Egr2 regulation in T cells is mediated through IFN γ/STAT1 and IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway.
In this study, we analysed the Egr2 expression mechanism in CD4 T cells under antigen stimulation. We found that Egr2 expression is regulated by different cytokines including IL-2 and IL-4, which increased Egr2 induction in activated T cells. However, inflammatory cytokines, including INFγ and IL-6, suppressed Egr2 expression through STAT1 and STAT3 signalling pathway respectively, highlighting a mechanism for tolergenic immune response on T cells. PMID: 33099163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - October 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Taefehshokr N, Miao T, Symonds ALJ, Wang P, Li S Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Regulatory role of microRNAs in cancer through Hippo signaling pathway.
Abstract Cancer is the major cause of death worldwide in countries of all income levels. The Hippo signaling pathway is a Drosophila kinase gene that was identified to regulate organ size, cell regeneration, and contribute to tumorigenesis. A huge variety of extrinsic and intrinsic signals regulate the Hippo signaling pathway. The Hippo signaling pathway consists of a wide array of components that merge numerous signals such as mechanical signals to address apoptosis resistance, cell proliferation, cellular outputs of growth, cell death and survival at cellular and tissue level. Recent studies have shed new light ...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Astamal RV, Maghoul A, Taefehshokr S, Bagheri T, Mikaeili E, Derakhshani A, Delashoub M, Taefehshokr N, Isazadeh A, Hajazimian S, Tran A, Baradaran B Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Antimicrobial peptide gene expression in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.
n P Abstract Bisphosphonates and denosumab are commonly used antiresorptive therapies in patients with bone metastasis and osteoporosis. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious side effect of these drugs, and infection has been recognized as a contributing factor. Current therapeutic options for MRONJ show limited effectiveness, therefore necessitating novel treatment strategies. Bisphosphonates have recently been reported to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), an inherent component of the immune system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate and com...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Thiel Y, Ghayor C, Lindhorst D, Essig H, Weber F, Rücker M, Schumann P Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Non-small cell lung carcinomas with a minor sarcomatoid component and pleomorphic carcinomas are associated with high expression of programmed death ligand 1.
iacute;šková A, Huťka Z, Plank L Abstract Pleomorphic carcinomas are known to be highly programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) types. However, the level of PD-L1 expression in lung carcinomas with a minor sarcomatoid component, comprising less than 10 % of the tumor mass, has not been determined yet. We hypothesized that NSCLC with a minor sarcomatoid component is more closely related to pleomorphic carcinomas in terms of PD-L1 expression than to NSCLC types without sarcomatoid features. The surgical resections from 690 lung carcinoma patients were retrospectiv...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - October 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Tancoš V, Farkašová A, Kviatkovská Z, Grendár M, Líšková A, Huťka Z, Plank L Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

NFIB functions as an oncogene in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is regulated by miR-205-5p.
In this study, we found that the protein level of NFIB was significantly upregulated in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous tissues while the NFIB mRNA expression level was not obviously dysregulated. Similarly, ER-positive breast cancer cell line, MCF7 express a high protein level of NFIB, while the mRNA level is not significantly upregulated. The function assays indicated that NFIB promoted MCF-7 cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanisms of NFIB as a target gene of miR-205-5p. ...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - October 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Chen H, Yu C, Shen L, Wu Y, Wu D, Wang Z, Song G, Chen L, Hong Y Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Combined multiple clinical characteristics for prediction of discordance in grade and stage in prostate cancer patients undergoing systematic biopsy and radical prostatectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: The upgrading-risk nomogram, upstaging-risk nomogram, and downgrading-risk nomogram were developed and correctly predicted the probability of incorrect Gleason grade group assigned to patients undergoing systematic biopsy. PMID: 33035728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - October 1, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Liu H, Tang K, Xia D, Peng E, Wang L, Chen Z Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Melanocytes derived from mouse hair follicles: A novel study model to assess pigmentation disorders.
Abstract Melanocytes are the major cells responsible for skin and fair pigmentation in vertebrates. They localize to hair follicles(HFs) and the epidermis during embryonic development. A reduced number or dysfunction of melanocytes results in pigmentation disorders.Thus, methods for isolation, culture, and identification of melanocytes in mouse hair follicles provide an experimental basis for thestudy of of pigmentation disorders. In the current work, we harvested the melanocytes from the anagen phase dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice.After its separation from the skin, the dermis was digested, and the HFs were released...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 28, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Fan R, Liu X, Liu F, Liu Z, Han X, Lian A, Wang Y, Zuo K, Liu M, Zou F, Jin M, Liu J Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Expression and prognostic significance of fatty acid synthase in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Abstract Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme essential for fatty acid (FA) synthesis, was reportedly implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, the clinical significance of FASN in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been fully elucidated yet. Here we compare the expression profile and evaluate the prognostic significance of FASN in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients. FASN expression was examined in 3 pairs ccRCC and their adjacent nontumor tissues by western blotting (WB) analysis, and its expression was assessed in 145 ccRCC and 13 nontumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) an...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 28, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Yuan Y, Yang X, Li Y, Liu Q, Wu F, Qu H, Gao H, Ge J, Xu Y, Wang H, Wang Y, Zhao Z Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The progression of metastatic melanoma augments a pro-oxidative milieu locally but not systemically.
Abstract Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. Despite new therapies for melanoma treatment, effective therapy is mainly limited by excessive metastasis. Currently, the factors determining metastasis development are not elucidated, but oxidative stress was suggested to be involved. To this end, we analyzed oxidative stress parameters during the metastatic development using the syngeneic B16F10 melanoma model. An increase in blood plasma lipid peroxidation occurred at the earliest stage of the disease, with a progressive decrease in oxidative damage and an increase in antioxidant defense. Vi...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 22, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Pasqual-Melo G, Bernardes SS, Souza-Neto FP, Carrara IM, Ramalho LNZ, Marinello PC, Luiz RC, Cecchini R, Bekeschus S, Cecchini AL Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Dental Apical Inflammation Score (DAIS): Histopathological scoring for the evaluation of the apical inflammatory activity and local bone destruction.
n V Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate 210 periapical lesions with a newly created Dental Apical Inflammation Score/DAIS with regard to their inflammatory cell infiltration, bone tissue, epithelium, bacteria and foreign material. STUDY DESIGN: Specimens were obtained from 51 different dental practices over a period of 11 months. These specimens were then sent in for histopathological routine diagnostics. RESULTS: The DAIS classified 81 cases of Type 1 (acute inflammation = low, chronic inflammation = low), 79 cases of Type 2 (acute inflammation = low, chronic inflammation = hig...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 20, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Krenn S, Gutwald R, Bönigk M, Krenn V Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Application of digital image analysis on histological images of a murine embryoid body model for monitoring endothelial differentiation.
Abstract The in vitro 3D model established from murine pluripotential stem cells (i.e., embryoid bodies (EBs)) is a dynamic model for endothelial differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether digital image analysis (DIA) can be applied on histological sections of EBs in order to quantify endothelial differentiation over time. The EBs were established in suspension cultures for 21 days in three independent replicate experiments. At day 4, 6, 9, 14, 18, and 21, the EBs were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for CD31. The IHC-stained slides ...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Mousavi N, Raft MB, Truelsen SLB, Timmermans V, Thastrup J, Heegaard S Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The potential therapeutic effects of melatonin on breast cancer: An invasion and metastasis inhibitor.
Abstract Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and its metastasis which generally observed at the last stage is the major cause of breast cancer-related death. Therefore, the agents that have the potential to prevent metastatic and invasive nature of breast cancer can open up new therapeutic strategies. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, is a powerful anti-cancer agent. There are growing evidence regarding the protective effect of melatonin against cancer invasion and metastasis. The anti-metastatic feature of melatonin accompanies with suppression of tumor proliferation, induction of tumor ...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Maroufi NF, Ashouri N, Mortezania Z, Ashoori Z, Vahedian V, Amirzadeh-Iranaq MT, Fattahi A, Kazemzadeh H, Bizzarri M, Akbarzadeh M, Nejabati HR, Faridvand Y, Rashidi MR, Nouri M Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Diffuse alveolar damage and thrombotic microangiopathy are the main histopathological findings in lung tissue biopsy samples of COVID-19 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cytopathic changes in various organs of the human body. PMID: 32979740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 18, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Sadegh Beigee F, Pourabdollah Toutkaboni M, Khalili N, Nadji SA, Dorudinia A, Rezaei M, Askari E, Farzanegan B, Marjani M, Rafiezadeh A Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

COVID-2019 - A comprehensive pathology insight.
Abstract Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS CoV-2), a highly contagious single stranded RNA virus genetically related to SARS CoV. The lungs are the main organs affected leading to pneumonia and respiratory failure in severe cases that may need mechanical ventilation. Occasionally patient may present with gastro-intestinal, cardiac and neurologic symptoms with or without lung involvement. Pathologically, the lungs show either mild congestion and alveolar exudation or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with hyaline membrane or histopathology...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Shanmugam C, Mohammed AR, Ravuri S, Luthra V, Rajagopal N, Karre S Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Differential expression of NKX 3.1 and HOXB 13 in bone metastases originating from prostatic carcinoma among the Egyptian males.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that NKX3.1 and HOXB13 are more sensitive markers than PSA for the detection of prostate carcinoma metastatic to the bone following the decalcification process. We recommend use of NKX3.1 and HOXB13, rather than PSA, in the diagnosis of bone metastases originating from prostate cancer. PMID: 32979741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Abouhashem NS, Salah S Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Dyregulation of the lncRNA TPT1-AS1 positively regulates QKI expression and predicts a poor prognosis for patients with breast cancer.
Abstract The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) TPT1-AS1 has been reported to be involved in the development of multiple cancers. However, its clinical value, biological function, and underlying molecular mechanism in breast cancer (BC) remain unclear. In the present study, TPT1-AS1 expression was decreased in BC tissues, based on RNA-seq data download from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases and the qRT-PCR results confirmed the above findings. Otherwise, low TPT1-AS1 expression was significantly associated with some clinical features of malignancy, such as high TNM stage, lymph no...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 12, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu C, Fang K, Zhang X, Guo Z, Li L Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Identification of MT1E as a novel tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that epigenetic silencing of MT1E due to promoter hypermethylation could play a vital role in HCC. PMID: 32956919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Liu Q, Lu F, Chen Z Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Malignant melanoma arising in a primary mediastinal germ cell tumor.
We report a case of a 34-year old man with melanoma arising in a primary mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor. On initial biopsy, the patient was found to have a germ cell tumor containing yolk sac and embryonal components only. After chemotherapy, histopathological evaluation of the residual tumor in the wide local resection specimen revealed a mature teratoma with melanoma. Molecular studies demonstrated that the residual germ cell tumor harbored KIT and NRAS mutations associated with malignant melanoma. PMID: 32950894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lee S, Chornenkyy Y, Swete MT, Kim SS, Bharat A, Yang XJ, Yeldandi A Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Multicentric Castleman disease presenting as a chylous pleural effusion.
We present the first case report of a hypervascular variant of Castleman disease presenting as a chylous pleural effusion and successfully treated with a combination of anti-interleukin-6 agent and steroids. PMID: 32950896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Epstein D, Zohar Y, Ovadya D, Ammouri H, Kremer R, Lavi N, Tzoran I, Andrawas ER, Klein E, Miller A Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Patterns of cell death induced by metformin in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Abstract The ability to evade apoptosis is an important mechanism of drug resistance and tumor progression in breast cancer. The induction of different pathways of cell death could be an important strategy to limit tumor progression. Metformin, a drug used to treat type two diabetes, has demonstrated promising results in breast cancer experiments. However, little is known about the patterns of cell death induced by this drug. We analyzed the involvement of apoptosis, necroptosis and ferroptosis in the toxicity of metformin in MCF-7 cells, evaluating proliferation, viability and oxidative stress. It was used differ...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 5, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Dias Lopes NM, Marinello PC, Sanches LJ, da Silva Brito WA, Lovo-Martins MI, Pinge-Filho P, Luiz RC, Cecchini R, Cecchini AL Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Axillary staging based on molecular analysis: Results of the B-CLOSER-II study.
In this study we compare histological and molecular methods following complete axillary lymph node dissection (cALND), determine whether molecular axillary staging affects survival, and evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of total tumor load in ALND (AD-TTL) and in all positive nodes (G-TTL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axillary lymph nodes were collected from 102 patients with primary breast cancer with histological confirmation of axillary involvement (cN+) or positive SLN. The central 1-mm portion of each non-SLN was processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and the remaining tissue was analyzed by OSNA. RES...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - September 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Sansano I, Vieites B, Sancho de Salas M, García C, Amendoeira I, Bernet L, Pérez-García JM, Espinosa-Bravo M, Rubio IT, Ramón Y Cajal S, Peg V Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Erratum to "The role of upregulated miR-375 expression in breast cancer: An in vitro and in silico study" [Pathol. Res. Pract. 216 (January (1)) (2020) 152754].
Erratum to "The role of upregulated miR-375 expression in breast cancer: An in vitro and in silico study" [Pathol. Res. Pract. 216 (January (1)) (2020) 152754]. Pathol Res Pract. 2020 Sep;216(9):152929 Authors: Tang W, Li GS, Li JD, Pan WY, Shi Q, Xiong DD, Mo CH, Zeng JJ, Chen G, Feng ZB, Huang SN, Rong MH PMID: 32825926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Tang W, Li GS, Li JD, Pan WY, Shi Q, Xiong DD, Mo CH, Zeng JJ, Chen G, Feng ZB, Huang SN, Rong MH Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The clinical performance of human papillomavirus genotyping using PANArray HPV chip: Comparison to ThinPrep cytology alone and co-testing.
Abstract Recently, a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detecting assay alone could be used as a first-line screening tool for cervical cancer, although the test system has been limited to the Cobas 4800 HPV test. However, the screening efficiency of the HPV chip, which is widely used in Eastern Asia because of the high prevalence of non16/18 HR-HPV genotypes, has not been well elucidated. After selecting 300 women who were co-tested using the PANArray HPV chip and the ThinPrep assay and had confirmed histological diagnoses, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the PANArray HPV test based on direct sequenc...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Kim J, Jun SY, Maeng LS Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The future of pathology is digital.
Abstract Information, archives, and intelligent artificial systems are part of everyday life in modern medicine. They already support medical staff by mapping their workflows with shared availability of cases' referral information, as needed for example, by the pathologist, and this support will be increased in the future even more. In radiology, established standards define information models, data transmission mechanisms, and workflows. Other disciplines, such as pathology, cardiology, and radiation therapy, now define further demands in addition to these established standards. Pathology may have the highest tec...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Pallua JD, Brunner A, Zelger B, Schirmer M, Haybaeck J Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The diagnostic utility of EZH2 H-score and Ki-67 index in non-invasive breast apocrine lesions.
Abstract In diagnostic breast pathology, there is no reliable applicable immunostain to help discern atypical and in situ apocrine lesions from benign apocrine tissue. At present, the diagnosis of non-invasive apocrine lesions remains challenging with current diagnoses rendered based on discrete morphologic characteristics on conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining. Interobserver variability is significant even among subspecialists partly due to lack of adjuvant diagnostic immunohistochemical stains. Herein, we set to elucidate the potential utility of EZH2 and Ki-67 immunostains as tangible tools in non-invas...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Vougiouklakis T, Belovarac BJ, Lytle A, Chiriboga L, Ozerdem U Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

FTO accelerates ovarian cancer cell growth by promoting proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and activating autophagy.
CONCLUSION: FTO accelerated ovarian cancer cell growth by promoting proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and activating autophagy. PMID: 32825930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhao L, Kong X, Zhong W, Wang Y, Li P Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Rab11a regulates MMP2 expression by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
In this study, database and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Rab11a was highly expressed in HCC tissues, and associated with poor clinical prognosis. Rab11a overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and anti-apoptosis of human HCC cell lines, MHCC-97H and HCC-LM3, whereas the downregulation of Rab11a inhibited these biological tumor activities. Nude mice xenograft demonstrated that Rab11a had a positive effect on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo. Further studies found that the PI3K/AKT pathway and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) upregulation can be activated by over-expre...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhang ZY, Lu M, Liu ZK, Li H, Yong YL, Zhang RY, Chen ZN, Bian H Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

High expression of long noncoding RNA LUCAT1 correlates with a poor clinical outcome in solid tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUNDS: Extensive studies have been performed to analyze the expression of long non-coding RNA the lung cancer associated transcript 1 (lncRNA LUCAT1) in various cancer types, and the predictive value of high or low lncRNA LUCAT1 level in survival time. We prepared to assess the association between the lncRNA LUCAT1 expression and the prognosis as well as clinical parameters in human cancers. METHODS: We retrieved completely in some main databases, such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), and Wanfang database. Then we counted the pooled hazard ratio (HR) ...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lv P, Ye T, Yang X, Liu H, Ye Z Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Downregulation of TRIM27 suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation via inhibition of the Hippo-BIRC5 pathway.
In conclusion, our findings revealed the positive correlation between TRIM27 and GC progression through mediation of the Hippo-BIRC5 axis in GC. PMID: 32825933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Yao Y, Liu Z, Cao Y, Guo H, Jiang B, Deng J, Xiong J Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Expression of long non-coding RNA SFTA1P and its function in non-small cell lung cancer.
This study aims to explore the clinical roles, biological function, and mechanism of SFTA1P in NSCLC. SFTA1P expression was estimated by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of 90 pairs of tissue samples, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and microarray. After overexpressing SFTA1P, NSCLC cell proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis were detected. We found that the expression of SFTA1P was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues with high diagnostic value (AUC = 0.87), which was consistent with the results of TCGA and microarray data. For the analysis of clinical features, the results r...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Du D, Shen X, Zhang Y, Yin L, Pu Y, Liang G Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Retinoblastoma co-repressor 1 (RB) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) as a multi-gene panel for differentiating pulmonary from non-pulmonary origin in metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: The location of the primary tumor in metastatic NECs appears to have significant prognostic and therapeutic implications. But due to the morphological homogeneity, higher grade of tumor, variable sensitivity of immunohistochemical markers, and small, often undetectable primary tumors, the localization of the primary tumor in cases of metastatic NECs is a challenge. In this study, RB1 and CDKN gene family mutations are identified as possible markers for differentiating pulmonary and non-pulmonary origin in metatstatic NECs. PMID: 32825935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Krishnamurthy K, Cusnir M, Schwartz M, Sriganeshan V, Poppiti RJ Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Identification of methylated-differentially expressed genes and pathways in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Abstract Methylation, as an epigenetic modification, can affect gene expression and play a role in the occurrence and development of cancer. This research is devoted to discover methylated-differentially expressed genes (MDEGs) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and explore special associated pathways. We downloaded GSE51287 methylation profiles and GSE26886 expression profiles from GEO DataSets, and performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. Totally, 19 hypermethylated, lowly expressed genes (Hyper-LGs) were identified, and involved in regulation of cell proliferation, phosphorus metabolic proce...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Sang L, Yu Z, Wang A, Li H, Dai X, Sun L, Liu H, Yuan Y Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Atypical lymphocyte morphology in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
PMID: 32825937 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: El Jamal SM, Salib C, Stock A, Uriarte-Haparnas NI, Glicksberg BS, Teruya-Feldstein J, Dembitzer FR, Nadkarni GN, Firpo-Betancourt A Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Four methods to analyze H3K27M mutation in diffuse midline gliomas.
This study demonstrated that IHC is an effective and rapid detection method for routine use in pathology laboratories for the identification of H3K27M mutation. A combination of IHC and sanger sequencing assays can provide 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of H3K27M status. PMID: 32825938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhao H, Fang X, Xue B Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Investigation of somatostatin receptor profile of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast.
Abstract Carcinomas of the breast with neuroendocrine features are rare primary neoplasms positive for neuroendocrine markers. According to the WHO classification of tumours of the breast they are divided into three morphologically distinct categories. They comprise neuroendocrine tumour (NET), neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the full spectrum of sstr expression status in breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. Fifteen primary breast carcinomas with histological and immunohistochemical ne...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Kontogeorgos G, Thodou E, Choreftaki T Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Composite follicular lymphoma and "early" (in situ and mantle zone growth pattern) mantle cell neoplasia: A rare entity with peculiar cytogenetic and clinical features.
We report a composite lymphoma (CL) in which a G1-2 FL was associated with an in situ mantle cell neoplasia (ISMCN) and a mantle zone growth pattern (MZGP) MCL, followed-up for six years after the first diagnosis, until the exitus of the patient. We performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical study and a detailed cytogenetic analysis, including conventional karyotyping, SKY FISH, FISH on metaphases and interphasic separated nuclei, and FISH on histological sections. The study was completed by the review of the 13 published composite FL and MCL. Our results show that this entity generally behaves like an indolent lymphoma...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Vivian LF, Magnoli F, Campiotti L, Chini C, Calabrese G, Sessa F, Tibiletti MG, Uccella S Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The expression of calpain-1 and androgen receptor in breast cancer and their correlation with clinicopathological characteristics: An immunohistochemical retrospective study.
This study has demonstrated that the expression of calpain-1 and androgen receptors are associated with important clinicopathological variables. The expression of calpain-1 was associated with improved disease-free survival of all analyzed patients and with improved overall survival of triple negative breast cancer patients. PMID: 32825941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Rajković-Molek K, Mustać E, Avirović M, Georgev P, Demaria M, Aničić J, Ban J, Babarović E Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Occupational exposures in constrictive bronchiolitis.
We present a case of constrictive bronchiolitis in a metal-cutting worker, highlighting the principal findings of this disease. PMID: 32825942 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Nena E, Steiropoulos P, Voulgaris A, Froudarakis M, Karpathiou G Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Inflammation in the neoplasms of the adrenal gland: Is there a prognostic role? An immunohistochemical study.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that inflammation could represent a valuable diagnostic and potential prognostic parameter, useful for the correct management of these lesions. PMID: 32825943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Guadagno E, Russo D, Pignatiello S, Del Basso De Caro M Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The relationships between PD-L1 expression, CD8+ TILs and clinico-histomorphological parameters in malignant melanomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a favorable prognostic value for CD8 + TIL infiltration. Moreover, TIL density was strongly correlated and geographically associated to PD-L1 expression. This analysis provides more insight into the role of TIL count and PD-L1 level in MM and their relationship with each other and association with other prognostic indicators. PMID: 32825944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Škuciová V, Drahošová S, Výbohová D, Cígerová V, Adamkov M Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Sialadenitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis and autoimmune pancreatitis type 2.
We describe the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical findings in this patient. It may be hypothesized that the sialadenitis may represent a rare extrapancreatic manifestation of, alternatively a rare association with, type 2 AIP or ulcerative colitis. PMID: 32825945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Detlefsen S, Olesen SS Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Connection and distinction of tumor regression grading systems of gastrointestinal cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The tumor regression grading system is useful in evaluating tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy, but more work is needed to refine and unify the system. PMID: 32825946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Tong Y, Liu D, Zhang J Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

LncRNA PCAT6 promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via regulating miR-185-5p/CBX2 axis.
Abstract Emerging evidence has revealed markedly roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in various cancer processes. Prostate cancer associated transcript 6 (PCAT6) is a novel lncRNA which displays vital regulatory functions in multiple cancers. However, the functions of PCAT6 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. Our study confirmed that PCAT6 expression was upregulated in PDAC and the expression of PCAT6 was related to TNM stage, lymph node invasion and overall survival of PDAC patients. PCAT6 might act as an effective tumor biomarker for PDAC patients. Moreover, knockdown of PCAT6 inhibite...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang W, Li X, Guan C, Hu Z, Zhao Y, Li W, Jiang X Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Circular RNAs as diagnostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is one of the causes of death in the world. Unfortunately, common imaging technologies did not succeed in identifying this disease, and because of the absence of sensitive and specific biomarkers, it is not possible to screen and diagnose the disease. Therefore, this disease is usually diagnosed when patient is at an advanced stage of cancer and has lost the chance of surgery, and routine treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not very effective. For this reason, the discovery of new biomarkers to overcome the diagnostic and therapeutic problems of pancreatic cancer is esse...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Fathizadeh H, Hallajzadeh J, Asemi Z Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

ACLY: A biomarker of recurrence in breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the possibility of ACLY as a potential and independent biomarker for the recurrence prediction in breast cancer patients. It may be related to ACLY promoting drug resistance in breast cancer cells. PMID: 32825949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Chen Y, Li K, Gong D, Zhang J, Li Q, Zhao G, Lin P Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Nanomicellar-curcumin exerts its therapeutic effects via affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and T cells in a mouse model of melanoma lung metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Nanomicellar-curcumin can inhibit lung metastasis and growing melanoma via activation of apoptosis, activated T cells and inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor growth and regulatory T cells. PMID: 32825950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Mardani R, Hamblin MR, Taghizadeh M, Banafshe HR, Nejati M, Mokhtari M, Borran S, Davoodvandi A, Khan H, Jaafari MR, Mirzaei H Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The roles of endothelin and its receptors in cigarette smoke-associated pulmonary hypertension with chronic lung disease.
Abstract Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke is the major risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with chronic lung disease (i.e. PH group III). The pathogenesis of smoke-associated PH group III in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves cigarette smoke exposure-induced damage to lung tissue and dysfunction of pulmonary system with increased synthesis and release of endothelin-1 (ET-1), hypoxia, inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodeling. Many studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure induces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway th...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhang Y, Xu CB Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in primary squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder.
Abstract Studies have demonstrated an etiologic role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection for epithelial malignancies, including most cervical carcinomas, anogenital cancers, and carcinomas of the head and neck; however, a causative role of HPV infection for bladder cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HR-HPV in primary bladder carcinoma to determine the association between HPV infection and the squamous cell component of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Furthermore, we evaluated the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV i...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Collins K, Hwang M, Hamza A, Rao P Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

The role of tumor-associated macrophages in the development, metastasis and treatment of breast cancer.
This article reviews the preclinical evidence of the relationship between TAMs and the breast cancer microenvironment, the role of TAMs in prognosis, and the clinical outcomes related to targeted therapy. PMID: 32825953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathology, Research and Practice)
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lu J, Ma L Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research

Can COVID 2019 induce a specific cardiovascular damage or it exacerbates pre-existing cardiovascular diseases?
Abstract A novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with cardiovascular and multiple organ failure till death. The main mechanisms of virus internalization and interaction with the host are down-regulation or upregulation of the ACE2 receptor, the surface glycoprotein competition mechanism for the binding of porphyrin to iron in heme formation as well as interference with the immune system. The interference on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, heme formation, and the immune response is responsible for infection diffusion, endothelial dysfunction, vasocons...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - August 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Mansueto G, Niola M, Napoli C Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research