Adaptations to a Generalized Radiation Dose Reconstruction Methodology for Use in Epidemiologic Studies: An Update from the MD Anderson Late Effect Group.
Abstract Epidemiologic studies that include patients who underwent radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer aim to quantify the relationship between radiotherapy and the risk of subsequent late effects. Because of the long follow-up period required to observe late effects, these studies are conducted retrospectively. The studies routinely include patients treated across numerous institutions using a wide range of technologies and represent treatments over several decades. As a result, determining the dose throughout the patient's body is uniquely challenging. Therefore, estimating doses throughout the patient...
Source: Radiation Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Howell RM, Smith SA, Weathers RE, Kry SF, Stovall M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Rapid High-Throughput Diagnostic Triage after a Mass Radiation Exposure Event Using Early Gene Expression Changes.
Abstract Radiological exposure scenarios involving large numbers of people require a rapid and high-throughput method to identify the unexposed, and those exposed to low- and high-dose radiation. Those with high-dose exposure, e.g.,>2 Gy and depending on host characteristics, may develop severe hematological acute radiation syndrome (HARS), requiring hospitalization and treatment. Previously, we identified a set of genes that discriminated these clinically relevant groups. In the current work, we examined the utility of gene expression changes to classify 1,000 split blood samples into HARS severity scores of H...
Source: Radiation Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Port M, Ostheim P, Majewski M, Voss T, Haupt J, Lamkowski A, Abend M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Reoxygenation and Repopulation of Tumor Cells after Ablative Hypofractionated Radiotherapy (SBRT and SRS) in Murine Tumors.
Abstract In this work, we investigated the change in tumor microenvironment caused by semi-ablative high-dose irradiation and its implication on tumor cell survival, reoxygenation of hypoxic cells and repopulation in FSaII tumors grown subcutaneously in the hind legs of C3H mice. Tumors were exposed to 10-30 Gy of X-ray radiation in a single exposure, and the vascularity and blood perfusion were assessed based on the levels of CD31 expression and Hoechst 33342 perfusion, respectively. The tumor hypoxia was assessed by staining for pimonidazole adduct formation and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1&alpha...
Source: Radiation Research - June 12, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Song CW, Griffin RJ, Lee YJ, Cho H, Seo J, Park I, Kim HK, Kim DH, Kim MS, Dusenbery KE, Cho LC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Biomolecular Analysis of Beta Dose-Dependent Cutaneous Radiation Injury in a Porcine Model.
Abstract While cutaneous radiation injury (CRI) is generally referenced as a consequence of a nuclear attack, it can also be caused by less dangerous events such as the use of dirty bombs, industrial radiological accidents, or accidental overexposure of beta (β) particle or gamma (γ) radiation sources in medical procedures. Although the gross clinical consequences of these injuries have been well documented, relatively little is known about the molecular changes underlying the progression of pathology. Here we describe a porcine model of cutaneous radiation injury after skin was exposed to strontium-90 ...
Source: Radiation Research - June 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Burnett LR, Gabard AR, Robinson M, Bourland JD, Dorand JE, Dozier S, Xiao R, Roy DC, Tytell M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Monocyte Polarization is Altered by Total-Body Irradiation in Male Rhesus Macaques: Implications for Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure.
Abstract Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a common delayed effect of acute ionizing radiation exposure (DEARE) affecting diverse tissues including the heart, lungs, liver and skin, leading to reduced tissue function and increased morbidity. Monocytes, which may be classified into classical (CD14++, CD16-), intermediate (CD14++, CD16+) and non-classical (CD14+/low, CD16++) subtypes in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), and monocyte-derived macrophages may play an integral role in the pathogenesis of RIF. We tested the hypothesis that moderate to high levels of total-body exposure to radiation would alter mono...
Source: Radiation Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Michalson KT, Macintyre AN, Sempowski GD, Bourland JD, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Dugan GO, Cline JM, Register TC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Stable Acinar Progenitor Cell Model Identifies Treacle-Dependent Radioresistance.
In this study, we isolated stable radioresistant acinar progenitor cells from the submaxillary gland of the Sprague Dawley rat. Progenitor cells are characterized as c-Kithigh/alpha-amylase+ and are resistant to X rays (≤5 Gy). We further isolated a radiosensitive acinar counterpart, characterized as c-Kitlow/alpha-amylase+, which is effectively killed by exposure to 2 Gy X ray of radiation. Phosphopeptides with homology to the treacle protein (TCOF1) were disproportionately increased in progenitor cells, compared to their radiosensitive counterparts. Silencing of TCOF1 expression (shRNA) radiosensitized progenitor cell...
Source: Radiation Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Weber TJ, Qian WJ, Smith JN, Gritsenko MA, Hu D, Chrisler WB, Timchalk C Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Americium Systemic Biokinetic Model for Rats.
Abstract In this work, a baseline compartmental model of the distribution and retention of americium in the rat for a systemic intake was derived. The model was derived from data obtained from a study designed to evaluate the behavior of americium in the first 28 days after incorporation. A pharmacokinetic (PK)-front-end modeling approach was used to specify transfer to and from the extracellular fluids (ECF) in the various tissues in terms of vascular flow and volumes of ECF. Back-end rates representing transport into and out of the cells were determined empirically. Uncertainties in transfer rates were investiga...
Source: Radiation Research - May 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Miller G, Klumpp JA, Poudel D, Weber W, Guilmette RA, Swanson J, Melo DR Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

DMAPT is an Effective Radioprotector from Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to Normal Mouse Tissues In Vivo.
Abstract While radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment, the benefits can be limited by radiation-induced damage to neighboring healthy tissues. We previously demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory compound dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) selectively induces radiosensitivity in prostate tumor tissue from transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP), while simultaneously protecting healthy tissues from 6 Gy whole-body radiation-induced apoptosis. Here, we examined the radioprotective effect of DMAPT on fibrosis in normal tissues after a partial-body fractionated radiation protocol that more closely...
Source: Radiation Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Morel KL, Ormsby RJ, Klebe S, Sweeney CJ, Sykes PJ Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Age at Exposure to Radiation Determines Severity of Renal and Cardiac Disease in Rats.
JE Abstract Radiotherapy with sparsely ionizing photons is a cornerstone of successful cancer treatment. Age at time of exposure to radiation is known to influence biological outcomes for many end points. The effect of dose and age at exposure upon the occurrence of radiogenic cardiovascular disease is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to determine the response of male WAG/RijCmcr rats at 6 months of age to gamma rays, and at 6 months or 6 weeks of age to X rays, using clinically relevant biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and kidney injury. Overall, there were significant radiation-induced effects o...
Source: Radiation Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Lenarczyk M, Kronenberg A, Mäder M, North PE, Komorowski R, Cheng Q, Little MP, Chiang IH, LaTessa C, Jardine J, Baker JE Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Dose, LET and Strain Dependence of Radiation-Induced 53BP1+ Foci in 15 Mouse Strains Ex Vivo Introducing Novel DNA Damage Metrics.
We present a comprehensive comparative analysis on the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo in 15 strains of mice, including 5 inbred reference strains and 10 collaborative-cross strains, of both sexes, totaling 5 million skin fibroblast cells imaged by three-dimensional high-throughput conventional microscopy. Non-immortalized primary skin fibroblasts derived from 76 mice were subjected to increasing doses of both low- and high-LET radiation (X rays; 350 MeV/n 40Ar; 600 MeV/n 56Fe), which are relevant to carcinogenesis and human space exploration. Automated image quantification of 53BP1 radiation-induced foci (R...
Source: Radiation Research - May 13, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Penninckx S, Cekanaviciute E, Degorre C, Guiet E, Viger L, Lucas S, Costes SV Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Use of Growth Factors and Other Cytokines for Treatment of Injuries During a Radiation Public Health Emergency.
This report reviews the information presented, and provides an overview of the discussions from a guided breakout session. PMID: 31081742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - May 13, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: DiCarlo AL, Horta ZP, Aldrich JT, Jakubowski AA, Skinner WK, Case CM Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Dickkopf-1 Treatment Stimulates Hematopoietic Regenerative Function in Infused Endothelial Progenitor Cells.
Abstract Acute high-dose radiation injury damages the bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. This damage compromises the functional ability of the bone marrow to produce mature blood cells and results in an increased risk of death due to hematopoietic complications. Past work has shown that the bone marrow endothelium provides critical cues, which promote hematopoietic stem cell regeneration after injury. Additionally, transfusion of endothelial cells after radiation injury has been shown to promote recovery of both the bone marrow vasculature and hematopoietic systems. In this work, we ex...
Source: Radiation Research - May 13, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Kim MM, Schlussel L, Zhao L, Himburg HA Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Use of Growth Factors and Cytokines to Treat Injuries Resulting from a Radiation Public Health Emergency.
Abstract In response to concerns over possible radiological or nuclear incidents, the Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program within the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) was tasked by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to support development of medical countermeasures (MCM) to treat the acute and delayed injuries that can result from radiation exposure. To date, the only three drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of acute radiation syndrome are growth factors targeting granulocyte (Neupogen® or Neulasta®) or granulocyte and m...
Source: Radiation Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Horta ZP, Case CM, DiCarlo AL Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Characterization of Radioprotective, Radiomitigative and Bystander Signaling Modulating Effects of Endogenous Metabolites - Phenylacetate, Ursodeoxycholate and Tauroursodeoxycholate - on HCT116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line.
Abstract Exposures to ionizing radiation can cause depletion in stem cell reservoirs and lead to chronic injury processes that exacerbate carcinogenic and inflammatory responses. Therefore, radioprotective measures, against both acute and chronic biological effects of radiation, require frequent intake of nontoxic natural products, which are practically administered orally. The goal of this study was to characterize the radioprotective, radiomitigative and radiation-induced bystander effect-inhibiting properties of endogenous metabolites: phenylacetate, ursodeoxycholate and tauroursodeoxycholate. Compounds were ad...
Source: Radiation Research - May 6, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Vukmirovic D, Vo NTK, Seymour C, Rollo CD, Mothersill C Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Transcriptional Profiling of Non-Human Primate Lymphoid Organ Responses to Total-Body Irradiation.
In this study we explored transcriptional and immunophenotypic characteristics of lymphoid organs of a non-human primate model after total-body irradiation (TBI). Fifteen middle-aged adult, ovariectomized, female cynomolgus macaques received a single dose of 0, 2 or 5 Gy gamma radiation. Thymus, spleen and lymph node from three controls and 2 Gy (n = 2) and 5 Gy (n = 2) exposed animals were assessed for molecular responses to TBI through microarray-based transcriptional profiling at day 5 postirradiation, and cellular changes through immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of markers for B and T lymphocytes and macropha...
Source: Radiation Research - May 6, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Caudell DL, Michalson KT, Andrews RN, Snow WW, Bourland JD, DeBo RJ, Cline JM, Sempowski GD, Register TC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Assessment of the Stability of Supraphysiological Ascorbate in Human Blood: Appropriate Handling of Samples from Clinical Trials For Measurements of Pharmacological Ascorbate.
Abstract Based on encouraging results from several early-phase clinical trials, there is renewed interest in the use of pharmacological ascorbate (i.e., intravenous administration resulting in>≈10 mM plasma ascorbate concentrations) in combination with standard-of-care cancer treatments including radiation and/or chemotherapy. Under normal, healthy physiological conditions, humans maintain plasma ascorbate concentrations in the range of 40-80 μM. However, in vivo antitumor activity requires supraphysiological plasma concentrations on the order of ≈20 mM. The stability of ascorbate in whole blood ...
Source: Radiation Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Petronek MS, Wagner BA, Hollenbeck NJ, Caster JM, Spitz DR, Cullen JJ, Buettner GR, Allen BG Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Translocation Frequency in Patients with Repeated CT Exposure: Comparison with CT-Naive Patients.
Abstract Epidemiologic studies using clinical indicators are limited in the assessment of the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation for medical purposes. We evaluated the biological effect of low-dose radiation by comparing translocation frequencies in patients with repeated computed tomography (CT) exposure and CT-naïve patients. The goal of this prospective case-control study was to determine whether repeated CT exposure is associated with increased frequency in chromosomal translocations. Two cohorts, comprised of case patients with a history of repeated CT exposure and age- and sex-matched CT-...
Source: Radiation Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Lee JK, Lee MS, Moon MH, Woo H, Hong YJ, Jang S, Oh S Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Adrenergic Receptor Signaling Regulates the Response of Tumors to Ionizing Radiation.
Abstract While ionizing radiation is a major form of cancer therapy, radioresistance remains a therapeutic obstacle. We have previously shown that the mandated housing temperature for laboratory mice (∼22°C) induces mild, but chronic, cold stress resulting in increased circulating norepinephrine, which binds to, and triggers activation of, beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) on tumor and immune cells. This adrenergic signaling increases tumor cell intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy and suppression of the anti-tumor immune response. These findings led us to hypothesize that adrenergic stress signaling i...
Source: Radiation Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: MacDonald CR, Bucsek MJ, Qiao G, Chen M, Evans L, Greenberg DJ, Uccello TP, Battaglia NG, Hylander BL, Singh AK, Lord EM, Gerber SA, Repasky EA Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

From Energy Deposition of Ionizing Radiation to Cell Damage Signaling: Benchmarking Simulations by Measured Yields of Initial DNA Damage after Ion Microbeam Irradiation.
Abstract Advances in accelerator technology, which have enabled conforming radiotherapy with charged hadronic species, have brought benefits as well as potential new risks to patients. To better understand the effects of ionizing radiation on tumor and surrounding tissue, it is important to investigate and quantify the relationship between energy deposition at the nanometric scale and the initial biological events. Monte Carlo track structure simulation codes provide a powerful tool for investigating this relationship; however, their success and reliability are dependent on their improvement and development accord...
Source: Radiation Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Gonon G, Villagrasa C, Voisin P, Meylan S, Bueno M, Benadjaoud MA, Tang N, Langner F, Rabus H, Barquinero JF, Giesen U, Gruel G Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiation-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe Enhanced by Gold Nanoparticles: Assessment with a Specific Automated Image Processing Workflow.
nel S Abstract In recent years, the use of gold-based nanoparticles in radiotherapy has been extensively studied, and the associated radiosensitization mechanism has been evaluated in a variety of in vitro studies. Given that mitotic catastrophe is widely involved in radiation-induced cell death, we evaluated the effect of gold nanoparticles on this key event. Most of the methods currently used to visualize and quantify morphological changes and multinucleation are manual. To circumvent this time-consuming step, we developed and optimized an image processing workflow (based on freely accessible software and plugin...
Source: Radiation Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Paquot H, Daouk J, Chateau A, Rétif P, Barberi-Heyob M, Pinel S Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Negative Modulation of Bystander DNA Repair Potential by X-Ray Targeted Tissue Volume in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Abstract Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) entail a cascade of bystander signals produced by the hit cells to the neighboring cells to regulate various biological processes including DNA damage repair. However, there is little clarity regarding the effect of radiation-targeted volume (hit cell amount) on the DNA repair potential of the bystander cells. This is especially important to understand in the context of the whole organism, where the target usually consists of multiple types of cells/tissues. To address this question, model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was locally irradiated, and the DNA repair pote...
Source: Radiation Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Deng C, Wu J, Wang T, Wang G, Wu L, Wu Y, Bian P Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Predicting In Vitro Cancer Cell Survival Based on Measurable Cell Characteristics.
In conclusion, knowledge of clinically accessible parameters (p53-mutation status and NoC) may support patient stratification in radiotherapy based on cell-specific survival prediction testable in prospective clinical trials. PMID: 31008688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - April 22, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Oesten H, von Neubeck C, Jakob A, Enghardt W, Krause M, McMahon SJ, Grassberger C, Paganetti H, Lühr A Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

DNA Damage and Cytokine Production in Non-Target Irradiated Lymphocytes.
Abstract In advanced radiotherapy, treatment of the tumor with high-intensity modulated fields is balanced with normal tissue sparing. However, the non-target dose delivered to surrounding healthy tissue within the irradiated volume is a potential cause for concern. Whether the effects observed are caused after exposure to out-of-field radiation or bystander effects through neighboring irradiated cells is not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to out-of-field radiation in lymphocyte cell lines and primary blood cells. The role of cellular radiosensitivity in altering b...
Source: Radiation Research - April 17, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Bryant J, Shields L, Hynes C, Howe O, McClean B, Lyng F Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Milton B. Yatvin November 12, 1930-December 13, 2018.
PMID: 30958729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - April 8, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Harms-Ringdahl M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Peggy Louise Olive.
PMID: 30958759 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiation Research)
Source: Radiation Research - April 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Bennewith KL, Hill RP, Minchinton AI Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Knee and Hip Joint Cartilage Damage from Combined Spaceflight Hazards of Low-Dose Radiation Less than 1 Gy and Prolonged Hindlimb Unloading.
In this study, we examined the individual and combined effects of varying low-dose radiation (≤1 Gy) and reduced weight bearing on the cartilage of the knee and hip joints. C57BL/6J mice (n = 80) were either tail suspended via hindlimb unloading (HLU) or remained full-weight bearing (ground). On day 6, each group was divided and irradiated with 0 Gy (sham), 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy (n = 10/group), yielding eight groups: ground-sham; ground-0.1 Gy; ground-0.5 Gy; ground-1.0 Gy; HLU-sham; HLU-0.1 Gy; HLU-0.5 Gy; and HLU-1.0 Gy. On day 30, the hindlimbs, hip cartilage and serum were collected from the mice. Significant dif...
Source: Radiation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Kwok AT, Moore JE, Rosas S, Kerr BA, Andrews RN, Nguyen CM, Lee J, Furdui CM, Collins BE, Munley MT, Willey JS Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Successful Rescue of the Victim Exposed to a Super High Dose of Iridium-192 during the Nanjing Radiological Accident in 2014.
Abstract Here we report on the interventions taken to treat a patient exposed to high-dose radiation and provide a protocol for treating such patients in the future. The patient, Mr. Wang, was a 58-year-old male janitor who was accidentally exposed to a 192Ir source with an activity of 966.4 GBq or 26.1 Ci. The dose estimated to the lower right limb was 4,100 Gy, whereas the whole-body effective dose was 1.51 Gy. The diagnosis was made according to the results of the patient dose estimation and clinical manifestations. Systemic treatment included stimulating bone marrow hematopoietic cells, enhancing immunity, ant...
Source: Radiation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Wang YY, Yu DJ, Zhao TL, Dai H, Li Y, Bian HH, Chen WB, Zhang YS, Pu WY, Feng JC, Hu WT, Liu YL Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Medical Radiation Exposure among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Understanding its Impact on Risk Estimates of Atomic Bomb Radiation.
Abstract There have been some concerns about the influence of medical X rays in dose-response analysis of atomic bomb radiation on health outcomes. Among atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study, the association between atomic bomb radiation dose and exposures to medical X rays was investigated using questionnaire data collected by a mail survey conducted between 2007-2011, soliciting information on the history of computed tomography (CT) scans, gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, angiography and radiotherapy. Among 12,670 participants, 76% received at least one CT scan; 77%, a fluoroscopic examination; 23%, an angi...
Source: Radiation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Sadakane A, Landes RD, Sakata R, Nagano J, Shore RE, Ozasa K Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Low-Dose Radiation Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of AGE-Treated Endothelial Progenitor Cells Derived from Bone Marrow via Activating SDF-1/CXCR4/ERK Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Low-dose radiation (LDR) has been confirmed to mobilize bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and promote diabetic wound healing. But it is unclear whether LDR acts directly on EPCs and promotes their proliferation and migration. Given the key role of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we used AGE to induce EPC damage. We then investigated the effect of LDR on the proliferation and migration of AGE-treated EPCs and explored the underlying mechanisms. EPCs cultured in vitro were treated with different concentrations of AGE, and the cells were then e...
Source: Radiation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Wang P, Zhang H, Li Z, Liu X, Jin Y, Lei M, Jiao Z, Bi Y, Guo W Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Cardiac and Renal Delayed Expression of Acute Radiation Exposure: Organ Differences in Vasculopathy, Inflammation, Senescence and Oxidative Balance.
Abstract We have previously shown significant pathology in the heart and kidney of murine hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) survivors of 8.7-9.0 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI). The goal of this study was to determine temporal relationships in the development of vasculopathy and the progression of renal and cardiovascular delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE) at TBI doses less than 9 Gy and to elucidate the potential roles of senescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. Our results show significant loss of endothelial cells in coronary arteries by 4 months post-TBI (8.53 or 8.72 Gy of ...
Source: Radiation Research - March 22, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Unthank JL, Ortiz M, Trivedi H, Pelus LM, Sampson CH, Sellamuthu R, Fisher A, Chua HL, Plett A, Orschell CM, Cohen EP, Miller SJ Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

DNA Strand Breaks Induced by Fast and Thermal Neutrons from YAYOI Research Reactor in the Presence and Absence of Boric Acid.
Abstract It is well known that neutrons have more damaging effects, with high relative biological effectiveness or a radiation weighting factor depending on neutron energy, compared to low-LET ionizing radiations. In the current work, we evaluated the contribution of the indirect effect induced by radicals for the purpose of studying the mechanisms of fast neutron effects or mechanisms of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using relatively lower energy neutrons. Plasmid pBR322 DNA with a supercoiled structure was irradiated with fast neutrons (1-10 MeV) in the reactor core of the YAYOI research reactor at the Un...
Source: Radiation Research - March 21, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Jamsranjav E, Ito A, Kato Y, Tatebe Y, Takase N, Yoshida S Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiation Chemical Yield of Hydroxyl Radicals for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: Dose Assessment of 10B(n, α)7Li Reaction Using Coumarin-3-Carboxilic Solution.
In this study, we propose that the radiation chemical yield (G value) of hydroxyl radicals (GOH•) can be considered a universal parameter for the description of the accelerator-based thermal neutron field. The GOH• of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction was quantitatively evaluated using an aqueous coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (3CCA) solution, and was discriminated from that of contaminations (i.e., γ rays and fast neutrons). The GOH• of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction was 0.107 ± 0.004 OH•/100 eV, which is almost equivalent to that exposed to α particles with an energy of 6.0 MeV. Since the ...
Source: Radiation Research - March 21, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Kusumoto T, Ogawara R Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Dosimetry Assessment of Injected 89Zr-Labeled Monoclonal Antibodies in Humans.
In this study, the behavior dynamics of Zirconium-89 (89Zr)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) after injection into the human body were modeled. This modified biokinetic model can be used for dose assessment, not only for 89Zr-labeled MAb tumor visualization, but also for diagnostic and therapeutic radiation with MAb labeled with other radionuclides. A modified biokinetic model was created based on experimental data from previously published studies. Cumulative 89Zr activity in organs and tissues per Bq of administered activity was calculated using the WinAct program. For most organs receiving the highest radiation dose,...
Source: Radiation Research - March 21, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Zakaly HMH, Mostafa MYA, Zhukovsky M Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Maintenance of Near Normal Bone Mass and Architecture in Lethally Irradiated Female Mice following Adoptive Transfer with as few as 750 Purified Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
Abstract Total-body irradiation (TBI) followed by transfer of bone marrow cells from donors is routinely performed in immunology research and can be used to manipulate differentiation and/or function of bone cells. However, exposure to high-dose radiation can result in irreversible osteopenia, and transfer of heterogeneous cell populations can complicate interpretation of results. The goal of this research was to establish an approach for reconstituting bone marrow using small numbers of purified donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) without negatively affecting bone metabolism. Gamma-irradiated (9 Gy) WBB...
Source: Radiation Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Deyhle RT, Wong CP, Martin SA, McDougall MQ, Olson DA, Branscum AJ, Menn SA, Iwaniec UT, Hamby DM, Turner RT Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Hematological Effects of Non-Homogenous Ionizing Radiation Exposure in a Non-Human Primate Model.
Abstract Detonation of a radiological or nuclear device in a major urban area will result in heterogenous radiation exposure, given to the significant shielding of the exposed population due to surrounding structures. Development of biodosimetry assays for triage and treatment requires knowledge of the radiation dose-volume effect for the bone marrow (BM). This proof-of-concept study was designed to quantify BM damage in the non-human primate (NHP) after exposure to one of four radiation patterns likely to occur in a radiological/nuclear attack with varying levels of BM sparing. Rhesus macaques (11 males, 12 femal...
Source: Radiation Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Jackson IL, Gibbs A, Poirier Y, Wathen L, Eley J, Draeger E, Gopalakrishnan M, Benjamin B, Vujaskovic Z Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Covalent Modification of Amino Acids and Peptides Induced by Ionizing Radiation from an Electron Beam Linear Accelerator Used in Radiotherapy.
Abstract To identify modifications to amino acids that are directly induced by ionizing radiation, free amino acids and 3-residue peptides were irradiated using a linear accelerator (Linac) radiotherapy device. Mass spectrometry was performed to detail the relative sensitivity to radiation as well as identify covalent, radiation-dependent adducts. The order of reactivity of the 20 common amino acids was generally in agreement with published literature except for His (most reactive of the 20) and Cys (less reactive). Novel and previously identified modifications on the free amino acids were detected. Amino acids we...
Source: Radiation Research - March 8, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Minkoff BB, Bruckbauer ST, Sabat G, Cox MM, Sussman MR Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Sirt2 Regulates Radiation-Induced Injury.
In this study, we report the role of SIRT2 in mediating radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), progenitor cells and tissues from Sirt2 wild-type and genomic knockout mice, and human tumor and primary cell lines as models. The presence of Sirt2 in cells and tissues significantly enhanced the cell's sensitivity to radiation-induced cytotoxicity by delaying the dispersion of radiation-induced γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. This enhanced cellular radiosensitivity correlated with reduced expression of pro-survival and DNA repair proteins, and decreased DNA repair capacities involving...
Source: Radiation Research - March 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Nguyen P, Shukla S, Liu R, Abbineni G, Smart DK Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

A Theoretical Model for Predicting and Optimizing In Vitro Screening of Potential Targeted Alpha-Particle Therapy Drugs.
Abstract One highly promising approach to cancer treatment, especially for tumors that have undergone micrometastasis, is targeted alpha-particle therapy (TAT). However, the development of a TAT drug has not been possible due to numerous unsuccessful attempts to establish effective in vitro screening methods. The goal of this study was to construct a model to predict and optimize in vitro screening of potential TAT drugs. Based on mean field hypothesis, microdosimetry and the classic linear-quadratic equation, a novel model was built, which can predict our own in vitro experiments and replicate published data from...
Source: Radiation Research - March 4, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Ma W, Wang X, Liu W, Ma H, Su Y, Yang Y, Liu N, Wang Y, Yang G Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Use of a Humanized Mouse Model System in the Validation of Human Radiation Biodosimetry Standards.
Abstract After a planned or unplanned radiation exposure, determination of absorbed dose has great clinical importance, informing treatment and triage decisions in the exposed individuals. Biodosimetry approaches allow for determination of dose in the absence of physical measurement apparatus. The current state-of-the-art biodosimetry method is based on the frequency of induced dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood T cells, which is proportional to the absorbed radiation dose. Since dose-response curves used for obtaining absorbed dose for humans are based on data sourced from in vitro studies, a concerning di...
Source: Radiation Research - February 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Pujol-Canadell M, Young E, Smilenov L Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Estimation of Radiation Doses to U.S. Military Test Participants from Nuclear Testing: A Comparison of Historical Film-Badge Measurements, Dose Reconstruction and Retrospective Biodosimetry.
Abstract Retrospective radiation dose estimations, whether based on physical or biological measurements, or on theoretical dose reconstruction, are limited in their precision and reliability, particularly for exposures that occurred many decades ago. Here, we studied living U.S. military test participants, believed to have received high-dose radiation exposures during nuclear testing-related activities approximately six decades ago, with two primary goals in mind. The first was to compare three different approaches of assessing past radiation exposures: 1. Historical personnel monitoring data alone; 2. Dose recons...
Source: Radiation Research - February 21, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Simon SL, Bailey SM, Beck HL, Boice JD, Bouville A, Brill AB, Cornforth MN, Inskip PD, McKenna MJ, Mumma MT, Salazar SI, Ukwuani A Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Influence of Dose Uniformity when Replicating a Gamma Knife Mouse Model of Radiation Necrosis with a Preclinical Irradiator.
Abstract A common mouse model used for studying radiation necrosis is generated with the gamma knife, which has a non-uniform dose distribution. The goal of this study was to determine whether the lesion growth observed in this mouse model is a function of non-uniform dose distribution and/or lesion progression. Here, a model similar to the gamma knife mouse model was generated; using a preclinical irradiator, mice received single-fraction doses from 50 to 100 Gy to a sub-hemispheric portion of the brain. The development of necrosis was tracked for up to 26 weeks with a 7T Bruker magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) s...
Source: Radiation Research - February 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Boria AJ, Perez-Torres CJ Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Dosimetric Impact of a New Computational Voxel Phantom Series for the Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: Children and Adults.
In this study, we sought to evaluate the dosimetric differences that should be expected from using an updated and age-expanded RERF phantom series with the survivor cohort. To this end, we developed a new series of hybrid phantoms, based on the Japanese population of 1945, which has greater anatomical realism and improved age resolution over those used by RERF. These phantoms were converted to voxel format and compared to their older counterparts through the calculation of organ dose coefficients using DS02 free-in-air particle fluences at three distances from the bomb hypocenter. From the photon portion of the spectra, or...
Source: Radiation Research - February 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Griffin K, Paulbeck C, Bolch W, Cullings H, Egbert S, Funamoto S, Sato T, Endo A, Hertel N, Lee C Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Automated Triage Radiation Biodosimetry: Integrating Imaging Flow Cytometry with High-Throughput Robotics to Perform the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay.
Abstract The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has become a fully-validated and standardized method for radiation biodosimetry. The assay is typically performed using microscopy, which is labor intensive, time consuming and impractical after a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. Imaging flow cytometry (IFC), which combines the statistical power of traditional flow cytometry with the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy, has been recently used to perform the CBMN assay. Since this technology is capable of automated sample acquisition and multi-file analysis, we have integrated IFC into our Rapid ...
Source: Radiation Research - February 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Wang Q, Rodrigues MA, Repin M, Pampou S, Beaton-Green LA, Perrier J, Garty G, Brenner DJ, Turner HC, Wilkins RC Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

dTMP-GH Fusion Protein Therapy Improves Survival after Radiation Injury Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.
In this study, using a RCI mouse model exposed to 60Co γ-ray photons (6.0 Gy, 0.3 Gy/min) followed by a 20% total-body-surface-area burns (henceforth called: RB-CI) was established. Administration of dTMP-GH (200 ug/kg) for 10 consecutive days beginning at 24 h after injury improved survival rate during a 30-day observation period compared with the control vehicle group. dTMP-GH treatment also showed enhanced bone marrow hematopoiesis recovery determined by peripheral blood analysis and bone marrow histopathology. Meanwhile, dTMP-GH treatment accelerated skin wound closure and mitigated ileum injury in the RCI model....
Source: Radiation Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Long S, Wang G, Shen M, Zhao N, Wan H, Xu Y, Wang S, Wang C, Gao J, Hao Y, Wang A, Li R, Ran X, Su Y, Wang J, Wang T Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiosensitivity: Gender and Order of Administration of G-CSF, An Experimental Study in Mice.
In conclusion, these findings indicate that male mice are more sensitive to TBI than females. Filgrastim improved survival in both genders irrespective of whether given pre- or postirradiation, but in males the improvement was significantly less if an injection was given before irradiation. These results suggest that, to prevent toxicity most effectively, G-CSF should not be given before cytotoxic therapy. While a completely different experimental model was used here, these results may also be extrapolated to indicate that endocrine cell-cycle suppression therapy should not be given before or during cytotoxic therapy of ho...
Source: Radiation Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Hultborn R, Albertsson P, Ottosson S, Warnhammar E, Palm Å, Palm S, Elmroth K Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

The Aftermath of Surviving Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome and its Mitigation.
Abstract Intensive research is underway to find new agents that can successfully mitigate the acute effects of radiation exposure. This is primarily in response to potential counterthreats of radiological terrorism and nuclear accidents but there is some hope that they might also be of value for cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Research into mitigation countermeasures typically employs classic animal models of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) that develop after whole-body irradiation (WBI). While agents are available that successfully mitigate ARS when given after radiation exposure, their success ra...
Source: Radiation Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Micewicz ED, Iwamoto KS, Ratikan JA, Nguyen C, Xie MW, Cheng G, Boxx GM, Deriu E, Damoiseaux RD, Whitelegge JP, Ruchala PP, Avetisyan R, Jung ME, Lawson G, Nemeth E, Ganz T, Sayre JW, McBride WH, Schaue D Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Chromosome Translocations, Inversions and Telomere Length for Retrospective Biodosimetry on Exposed U.S. Atomic Veterans.
Abstract It is now approaching six decades since U.S. nuclear testing was conducted in the Pacific islands, exposing military personnel to varying levels of ionizing radiation. Actual doses are not well-established, as film badges in the 1950s had many limitations. We sought a means of independently assessing dose for comparison with historical film badge records and dose reconstruction conducted in parallel. For the purpose of quantitative retrospective biodosimetry, peripheral blood samples from 12 exposed veterans and 12 age-matched (>80 years) veteran controls were collected and evaluated for radiation-indu...
Source: Radiation Research - February 4, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: McKenna MJ, Robinson E, Taylor L, Tompkins C, Cornforth MN, Simon SL, Bailey SM Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Radiation-Induced Phosphorylation of Serine 360 of SMC1 in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.
Abstract In the event of a mass casualty radiation scenario, biodosimetry has the potential to quantify individual exposures for triaging and providing dose-appropriate medical intervention. Structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) is phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation. The goal of this study was to develop a new biodosimetry method using SMC1 phosphorylation as a measure of exposure to radiation. In the initial experiments, two normal human cell lines (WI-38VA-13 and HaCaT) and four lymphoblastoid cell lines were irradiated, and the levels of SMC1 phosphorylation at Ser-360 and Ser-957 were as...
Source: Radiation Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Park S, Park JH, Ryu SH, Yeom J, Ryu JW, Park EY, Choi KC, Heo SH, Kim KH, Ha CH, Chang SK, Lee SW Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Pest Arthropods with Holocentric Chromosomes are More Resistant to Sterilizing Ionizing Radiation.
on; P Abstract It has been hypothesized that species with holocentric chromosomes have a selective evolutionary advantage for developmental and reproductive success because holocentric chromosomes are less susceptible to chromosome breakage than monocentric chromosomes. We analyzed data on sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation for more than 250 species of arthropods to test whether the minimal dose for reproductive sterilization is higher for species with holocentric chromosomes than for species with monocentric chromosomes. Using linear mixed models that account for phylogeny, we show that holocentric arthropod...
Source: Radiation Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Zedek F, Bureš P Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Impact of Radiotherapy Concurrent with Anti-PD-1 Therapy on the Lung Tissue of Tumor-Bearing Mice.
Abstract Pneumonitis is a common adverse effect found in non-small cell lung cancer patients after radiotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. We investigated the effects of these two therapies, combined, in the lung tissue of an orthotopic tumor-bearing mouse model. The mice received an 8 Gy dose three times with or without 200 μg anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibody intraperitoneal injection every three days. Lung tissues were H&E stained to determine histological changes. The serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-5, were detected b...
Source: Radiation Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Wang F, Luo Y, Tian X, Ma S, Sun Y, You C, Gong Y, Xie C Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research