be needed in different regions of mainland China. Screening strategies may be most appropriate in regions with higher attack rates, even with moderate levels of maternal GBS colonization. In areas with low attack rates, risk factor strategies that reduce morbidity by at least one-third may suffice. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Giardiasis Outbreaks—United States, 2012–2017
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Current Abstracts Source Type: research

Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Clostridioides difficile Infections in Hospitalized and Outpatient Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients
Conclusions: Although CDI in pediatric oncology and HSCT patients was associated with chemotherapy delay and hospitalization in approximately a quarter of patients, it was not associated with morbidity or mortality because patients had no attributable intensive care unit admission nor death. H2-antagonists are independent risk factors for CDI recurrence. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology and Host Response Source Type: research

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Cures Therapy-refractory Aspergillosis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Conclusions: Upon diagnosis with invasive aspergillosis in CGD, we propose to start antifungal treatment and preparation for HSCT at the same time. Remission of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis before HSCT remains preferable but is not mandatory. When pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with CGD remains refractory for longer than 3 months on conservative treatment, HSCT without prior surgery or accompanying granulocyte transfusions is a feasible option. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Immunology and Host Response Source Type: research

Opportunistic Illnesses in Children With HIV Infection in the United States, 1997–2016
Background: Among children with HIV infection, opportunistic illness (OI) rates decreased after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1997. We evaluated whether such decreases have continued. Methods: Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National HIV Surveillance System for children with HIV living in the US during 1997–2016 was used to enumerate infants experiencing the first OI by birth year and OIs among all children (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV Reports Source Type: research

High Rates of Antibiotic Nonsusceptibility in Gram-negative Urinary Tract Infection in Children With Risk Factors Occurring in the Preceding Month: Considerations for Choosing Empiric Treatment
Background: Choosing an empiric treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) requires epidemiologic data on antibiotic nonsusceptibility (ANS) rates, and risk factors for UTI and ANS in the individual patient. We assessed ANS in community-acquired UTI, and its association with risk factors exposure (previous antibiotic treatment, UTI and hospital visit) (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Retapamulin Activity Against Pediatric Strains of Mupirocin-resistant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Retapamulin activity against 53 isolates obtained from a mupirocin-resistant community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pediatric disease cluster was evaluated using broth microdilution. All strains were susceptible to retapamulin with minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤ 0.5 μg/mL. DNA sequence analysis of rplC and cfr identified one rplC strain variant that did not demonstrate reduced phenotypic susceptibility to retapamulin. These results demonstrate that retapamulin may be a useful alternative therapy for mupirocin-resistant community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus, especially in dise...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Changes in Metronidazole and Vancomycin Utilization for Nonsevere Clostridioides difficile Infection Among Institutions Caring for Children
Clostridioides difficile infection guidelines were published in final format on April 1, 2018. Among 4962 and 3545 C. difficile infection cases in children the year before and after publication, oral metronidazole use decreased from 63.0% to 44.3% (P  (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Enterovirus-A71 Rhombencephalitis Outbreak in Catalonia: Characteristics, Management and Outcome
Conclusions: During the 2016 outbreak, rhombencephalitis without ANS symptoms was the predominant form of presentation and most patients showed no hand-foot-mouth disease. These findings contrast with those of other patient series reporting associated ANS dysfunction (10%–15%) and hand-foot-mouth disease (60%–80%). Complete recovery occurred in almost all cases. In light of the favorable outcome in untreated mild cases, therapies for this condition should be reserved for patients with moderate-severe infection. The main relevance of this study is to provide useful information for setting priorities, managem...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Kingella kingae Displaced S. aureus as the Most Common Cause of Acute Septic Arthritis in Children of All Ages
Background: Acute septic arthritis (SA) still remains a challenge with significant worldwide morbidity. In recent years, Kingella kingae has emerged and treatment regimens have become shorter. We aim to analyze trends in SA etiology and management and to identify risk factors for complications. Methods: Longitudinal observational, single center study of children ( (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Infective Endocarditis in Children in Queensland, Australia: Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Outcome
Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare entity in children associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To optimize management, it is important to understand local epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features and outcome. These are investigated in this retrospective 10-year study of endocarditis in children in Queensland. Methods: Children (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection in Children in Central Israel in 2012–2019
This study attempted to describe the epidemiology, the clinical and demographic characteristics and the outcomes associated with iGASi in hospitalized children in central Israel Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of children (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Safety and Antibody Kinetics of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Cases of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pediatric Patients
Conclusion: CCP was well tolerated in pediatric patients, resulted in rapid antibody increase, and did not appear to interfere with immune responses measured at 21 days. More pediatric data are necessary to establish the efficacy of CCP, but our data suggest benefit in moderate to severe COVID-19 when used early. Other immunologic or antiviral interventions may be added as supported by emerging data. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Infants
Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified in infants (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Pulmonary Artery Thrombosis in a Newborn With Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Hair Loss as a Late Complication of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The Need for Hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 in Children: A Population-based Estimate
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Persistent Leg Drainage in a Pediatric Trauma Patient
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Your Diagnosis, Please Source Type: research

Kingella kingae: An Unlikely Cause of Meningitis
We report a case of a healthy 10-year-old boy with meningitis due to Kingella kingae who presented with a history of severe headache, vomiting and prostration. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Etiology of Infectious Diseases in Acutely Ill Children at a Pediatric Hospital in Finland
This is a brief report of the etiology of infectious diseases in a pediatric emergency department. Our cohort study of 4647 children demonstrated rhinovirus as the most common etiology in a pediatric emergency department (23%) and intensive care (48%). The population-based incidence of rhinovirus-related visits was 1796/100,000/yr in children (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infections in Primary School Age Children After Partial Reopening of Schools in England
In England, the easing of national lockdown in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic included the reopening of some primary school years on June 1, 2020. National surveillance did not identify any increase in the year groups attending school. Most children had a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive household contact. Hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 were rare, but 2.7% (7/259) had persistent symptoms 1 month later. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Pediatric COVID-19 Patient
Novel coronavirus disease 2019 is a viral infectious disease which commonly involve the lungs with primarily radiologic manifestations of atypical or organizing pneumonia. It can cause multisystemic involvement including central nervous system symptoms. One of these neurologic manifestations is posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). It is suggested that the increased levels of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in the course of the disease are responsible for cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. To the best of our knowledge, no pediatric PRES has been reported r...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Concurrent Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in a Child Secondary to COVID-19 Infection: A Severe Neuroimmunologic Complication of COVID-19
Neurologic manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children is evolving with time. We are reporting a young girl who presented to us with acute febrile illness followed by acute onset severe flaccid paralysis requiring prolonged intensive care unit stay and ventilator support. She was evaluated extensively and found to be positive for COVID serology, and neuroimaging revealed features of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) with enhancing cauda equina nerve roots, suggesting Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). She failed to respond to immune suppressive therapy and needed plasma exchange fo...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Novel Treatment of Infant With COVID-19 With the Sialidase Fusion Protein, DAS181
We describe the successful treatment of a 10-month-old female with respiratory distress secondary to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with the nebulized investigational drug, DAS181. Therapy was well tolerated, and the patient had minimal side effects. The patient’s respiratory distress and positive viral polymerase chain reaction rapidly resolved after initiation of therapy. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Instructive Cases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of “Priorix” Against Measles and Mumps Diseases in Children Born After 2004 in the United Kingdom: A Retrospective Case-control Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD Database
This study evaluated VE of GSK’s MMR vaccine (“Priorix”) against measles and mumps. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study used UK data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics database to identify children 1–13 years old diagnosed with measles or mumps from January 2006 to December 2018. Cases were matched to controls according to birth month/year and practice region. Cases were identified using clinical codes (without laboratory confirmation). “Priorix” exposure was identified using vaccine batch identifiers. Children e...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

The Outcome of Accidental Bacille Calmette-Guérin Overdose During Routine Neonatal Immunization
We report a retrospective study on outcome of 14 newborn infants who received 62.5 times the recommended dose of Bacille Calmette-Guérin for immunization. All infants then received high-dose isoniazid and rifampicin (20 mg/kg/d each) as preventive therapy for 6 months. All had mild local adverse reactions, a third resolving within 16 weeks and all by 6 months. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Bacterial Meningitis in the Absence of Pleocytosis in Children: A Systematic Review
One of the main features of bacterial meningitis is pleocytosis. However, when children with meningitis present within hours of onset of symptoms, there is the possibility that the meninges are not yet sufficiently inflamed to lead to a raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count. A systematic search was done to identify published studies reporting children with culture- or polymerase chain reaction-proven bacterial meningitis in the absence of pleocytosis. We identified 26 studies describing 62 children (18 neonates). In those in whom fever duration was specified, 32 (80%) of 40 had a fever for less than or eq...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Congenital Cutaneous Candidiasis With Systemic Dissemination in a Preterm Infant
We report the case of congenital cutaneous candidiasis in a preterm infant. Early skin lesion recognition allowed establishing adequate treatment in the first hours of life. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Long-term Outcomes after Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection in Low Birthweight Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: Preterm infants with pCMV, especially those with symptomatic infection, may have long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity compared with their pCMV negative counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of pCMV detection and prevention in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Large prospective studies are needed to fully define outcomes and determine if treatment improves outcomes. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research

Precision in Cardiovascular Care Using Targeted Neonatal Echocardiography in Lethal Neonatal Disseminated Herpes Infection: A Case Series
We describe clinical and echocardiography features of cardiovascular dysfunction, in a case series of neonates with disseminated herpes simplex virus, and response to physiology-based hemodynamic management. The biologic phenotype includes low systemic vascular resistance state, hypovolemia secondary to third space losses, myocardial dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Early targeted neonatal echocardiography provided hemodynamic insights on blood flow, shunt characterization, vascular resistance and cardiac function, that were difficult to gauge clinically (eg, differentiating parenchymal from pulmonary vascular disea...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research