Cellular Response to Proton Irradiation: A Simulation Study with TOPAS-nBio.
Abstract The cellular response to ionizing radiation continues to be of significant research interest in cancer radiotherapy, and DNA is recognized as the critical target for most of the biologic effects of radiation. Incident particles can cause initial DNA damages through physical and chemical interactions within a short time scale. Initial DNA damages can undergo repair via different pathways available at different stages of the cell cycle. The misrepair of DNA damage results in genomic rearrangement and causes mutations and chromosome aberrations, which are drivers of cell death. This work presents an integrat...
Source: Radiation Research - May 13, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhu H, McNamara AL, McMahon SJ, Ramos-Mendez J, Henthorn NT, Faddegon B, Held KD, Perl J, Li J, Paganetti H, Schuemann J Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA Profile of Exosomes and Parental Cells is Differently Affected by Ionizing Radiation.
Abstract Exosomes are key mediators of cell-to-cell communication involved in different aspects of the response to ionizing radiation. The functional role of exosomes depends on their molecular cargo, including protein and miRNA content. In this work, we compared the miRNA profile of cells exposed to a high-dose of radiation and the exosomes released by those cells. FaDu cells (derived from human head and neck cancer) were exposed to 2 and 8 Gy doses, exosomes were purified from culture media at 36 h postirradiation using a combination of differential centrifugation, ultrafiltration and precipitation, then microRN...
Source: Radiation Research - May 8, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Abramowicz A, Łabaj W, Mika J, Szołtysek K, Ślęzak-Prochazka I, Mielańczyk Ł, Story MD, Pietrowska M, Polański A, Widłak P Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Effects of Hypoxia and Radiation-Induced Exosomes on Migration of Lung Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis of Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.
In this study, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells were γ-ray irradiated under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, then the exosomes released from the irradiated cells were collected and co-cultured with nonirradiated A549 cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). It was found that the exosomes significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 cells as well as the proliferation and angiogenesis of HUVECs. Moreover, the exosomes released from hypoxic cells and/or irradiated cells had more powerful driving force in tumor progression compared to that generated from normoxia c...
Source: Radiation Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Mo F, Xu Y, Zhang J, Zhu L, Wang C, Chu X, Pan Y, Bai Y, Shao C, Zhang J Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Effects of Low-Dose Gamma-Ray Radiation on Apoptosis and Development of Zebrafish Embryo Brain.
Abstract To investigate the effects of low-dose γ irradiation on apoptosis and development of the brain in zebrafish embryos, cumulative 15 mGy doses of γ rays from a 137Cs source were used to irradiate zebrafish embryos at 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) for 120 h. Apoptosis of the brain, brain morphological development, cell submicroscopic structure and mRNA expression were analyzed, respectively. Results indicate that after 15 mGy exposure, the apoptosis of zebrafish brain increased, vacuoles appeared in brain tissue, some organelles were damaged and vacuoles appeared locally in brain cells. The mRNA e...
Source: Radiation Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhao W, Yuan P, Hu N, Long D, Ding D, Wang H Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Identifying Circulating and Lung Tissue Cytokines Associated with Thoracic Irradiation and AEOL 10150 Treatment in a Nonhuman Primate Model.
TJ Abstract Inflammatory cytokines have been suggested to play important roles in radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). Identifying significantly changed circulating and tissue cytokines after thoracic irradiation will aid in deciphering the mechanism of RILI and identifying potential biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. Herein, the levels of 24 cytokines were measured in serial plasma samples and lung tissue samples collected from a pilot study where nonhuman primates (NHPs) received 11.5 Gy whole thoracic lung irradiation (WTLI) and were then treated with or without a medical countermeasure, AEOL 10150 [a su...
Source: Radiation Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cui W, Hankey KG, Zhang P, Bolduc DL, Bünger R, Xiao M, Farese AM, MacVittie TJ Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Flow Cytometry Definition of Rat Mammary Epithelial Cell Populations and Their Distinct Radiation Responses.
Abstract Breast tissue is very susceptible to radiation-induced carcinogenesis, and mammary stem/progenitor cells are potentially important targets of this. The mammary epithelium is maintained as two mostly independent lineages of luminal and basal cells. To elucidate their immediate radiation responses, we analyzed the mammary glands of female Sprague-Dawley rats, a radiation carcinogenesis model, using colony formation, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The results revealed that flow cytometry successfully fractionates rat mammary cells into CD49fhi CD24lo basal, CD49fmed CD24hi luminal progenitor, and CD4...
Source: Radiation Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Kudo KI, Takabatake M, Nagata K, Nishimura Y, Daino K, Iizuka D, Nishimura M, Suzuki K, Kakinuma S, Imaoka T Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

A Radiation Mitigator as a Potential Treatment for COVID-19.
PMID: 32352871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Corry PM Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as an In Vivo Tool to Study the Biological Effects of Proton Irradiation.
Abstract The clinical superiority of proton therapy over photon therapy has recently gained recognition; however, the biological effects of proton therapy remain poorly understood. The lack of in vivo evidence is especially important. Therefore, the goal of this study was to validate the usefulness of Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative tool in proton radiobiology. To determine whether the comparative biological effects of protons and X rays are detectable in Drosophila, we assessed their influence on survival and mRNA expression. Postirradiation observation revealed that protons inhibited their development ...
Source: Radiation Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Nakajima K, Gao T, Kume K, Iwata H, Hirai S, Omachi C, Tomita J, Ogino H, Naito M, Shibamoto Y Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect can be Transmitted Through Exosomes Using miRNAs as Effector Molecules.
Abstract The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a destructive reaction in nonirradiated cells and is one primary factor in determining the efficacy and success of radiation therapy in the field of cancer treatment. Previously reported studies have shown that the RIBE can be mediated by exosomes that carry miRNA components within. Exosomes, which are one type of cell-derived vesicle, exist in different biological conditions and serve as an important additional pathway for signal exchange between cells. In addition, exosome-derived miRNAs are confirmed to play an important role in RIBE, activating the byst...
Source: Radiation Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Du Y, Du S, Liu L, Gan F, Jiang X, Wangrao K, Lyu P, Gong P, Yao Y Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

The Intestinal Microbiota Plays as a Protective Regulator Against Radiation Pneumonitis.
This study reveals that the gut microbiota functions as a protective regulator against radiation pneumonitis. Additionally, fecal microbiota transplantation was shown to alleviate lung injury in the irradiated model. The protective role of the healthy gut microbiota and the utilization of the gut-lung axis show potential for innovative therapeutic strategies in radiation-induced lung injury. PMID: 32330075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Nie X, Li L, Yi M, Qin W, Zhao W, Li F, Wu B, Yuan X Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Assessing Nonlinearity in Harderian Gland Tumor Induction Using Three Combined HZE-irradiated Mouse Datasets.
Abstract Recently reported studies considering nonlinearity in the effects of low-dose space radiation have assumed a nontargeted mechanism. To date, few analyses have been performed to assess whether a nontargeted term is supported by the available data. The Harderian gland data from Alpen et al. (published in 1993 and 1994), and Chang et al. (2016) provide the most diversity of ions and energies in a tumor induction model, including multiple high-energy and charge particles. These data can be used to investigate various nonlinearity assumptions against a linear model, including nontargeted effects in the low-dos...
Source: Radiation Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Chappell LJ, Elgart SR, Milder CM, Semones EJ Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Transitioning from Gamma Rays to X Rays for Comparable Biomedical Research Irradiations: Energy Matters.
Abstract Many studies in biomedical research and various allied fields, in which cells or laboratory animals are exposed to radiation, rely on adequate radiation dose standardization for reproducibility and comparability of biological data. Due to increasing concerns regarding international terrorism, the use of radioactive isotopes has recently been met with enhanced security measures. Thus, a growing number of researchers have considered transferring their studies from gamma-ray to kilovoltage X-ray irradiators. Current commercially-available X-ray biological irradiators produce radiation beams with reasonable f...
Source: Radiation Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Poirier Y, Belley MD, Dewhirst MW, Yoshizumi TT, Down JD Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

The Impact of Tissue Type and Density on Dose Point Kernels for Patient-Specific Voxel-Wise Dosimetry: A Monte Carlo Investigation.
We report the generation of dose point kernels for clinically-relevant radionuclide beta decays and monoenergetic electrons in various tissues to understand the impact of tissue type on dose point kernels. Currently available voxel-wise dosimetry approaches using dose point kernels ignore tissue composition and density heterogeneities. Therefore, the study on the impact of tissue type on dose point kernels is warranted. Simulations were performed using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit, which encapsulates GEANT4 libraries. Dose point kernels were simulated in phantoms of water, compact bone, lung, adipose tissue, blood and red ...
Source: Radiation Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Tiwari A, Graves SA, Sunderland J Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Blood RNA Integrity is a Direct and Simple Reporter of Radiation Exposure and Prognosis: A Pilot Study.
Abstract In the event of a mass casualty radiation scenario, rapid assessment of patients' health and triage are required for optimal resource utilization. Identifying the level and extent of exposure as well as prioritization of care is extremely challenging under such disaster conditions. Blood-based biomarkers, such as RNA integrity numbers (RIN), could help healthcare personnel quickly and efficiently determine the extent and effect of multiple injuries on patients' health. Evaluation of the effect of different radiation doses, alone or in combination with burn injury, on total RNA integrity over multiple time...
Source: Radiation Research - April 13, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Alkhalil A, Clifford JL, Ball R, Day A, Chan R, Carney BC, Miller SA, Campbell R, Kumar R, Gautam A, Hammamieh R, Moffatt LT, Shupp JW Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiological Quantities and Units: A Source of Confusion.
PMID: 32243232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - April 3, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Barnes GT Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Development of Novel Radiosensitizers through the National Cancer Institute's Small Business Innovation Research Program.
In conclusion, the NCI SBIR Development Center has funded the development of novel radiosensitizers leading to clinical trials of novel drugs in combination with radiation therapy. Continued follow-up is needed to determine if any of these novel radiosensitizers produce improved tumor control and/or overall survival. PMID: 32216707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zakeri K, Narayanan D, Prasanna P, Vikram V, Buchsbaum JC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Transcriptome during Neural Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
In conclusion, exposure to a 17 mGy low dose of radiation was well tolerated by hESCs while exposure to 572 mGy significantly affected their genetic reprogramming into neuronal lineages. PMID: 32216708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Loeliger BW, Hanu C, Panyutin IV, Maass-Moreno R, Wakim P, Pritchard WF, Neumann RD, Panyutin IG Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

A Simplified Calyculin A-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) Protocol for the Biodosimetric Analysis of High-Dose Exposure to Gamma Radiation.
Abstract Chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) is an alternative biodosimetry method to the gold-standard dicentric analysis for ionizing radiation. However, existing literature shows great variations in the experimental protocols which, together with the different scoring criteria applied in individual studies, result in large discrepancies in the coefficients of the calibration curves. The current study is based on an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature on the chemical-induced ring PCC (rPCC) assay for high-dose exposure. For the first time, a simplified yet effective protocol was...
Source: Radiation Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sun M, Moquet J, Barnard S, Lloyd D, Ainsbury E Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA Analysis of ATM-Deficient Cells Indicate PTEN and CCDN1 as Potential Biomarkers of Radiation Response.
Abstract Genetic and epigenetic profile changes associated with individual radiation sensitivity are well documented and have led to enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of the radiation-induced DNA damage response. However, the search continues to identify reliable biomarkers of individual radiation sensitivity. Herein, we report on a multi-biomarker approach using traditional cytogenetic biomarkers, DNA damage biomarkers and transcriptional microRNA (miR) biomarkers coupled with their potential gene targets to identify radiosensitivity in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line...
Source: Radiation Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Bryant J, White L, Coen N, Shields L, McClean B, Meade AD, Lyng FM, Howe O Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Potential Mechanisms for Protective Effect of D-Methionine on Plasmid DNA Damage Induced by Therapeutic Carbon Ions.
Abstract D-methionine (D-met), a dextrorotatory isoform of the amino acid L-methionine (L-met), can prevent oral mucositis and salivary hypofunction in mice exposed to radiation. However, the mechanism of its radioprotection is unclear, especially with regard to the stereospecific functions of D-met. Radiation is known to cause injury to normal tissue by triggering DNA damage in cells. Thus, in this study we sought to determine whether the chirality of D-/L-met affects radiation-induced events at the DNA level. We selected plasmid DNA assays to examine this effect in vitro, since these assays are highly sensitive ...
Source: Radiation Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yogo K, Murayama C, Fujisawa Y, Maeyama T, Hirayama R, Ogawa Y, Matsumoto KI, Nakanishi I, Yasuda H, Ishiyama H, Hayakawa K Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Epidermal Keratinocyte Depletion during Five Weeks of Radiotherapy is Associated with DNA Double-Strand Break Foci, Cell Growth Arrest and Apoptosis: Evidence of Increasing Radioresponsiveness and Lack of Repopulation; the Number of Melanocytes Remains Unchanged.
, Nyman J Abstract During fractionated radiotherapy, epithelial cell populations are thought to decrease initially, followed by accelerated repopulation to compensate cell loss. However, previous findings in skin with daily 1.1 Gy dose fractions indicate continued and increasing cell depletion. Here we investigated epidermal keratinocyte response with daily 2 Gy fractions as well as accelerated and hypofractionation. Epidermal interfollicular melanocytes were also assessed. Skin-punch biopsies were collected from breast cancer patients before, during and after mastectomy radiotherapy to the thoracic wall with dail...
Source: Radiation Research - March 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Turesson I, Simonsson M, Hermansson I, Book M, Sigurdadottir S, Thunberg U, Qvarnström F, Johansson KA, Fessé P, Nyman J Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Looking Inside a Prototype Compact X-Ray Tube Comprising CNT-Based Cold Cathode and Transmission-Type Anode.
Abstract Here we provide insights into our prototype compact X-ray tube report based on our findings from experimental studies performed. We studied the prototype experimentally to characterize its primary components, i.e., carbon nanotube (CNT)-based cold cathode, electrostatic lens and transmission-type anode, and to validate our previous simulation studies. We characterized the CNT-based cold cathode by studying the relationship between the electron emission current and its control parameter, electron extraction voltage. This relationship, commonly known as the current-voltage characteristic, showed an exponent...
Source: Radiation Research - March 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Avachat AV, Tucker WW, Giraldo CHC, Pommerenke D, Lee HK Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiomics Method for the Differential Diagnosis of Radionecrosis Versus Progression after Fractionated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Brain Oligometastasis.
Abstract Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is recommended for treatment of brain oligometastasis (BoM) in patients with controlled primary disease. Where contrast enhancement enlargement occurs during follow-up, distinguishing between radionecrosis and progression presents a critical challenge. Without pathological confirmation, decision-making may be inappropriate and delayed. Quantitative imaging features extracted from routinely performed examinations are of interest in potentially addressing this problem. We explored the added value of the radiomics method for the differential diagnosis of these two entities. Tw...
Source: Radiation Research - March 11, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Hettal L, Stefani A, Salleron J, Courrech F, Behm-Ansmant I, Constans JM, Gauchotte G, Vogin G Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Effects of Radiation on Blood Pressure and Body Weight in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Model. Are Radiation Effects on Blood Pressure Affected by Genetic Background?
Abstract In this work, we utilized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wister Kyoto rats (WKY), from which the SHR was established, to evaluate the effects of whole-body acute radiation on the cardiovascular system at doses from 0 to 4 Gy. In the irradiated SHR, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased with increasing dose, while body weight gain decreased with increasing radiation dose. Furthermore, pathological observations of SHR demonstrated that the number of rats with cystic degeneration in the liver increased with increasing dose. The effects observed among SHR, such as increased SBP and retardatio...
Source: Radiation Research - March 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Takahashi N, Misumi M, Niwa Y, Murakami H, Ohishi W, Inaba T, Nagamachi A, Tanaka S, Iii IBT, Suzuki G Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

The Role of Telomerase in Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability.
In this study, we investigated the involvement of telomerase in the development and processing of chromosomal damage at different cell cycle stages after irradiation of human fibroblasts. Several response criteria were investigated, including cell survival, chromosomal damage (using the micronucleus assay), G2-induced chromatid aberrations (using the conventional G2 assay as well as a chemically-induced premature chromosome condensation assay) and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; using γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51) in an isogenic pair of cell lines: BJ human foreskin fibroblasts and BJ1-hTERT, a telomerase-immortalized BJ ...
Source: Radiation Research - March 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Nuta O, Rothkamm K, Darroudi F Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Anti-Ferroptosis Drug Enhances Total-Body Irradiation Mitigation by Drugs that Block Apoptosis and Necroptosis.
Abstract Mitigation of total-body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6 mice by two drugs, which target apoptosis and necroptosis respectively, increases survival compared to one drug alone. Here we investigated whether the biomarker (signature)-directed addition of a third anti-ferroptosis drug further mitigated TBI effects. C57BL/6NTac female mice (30-33 g) received 9.25 Gy TBI, and 24 h or later received JP4-039 (20 mg/kg), necrostatin-1 (1.65 mg/kg) and/or lipoxygenase-15 inhibitor (baicalein) (50 mg/kg) in single-, dual- or three-drug regimens. Some animals were sacrificed at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 7 postirradiation, w...
Source: Radiation Research - March 5, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Thermozier S, Hou W, Zhang X, Shields D, Fisher R, Bayir H, Kagan V, Yu J, Liu B, Bahar I, Epperly MW, Wipf P, Wang H, Huq MS, Greenberger JS Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Neurological Impairments in Mice Subjected to Irradiation and Chemotherapy.
Abstract Radiotherapy, surgery and the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) are frontline treatments for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However beneficial, GBM treatments nevertheless cause anxiety or depression in nearly 50% of patients. To further understand the basis of these neurological complications, we investigated the effects of combined radiotherapy and TMZ chemotherapy (combined treatment) on neurological impairments using a mouse model. Five weeks after combined treatment, mice displayed anxiety-like behaviors, and at 15 weeks both anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were observed. Relevant to t...
Source: Radiation Research - March 5, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Dey D, Parihar VK, Szabo GG, Klein PM, Tran J, Moayyad J, Ahmed F, Nguyen QA, Murry A, Merriott D, Nguyen B, Goldman J, Angulo MC, Piomelli D, Soltesz I, Baulch JE, Limoli CL Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Long-term Production of Glycogen and Hepatic-Derived, Cell-Invasion-Promoting Chemokines by Ultrasound-Driven Hepatic-Differentiated Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Abstract The current treatment for liver failure is restricted to surgical liver transplantation, which is technically complicated, limited by the shortage of available organs and presents major risks to the patient. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) represent promising sources of hepatocyte-like cells for cell transplantation treatment. However, a safe and efficient induction method for their differentiation remains to be defined. Here we further optimized an effective technique by combining high-dose treatment with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and ultrasound stimulation. The optimized ultrasound param...
Source: Radiation Research - March 3, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Song L, Constanthin PE, Sun T, Li X, Xia Z, An L, Li F Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Effect of Chronic 94 GHz Exposure on Gene Expression in the Skin of Hairless Rats In Vivo.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of 94 GHz on the gene expression of skin cells. Two rat populations consisting of 17 young animals and 14 adults were subjected to chronic long-term 94 GHz MMW exposure. Each group of animals was divided into exposed and sham subgroups. The two independent exposure experiments were conducted for 5 months with rats exposed 3 h per day for 3 days per week to an incident power density of 10 mW/cm2, which corresponded to twice the ICNIRP limit of occupational exposure for humans. At the end of the experiment, skin explants were collected and RNA was extracted. Then, the modifications to ...
Source: Radiation Research - March 3, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Habauzit D, Nugue G, Bourbon F, Martin C, Del Vecchio F, Maunoir-Regimbal S, Poyot T, Valente M, Jaoui R, Crouzier D, Le Dréan Y, Debouzy JC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Chemical Dosimetry in the "Water Window": Ferric Ions and Hydroxyl Radicals Produced by Intense Soft X Rays.
Chemical Dosimetry in the "Water Window": Ferric Ions and Hydroxyl Radicals Produced by Intense Soft X Rays. Radiat Res. 2020 Feb 25;: Authors: Vyšín L, Wachulak P, Toufarová M, Medvedev N, Voronkov RA, Bartnik A, Fiedorowicz H, Juha L Abstract A standard Fricke dosimeter was used to measure the absorbed dose via the oxidation yields of Fe3+ ions in an aqueous environment induced by soft X rays within the "water window" spectral range. We also exploited the property of a neutral solution containing terephthalic acid as a tool for selective detection of OH radic...
Source: Radiation Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Vyšín L, Wachulak P, Toufarová M, Medvedev N, Voronkov RA, Bartnik A, Fiedorowicz H, Juha L Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Circular RNA TUBD1 Acts as the miR-146a-5p Sponge to Affect the Viability and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production of LX-2 Cells through the TLR4 Pathway.
Abstract The functions and molecular mechanism of circRNAs in the development of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the expression and potential role of a new circular RNA, named circTUBD1, in irradiated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX-2 cells. The expression of circTUBD1 was significantly upregulated in irradiated and LPS-stimulated LX-2 cells compared to non-treated LX-2 cells. To explore the functions of circTUBD1, small interfering RNAs targeting circTUBD1 were designed. Silencing circTUBD1 inhib...
Source: Radiation Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Niu H, Zhang L, Chen YH, Yuan BY, Wu ZF, Cheng JC, Lin Q, Zeng ZC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Endogenous Retrovirus Activation as a Key Mechanism of Anti-Tumor Immune Response in Radiotherapy.
Abstract The generation of DNA double-strand breaks has historically been taught as the mechanism through which radiotherapy kills cancer cells. Recently, radiation-induced cytosolic DNA release and activation of the cGAS/STING pathway, with ensuing induction of interferon secretion and immune activation, have been recognized as important mechanisms for radiation-mediated anti-tumor efficacy. Here we demonstrate that radiation-induced activation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) also plays a major role in regulating the anti-tumor immune response during irradiation. Radiation-induced ERV-associated dsRNA transcrip...
Source: Radiation Research - February 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Lee AK, Pan D, Bao X, Hu M, Li F, Li CY Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

A Mail Audit Independent Peer Review System for Dosimetry Verification of a Small Animal Irradiator.
Abstract Dedicated precision orthovoltage small animal irradiators have become widely available in the past decade and are commonly used for radiation biology research. However, there is a lack of dosimetric standardization among these irradiators, which affects the reproducibility of radiation-based animal studies. The purpose of this study was to develop a mail-based, independent peer review system to verify dose delivery among institutions using X-RAD 225Cx irradiators (Precision X-Ray, North Branford, CT). A robust, user-friendly mouse phantom was constructed from high-impact polystyrene and designed with dime...
Source: Radiation Research - February 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Gronberg MP, Tailor RC, Smith SA, Kry SF, Followill DS, Stojadinovic S, Niedzielski JS, Lindsay PE, Krishnan S, Aguirre F, Fujimoto TN, Taniguchi CM, Howell RM Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Generalized Multi-Hit Model of Radiation-Induced Cell Survival with a Closed-Form Solution: An Alternative Method for Determining Isoeffect Doses in Practical Radiotherapy.
Abstract The standard linear-quadratic (LQ) model is currently the preferred model for describing the ionizing radiation-induced cell survival curves and tissue responses. And the LQ model is also widely used to calculate isoeffect doses for comparing different fractionated schemes in clinical radiotherapy. Despite its ubiquity, because the actual dose-response curve may appear linear at high doses in the semilogarithmic plot, the application of the LQ model is greatly challenged in the high-dose region, while the dose employed in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often in this area. Alternatively, the biop...
Source: Radiation Research - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhao L, Chen X, Tian J, Shang Y, Mi D, Sun Y Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Cataract Formation and Low-Dose Radiation Exposure from Head Computed Tomography (CT) Scans in Ontario, Canada, 1994-2015.
Abstract Ionizing radiation exposure to the lens of the eye is a known cause of cataractogenesis. Administrative data from the Ontario Health Insurance Program was used to examine the association between low-dose radiation exposure from head CT scans and cataract extraction surgery for 16 million Ontarians over a 22-year period (1994-2015). Subjects were grouped based on the number of head CT scans they received, and a Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine if there was a correlation with cataract surgery. Covariates included in the analysis were age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and prior history ...
Source: Radiation Research - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Gaudreau K, Thome C, Weaver B, Boreham DR Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Determination of the Effective Local Lethal Function for the NanOx Model.
Abstract NanOx is a biophysical model recently developed in the context of hadrontherapy to predict the cell survival probability from ionizing radiation. It postulates that this may be factorized into two independent terms describing the cell response to two classes of biological events that occur in the sequence of an irradiation: the local lethal events that occur at nanometric scale and can by themselves induce cell death, and the non-local lethal events that lead to cell death by an effect of accumulation and/or interaction at a larger scale. Here we address how local lethal events are modeled in terms of the...
Source: Radiation Research - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Monini C, Cunha M, Chollier L, Testa E, Beuve M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Genistein Enhances Radiosensitivity of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Inducing G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis.
Abstract New radiosensitizers are urgently needed for radiation therapy patients with localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is refractory to radical surgery. We previously found that genistein, a major soy isoflavone, exerts radioprotective effects on L-02 normal liver cells at low concentrations. Here, we report that 5 μM genistein shows less harm to L-02 cells than HCC cells and that it significantly enhances the radiosensitivity of HCC cells by enhancing DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and by exacerbating apoptosis. Mechanistically, genistein aggravates X-ray-i...
Source: Radiation Research - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yan H, Jiang J, Du A, Gao J, Zhang D, Song L Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Altered Cognitive Flexibility and Synaptic Plasticity in the Rat Prefrontal Cortex after Exposure to Low ( ≤15 cGy) Doses of 28Si Radiation.
This study has established the impact that 1-15 cGy 600 MeV/n 28Si radiation had on cognitive flexibility performance, glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the prelimbic area (PrL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of ∼10-month-old (at the time of irradiation) male Wistar rats. Exposure to 1 cGy 600 MeV/n 28Si ions resulted in significantly impaired performance in the simple (SD) and compound discrimination (CD) stages of the attentional set shifting (ATSET) task. However, there was a pronounced non-linear dose response for cognitive impairment. Should similar effects occur in astronauts, the impa...
Source: Radiation Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Britten RA, Duncan VD, Fesshaye A, Rudobeck E, Nelson GA, Vlkolinsky R Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Eli J. Glatstein: Inspiring and Provoking Critical Thinking.
PMID: 31999506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - January 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Coleman CN, Mitchell JB, Hahn SM, McKenna WG Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Delivery and Effectiveness of Carboplatin via Targeted Delivery Compared to Passive Accumulation of Intravenously Injected Particles Releasing Carboplatin upon Irradiation.
In this study, nanoparticles that release anticancer drugs upon irradiation were developed. Here, MM46 and MM48 tumors in C3He/N mice were irradiated. Furthermore, the intravenously (i.v.) injected nanoparticles were tested for their ability to deliver the anticancer drug, increase the antitumor effect via a synergistic effect of combining targeted anticancer drugs with radiation and decrease adverse effects by localizing the anticancer drug. The nanoparticles were prepared by spraying a mixture of hyaluronic acid and alginate, supplemented with carboplatin, into a solution of CaCl2 and FeCl2 through a 0.8-μm-pore stain...
Source: Radiation Research - January 7, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Segawa T, Harada S, Sato T, Ehara S Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Identification of Radiation-Dose-Dependent Expressive Genes in Individuals Exposed to External Ionizing Radiation.
Abstract For victims of radiological accidents, rapid dose estimation and damage prediction are essential. Administering the gold-standard biodosimetry chromosome aberration assay requires highly skilled individuals and several days of labor; consequently, rapid turnaround is an important concern. Identification of new dose estimation markers and damage-predicting in vivo molecules to replace the chromosome aberration assay is crucial to improving the delivery time of medical treatment. Here, we investigated the applicability of mRNA levels using a mouse model. Female C57BL/6J mice were X-ray irradiated at various...
Source: Radiation Research - January 7, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yamaguchi M, Nishida T, Sato Y, Nakai Y, Kashiwakura I Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiation Biomarkers: Can Small Businesses Drive Accurate Radiation Precision Medicine?
Abstract Radiation therapy is an essential component of cancer treatment. Currently, tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities derived from a general patient population guide radiation treatment. Its outcome could be improved if radiation biomarkers could be incorporated into approaches to treatment. A substantial number of cancer patients suffer from side effects of radiation therapy. These side effects can result in treatment interruption. Such unplanned treatment interruptions not only jeopardize anti-cancer treatment efficacy but also result in poor post-treatment quality-of-life. To develop a...
Source: Radiation Research - January 7, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Prasanna PGS, Narayanan D, Zhang K, Rahbar A, Coleman CN, Vikram B Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Comparative Study on Neutron Irradiation Sensitization Effects of Nucleotide Borate Esters and Several Other Boron Agents.
In conclusion, nucleotide borate esters, especially ATP borate ester, exhibited superior neutron radiosensitization effects than did other representative borate ester compounds and significantly greater long-term radiation effects as well. Thus, nucleotide borate esters have several advantages over other borate esters for BNCT and therefore warrant further study. PMID: 31910121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - January 7, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Wang M, Tong Y, Luo Q, Hu S Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

The Potential Effects of Radiation on the Gut-Brain Axis.
Abstract Over the course of a lifetime humans may be exposed to different types of radiation, typically in the form of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, which is used, for example, in cancer treatment. In addition, astronauts may be exposed to high-LET radiation in outer space. Here, we propose that alterations to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota may occur when exposure to either low- or high-LET radiation, and that these alterations may perturb important relationships that exist between the GI microbiota and human health. For example, the GI microbiota can communicate with the brain via various path...
Source: Radiation Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Jones CB, Davis CM, Sfanos KS Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Nailfold Capillaroscopic Findings in an Orthopedic Surgeon: Reversible Abnormalities after the Cessation of Radiation Exposure.
Abstract Interventional fluoroscopy is a leading source of occupational ionizing radiation exposure for medical personnel. For example, orthopedic surgeons represent one occupation where the risk of exposure is large. This occupational hazard is the result of a cumulative dose of radiation over time. Adverse health effects induced by low-dose radiation exposure can arise from daily procedures performed over an entire career. Many of the radiation-induced effects that may develop are transient erythema, permanent epilation, dry desquamation, dermal necrosis and telangiectasia; these effects have occurred on the ski...
Source: Radiation Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Sirufo MM, Ginaldi L, De Martinis M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Imaging and Dosimetry Study of Inter-fraction Setup Error in a Murine Xenograft Flank Tumor Radiation Model.
Abstract Modern small animal irradiation platforms provide for accurate delivery of radiation under 3D image guidance. However, leveraging these improvements currently comes at the cost of lower-throughput experimentation. Herein, we characterized setup accuracy and dosimetric robustness for mock/sham irradiation of a murine xenograft flank tumor model using the X-RAD SmART+ with the vendor-supplied Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (SmART ATP). The chosen beam arrangement was parallel-opposing using a 20 mm square collimator, aligned off-axis for ipsilateral lung sparing. Using a cohort of five mice imag...
Source: Radiation Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Smith EJ, Tryggestad EJ, Carlson BL, Walb MC, Sarkaria JN Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Pet Dogs with Subclinical Acute Radiodermatitis Experience Widespread Somatosensory Sensitization.
Abstract Radiation-induced dermatitis (RID) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy. When severe, radiation-associated pain (RAP) can reduce the efficacy of radiotherapy by limiting the radiation dose given, and/or necessitating breaks in treatment. Current RAP mitigation strategies are of limited efficacy. Our long-term goal is to develop a comparative oncology model, in which novel analgesic interventions for RAP can be evaluated. The aim of this study was to validate quantitative end points indicative of RAP in pet dogs with subclinical and low-grade RID. Extremity soft tissue sarcomas were treated...
Source: Radiation Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Nolan MW, Kelsey KL, Enomoto M, Ru H, Gieger TL, Lascelles BDX Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

KATP Channel Blocker Glibenclamide Prevents Radiation-Induced Lung Injury and Inhibits Radiation-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Endothelial Cells by Increased Ca2+ Influx and Subsequent PKC Activation.
In conclusion, the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide remitted RILI and inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells by increased Ca2+ influx and subsequent PKC activation. PMID: 31877256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - December 26, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Xia P, Liu L, Hu X, Yu D, Dong S, Du J, Xu Y, Liu B, Yang Y, Gao F, Cai J, Liu H Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Macrophage-Mediated Bystander Effects after Different Irradiations through a p53-dependent Pathway.
In conclusion, the bystander lymphoblast damage was induced in different cells using different LET radiations. An amplified bystander response was modulated by the intermediator macrophage. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these bystander effects were dependent on the activation of p53 and its relevant apoptosis pathway in the irradiated cells. These results suggest that the bystander and macrophage-mediated bystander effects contribute to the common acute side effect of lymphocytopenia after local irradiation. PMID: 31841081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Fu J, Zhu L, Tu W, Wang X, Pan Y, Bai Y, Dang B, Chen J, Shao C Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Detect Early Microvascular Changes in Skeletal Muscle after High-Dose Radiation Treatment.
Abstract The biological response of normal tissue to high-dose radiation treatment remains poorly understood. Alterations to the microenvironment, specifically the microvasculature, have been implicated as a significant contributor to tumoral cytotoxicity. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging, which is uniquely suited to assess functional status of the microcirculation, to measure microvascular blood flow after high-dose irradiation to normal skeletal muscle tissue in a murine model. Proximal hindlimbs of wild-type C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with a single fraction using 6 MV photons, 1 cm...
Source: Radiation Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Nabavizadeh N, Qi Y, Kaempf A, Chen Y, Tanyi JA, Lindner JR, Wu MD Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research