New sequential combinations of noninvasive fibrosis tests provide an accurate diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome linked to obesity and insulin resistance, affects 25% of the general population both in western and developing countries [1]. As in the other causes of chronic liver disease, liver fibrosis is the main determinant of prognosis in NAFLD [2]. The risk of liver-related mortality increases from fibrosis stage 2 and is exponentially higher when transitioning to stage F3 (bridging fibrosis) then F4 (cirrhosis) [2]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: J érôme Boursier, Maeva Guillaume, Vincent Leroy, Marie Irlès, Marine Roux, Adrien Lannes, Juliette Foucher, Floraine Zuberbuhler, Cyrielle Delabaudière, Justine Barthelon, Sophie Michalak, Jean-Baptiste Hiriart, Jean-Marie Peron, Theophile Gerster, B Source Type: research

Chronic hepatitis delta virus infection leads to functional impairment and severe loss of MAIT cells
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a small, defective RNA virus, causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis.[1,2] For infection with HDV, co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is required. Up to 70 million individuals worldwide are chronically infected with HDV in conjunction with HBV infection.[1 –3] Compared to other chronic viral hepatitis patients, HDV-infected patients experience an accelerated progression to liver fibrosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, and earlier decompensation during liver cirrhosis. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Joana Dias, Julia Hengst, Tiphaine Parrot, Edwin Leeansyah, Sebastian Lunemann, David F.G. Malone, Svenja Hardtke, Otto Strauss, Christine L. Zimmer, Lena Berglin, Thomas Schirdewahn, Sandra Ciesek, Nicole Marquardt, Thomas von Hahn, Michael P. Manns, Mar Source Type: research

Patient-reported symptoms during and after direct-acting antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis C: The PROP UP study
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often report neuropsychiatric, somatic, and gastrointestinal symptoms including fatigue, sleep disturbance, musculoskeletal pain, depression, and abdominal pain.1 –3 Patients may attribute these symptoms to HCV, a chronic viral infection associated with several extrahepatic disorders. Recent studies show that health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs) improve during all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and after pati ents achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Donna M. Evon, Souvik Sarkar, Jipcy Amador, Anna S. Lok, Richard K. Sterling, Paul W. Stewart, Bryce B. Reeve, Marina Serper, Nancy Reau, K. Rajender Reddy, Adrian M. Di Bisceglie, David R. Nelson, Carol E. Golin, Joseph K. Lim, Michael W. Fried Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Role of HGF for reprogramming human liver progenitor cells: Non-essential but stimulative supplement
With great interest, we read the article written by Kim et al. in a recent issue of Journal of Hepatology.1 The authors developed a successful HAC culture system for reprogramming mature human hepatocytes into bipotential progenitor cells treated with 2 small molecules A83-01 and CHIR99021 (AC) in combination with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Their chemically derived human hepatocyte progenitors could sustain themselves as a population of progenitor cells over a long period while maintaining chromosomal stability and the capacity to differentiate into functional hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells in vitro and in v...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yu Huang, Takayuki Miyoshi, Yusuke Sakai, Takanobu Hara, Wei-li Gu, Susumu Eguchi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to: “Role of HGF for reprogramming human liver progenitor cells: Non-essential but stimulative supplement”
We thank Dr. Huang and colleagues for their interest and comments on our recent study, “Small molecule-mediated reprogramming of human hepatocytes into bipotent progenitor cells” published in the Journal of Hepatology.1 (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Seung Bum Lee, Yohan Kim, Kyojin Kang, Valentina M. Factor, Daekwan Seo, Ji-Hye Yim, Dongho Choi, Jaemin Jeong Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Patient-reported symptoms during and after direct acting antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis C: The PROP UP Study
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often report neuropsychiatric, somatic, and gastrointestinal symptoms including fatigue, sleep disturbance, musculoskeletal pain, depression, and abdominal pain [1 –3]. Patients may attribute these symptoms to HCV, a chronic viral infection associated with several extrahepatic disorders. Recent studies show that health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs) improve during all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and after pa tients achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) [4–6]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Donna M. Evon, Souvik Sarkar, Jipcy Amador, Anna S. Lok, Richard K. Sterling, Paul W. Stewart, Bryce B. Reeve, Marina Serper, Nancy Reau, K. Rajender Reddy, Adrian M. Di Bisceglie, David R. Nelson, Carol E. Golin, Joseph K. Lim, Michael W. Fried Source Type: research

Sustained virologic response to direct-acting antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects an estimated 71.1 million patients worldwide in 2015 and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).[1] Among patients who have undergone treatment with curative intent for HCC, early hepatic decompensation and HCC recurrence were the major drivers of mortality.[2] In recent studies of chronic hepatitis B-related HCC, antiviral therapy was shown to significantly reduce overall long-term mortality even in patients with very advanced HCC or decompensated cirrhosis, including those who were only receiving palliative treatment for HCC. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fanpu Ji, Yee Hui Yeo, Mike Tzuhen Wei, Eiichi Ogawa, Masaru Enomoto, Dong Hyun Lee, Etsuko Iio, John Lubel, Wenjun Wang, Bin Wei, Tatsuya Ide, Carmen Monica Preda, Fabio Conti, Tatsuya Minami, Rob Bielen, Hitomi Sezaki, Michele Barone, Philippe Kolly, Po Source Type: research

Declining hepatitis C virus-related liver disease burden in the direct-acting antiviral therapy era in New South Wales, Australia
The advent of highly curative, tolerable, short-duration direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has transformed clinical management, and provided great optimism for the global HCV response [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) have developed a global health strategy on viral hepatitis that incorporates key service and impact targets, including declines in HCV-related mortality of 10% by 2020 and 65% by 2030 [2]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maryam Alavi, Matthew G. Law, Heather Valerio, Jason Grebely, Janaki Amin, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Christine Selvey, Jacob George, Gregory J. Dore Source Type: research

Fetal origin confers radioresistance on liver macrophages via p21cip1/WAF1
Kupffer cells (KCs), the liver-resident macrophages, are important innate immune sensors that respond to liver stress, and may either stimulate or suppress immunity.1 In contrast to most other leukocytes, tissue-resident macrophages in the brain (microglia) and epidermis (Langerhans cells) are highly radioresistant.2,3 However, in the liver, only a subset of KCs resists lethal irradiation, while the other subset is replaced by donor bone-marrow-monocyte-derived KCs (bm-KCs).4,5 This radioresistant KC subset is long lived, and they are not recruited to foci of inflammation, and thus, are termed sessile KCs. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 8, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Radika Soysa, Sarah Lampert, Sebastian Yuen, Alyse N. Douglass, Wanyu Li, Klaus Pfeffer, Ian N. Crispe Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Efficient long-term amplification of hepatitis B virus isolates after infection of slow proliferating HepG2-NTCP cells
Despite vaccination, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has remained among the most widespread, life-shortening infectious diseases. Two billion people worldwide have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), including 257 million chronic carriers. Up to 30% of chronically HBV-infected adults will develop liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, accounting for 887,000 annual fatalities[1]. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors and interferon-alpha can control viral replication and prevent CHB progression. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 8, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Alexander K önig, Jaewon Yang, Eunji Jo, Kyu Ho Paul Park, Hyun Kim, Thoa Thi Than, Xiyong Song, Xiaoxuan Qi, Xinghong Dai, Soonju Park, David Shum, Wang-Shick Ryu, Jung-Hee Kim, Seung Kew Yoon, Jun Yong Park, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Wolfram Huber Source Type: research

Fetal origin confers radio-resistance on liver macrophages via p21cip1/WAF1
Kupffer cells (KCs), the liver resident macrophages are important innate immune sensors that respond to liver stress and may either stimulate or suppress immunity.[1] In contrast to most other leukocytes, tissue resident macrophages in brain (microglia) and epidermis (Langerhans cells) are highly radioresistant.[2,3] However in the liver only a subset of KCs resists lethal irradiation while the other subset is replaced by donor bone marrow monocyte-derived KCs (bm-KCs).[4,5] This radioresistant KC subset is long-lived and they are not recruited to foci of inflammation, and thus are termed sessile KCs. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 8, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Radika Soysa, Sarah Lampert, Sebastian Yuen, Alyse N. Douglass, Wanyu Li, Klaus Pfeffer, Ian N. Crispe Source Type: research

Convalescent Plasma Therapy for Persistent Hepatitis E Virus Infection
Persistent hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognised in immunocompromised patients, particularly solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients [1]. The majority of cases are caused by genotype 3 (G3) HEV [1]. Ribavirin monotherapy is considered first-line when the reduction of immunosuppression is contraindicated or unsuccessful [2]. Treatment failure and relapse is recognised with limited alternative treatment options [3]. Current guidelines suggest re-treatment with a prolonged course of ribavirin or, in cases of intolerance or non-response, PEG-Interferon (if not contraindicated) [2,4]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Michael Ankcorn, Jennifer Gallacher, Samreen Ijaz, Yusri Taha, Heli Harvala, Sheila Maclennan, Emma C. Thomson, Chris Davis, Joshua B Singer, Ana da Silva Filipe, Katherine Smollett, Marc Niebel, Malcolm G. Semple, Richard S. Tedder, Stuart McPherson Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The Beneficial effects of Mediterranean diet over low-fat diet may be mediated by decreasing hepatic fat content
Beyond total body fat content, fat distribution, both within adipose tissue depots and in ectopic fat deposits, is increasingly shown to determine obesity-related health impact [1,2]. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), due to its unique anatomical location, releases free fatty acids (FFA) and adipokines to the liver via the portal vein.Previous studies have demonstrated the inter-relationship between VAT and hepatic fat content (HFC), and indeed, increases in HFC were associated with similar metabolic abnormalities as observed for increases in VAT [3,4]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Oded Komy, Noa Cohen, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Lilac Tene, Avital Bilitzky, Gal Tsaban, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusy, Uta Ceglarek, Joachi Source Type: research

Glycolytic activation of peritumoral monocytes fosters immune privilege via the PFKFB3-PD-L1 axis in human hepatocellular carcinoma
Monocytes/macrophages constitute a major component of most solid tumors and exhibit great plasticity and diversity according to different environmental cues.1 –3 Instead of inducing anti-tumor immune responses, monocytes/macrophages can be educated by the tumor microenvironment and facilitate disease progression via diverse mechanisms.4,5 For example, we and others have found that the peritumoral stroma of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly infiltrated by monocytes with activated phenotypes. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Dong-Ping Chen, Wan-Ru Ning, Ze-Zhou Jiang, Zhi-Peng Peng, Ling-Yan Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Dong-Ming Kuang, Limin Zheng, Yan Wu Source Type: research

Glycolytic Activation of Peritumoral Monocytes Fosters Immune Privilege via PFKFB3-PD-L1 axis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Monocytes/macrophages constitute a major component of most solid tumors and exhibit great plasticity and diversity according to different environmental cues.[1 –3] Instead of inducing anti-tumor immune responses, monocytes/macrophages can be educated by the tumor microenvironment and facilitate disease progression via diverse mechanisms.[4,5] For example, we and others have found that the peritumoral stroma of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high ly infiltrated by monocytes with activated phenotypes. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Dong-Ping Chen, Wan-Ru Ning, Ze-Zhou Jiang, Zhi-Peng Peng, Ling-Yan Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Dong-Ming Kuang, Limin Zheng, Yan Wu Source Type: research

Outcomes of Liver Transplantation for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: a European Liver Transplant Registry Study
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased dramatically, in parallel with the worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes[1,2]. Approximately a quarter of the European adult population have NAFLD, representing an increase of 10% since 2005[3]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Debashis Haldar, Barbara Kern, James Hodson, Matthew James Armstrong, Rene Adam, Gabriela Berlakovich, Josef Fritz, Benedikt Feurstein, Wolfgang Popp, Vincent Karam, Paolo Muiesan, John O'Grady, Neville Jamieson, Stephen J Wigmore, Jacques Pirenne, Seyed Source Type: research

Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells and Portal Fibroblasts contribute to cholestatic liver fibrosis in MDR2 knockout mice
Chronic liver injury often results in liver fibrosis. Development of liver fibrosis is associated with migration and proliferation of Collagen Type I producing myofibroblasts, which are not present in the normal liver. Activated myofibroblasts originate from three major sources, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), portal fibroblasts (PFs), or fibrocytes[1 –4]. Activated HSCs (aHSCs) were implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental toxic liver fibrosis, such as chronic CCl4 administration and alcoholic liver disease[1,5], while PFs are predominantly activated in response to cholestatic liver fibrosis, such as bile duct ...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahiro Nishio, Ronglin Hu, Yukinori Koyama, Shuang Liang, Sara B. Rosenthal, Gen Yamamoto, Daniel Karin, Jacopo Baglieri, Hsiao-Yen Ma, Jun Xu, Xiao Liu, Debanjan Dhar, Keiko Iwaisako, Kojiro Taura, David A. Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva Source Type: research

A hydrodynamic hypothesis for the pathogenesis of glymphatic system impairment in hepatic encephalopathy
The interesting study by Hadjihambi et al.1 demonstrated, in the bile duct ligation model, the role of glymphatic system impairment in hepatic encephalopathy. However, mechanisms underlying this finding were not stated. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 3, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pasquale Gallina, Oreste Gallo, Claudio Nicoletti, Roberto Giulio Romanelli Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The dawn of a new EASL – A new chapter in the history of the European Association for the Study of the liver
In our 2018 editorial we outlined the major new challenges facing hepatology and the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL).1 Reference was made to the rapidly changing landscape of liver research, following the successful journey towards cure of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the rise of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer and increasing attention to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection ( “HBV cure”) and treatment of rare autoimmune and genetic liver diseases. It has also become clearer that society and governments play a critical role in the development of life-style related cond...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - May 2, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tom H. Karlsen, Phil N. Newsome Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Mechanical stimuli control liver homeostasis
Mechanical cues are known to control cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and malignant transformation. Such cues include compression, shear stress from blood flow, and stretch generated by cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Physical stimuli of the microenvironment are sensed by cell membrane-associated proteins such as integrins, ion channels, or growth factor receptors. They are then propagated to the actomyosin cytoskeleton whose contractility regulates intracellular signalling pathways, eventually leading to changes in gene expression and determination of the appropriate cellular response. (...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 26, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fr édéric P. Lemaigre Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HCV: Is it attainable with a multidisciplinary approach?
We read with great interest Modin et al. in the November 2018 edition of Journal of Hepatology.1 Given the demonstrated long-term disease sequelae for children infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) particularly through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), we agree that there is a need for earlier detection and treatment of HCV in children. However, in the absence of universal guidelines for HCV screening during pregnancy, the antepartum case definition of HCV is inadequate, and coordination of maternal care is challenging. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 24, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Julie Hong, Tatyana Kushner, Douglas Dieterich, David Garry, Luis A. Marcos, Christy Beneri, Rhoda Sperling, Pruthvi Patel Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Combination therapy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin fails to clear chronic hepatitis E infection in a multivisceral transplanted patient
Infections with zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been increasingly reported in industrialized countries. Three months of detectable virus replication define chronic HEV infection,1 which may rapidly progress to severe liver disease.2 Patients under immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation represent the largest group at risk of chronic HEV infection. However, there have been anecdotal reports about chronic HEV infection in patients receiving immunosuppressive medication regimens including rituximab or inhibitors of TNF- α. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 23, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Marten Schulz, C. Patrick Papp, Claus-Thomas Bock, J örg Hofmann, Undine A. Gerlach, Max Magnus Maurer, Dennis Eurich, Tobias Mueller Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Hepatocyte transplantation, a step forward?
Hepatocyte transplantation emerged a few decades ago as a possible strategy to overcome some of the limitations of liver transplantation, among them the availability of organ donors and the functional quality of grafts. Nowadays, allogenic cell transplantation is still to be confirmed as a viable therapeutic option for patients with hereditary metabolic liver diseases. Although we have now overseen 5 decades of basic and animal research in the field, the number of successfully treated patients remains low. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Michael Ott, Jose V. Castell Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Liver-derived Cell-free Nucleic Acids in Plasma: Biology and Applications in Liquid Biopsies
There is much global research interest into the use of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for liquid biopsies. cfDNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies was the first success in using cfDNA technology to profoundly transform clinical practice, and has been rapidly adopted in dozens of countries and used by millions of pregnant women every year. Prompted by such developments, efforts to use cfDNA for other fields, especially for cancer detection and monitoring have been actively pursued in recent years. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Peiyong Jiang, K.C. Allen Chan, Y.M. Dennis Lo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Update of the statements on biology and clinical impact of occult hepatitis b virus infection
The objectives of the workshop were to review the existing knowledge on OBI, to identify issues that require further investigation, to highlight both the existing controversial and newly emerging aspects, and ultimately to update the statements previously agreed in 2008. This paper represents the output from the workshop. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 17, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Giovanni Raimondo, Stephen Locarnini, Teresa Pollicino, Massimo Levrero, Fabien Zoulim, Anna S. Lok, Taormina Workshop on Occult HBV Infection Faculty Members Tags: Review Source Type: research

Prospective evaluation of a primary care referral pathway for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest cause of deranged liver blood tests (LFTs) in primary care in Europe and North America [1], and has an estimated prevalence of 25-30% in the adult population[2]. Only a minority of people with NAFLD (5%) develop clinically significant liver disease [2], but the burden is such that NAFLD is predicted to be the leading indication for liver transplantation within a decade[3]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ankur Srivastava, Ruth Gailer, Sudeep Tanwar, Paul Trembling, Julie Parkes, Alison Rodger, Deepak Suri, Douglas Thorburn, Karen Sennett, Sarah Morgan, Emmanuel A. Tsochatzis, William Rosenberg Source Type: research

Clinical utility of genomic analysis in adults with idiopathic liver disease
Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a significant health problem affecting more than 4 million people in the United States and leading to over 40,000 deaths annually.1 CLD is often undiagnosed for many years unless there is awareness of subtle clinical signs, behavioral risk factors and/or investigation of abnormal liver function tests. In many patients, by the time overt manifestations of CLD emerge, liver injury has advanced to result in portal hypertension or hepatic decompensation. The taxonomy of CLD in clinical practice is based broadly on categories of etiology such as exposure to toxins, viral infections, cholestatic, a...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aaron Hakim, Xuchen Zhang, Angela DeLisle, Elif A. Oral, Daniel Dykas, Kaela Drzewiecki, David N. Assis, Marina Silveira, Jennifer Batisti, Dhanpat Jain, Allen Bale, Pramod K. Mistry, Silvia Vilarinho Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Learning from a clinical cohort for HCV vaccine development
About 71 million people worldwide suffer from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Without available treatment the large majority of HCV-infected patients progress to chronic disease. Chronic HCV infection is one of the most important risk factors for liver disease, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the development of efficient direct-acting antivirals with success rates of more than 95%, HCV incidence rates are still increasing, which is in part due to the ongoing opioid epidemic that is currently taking its toll in the US. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Florian Wrensch, Zhen-yong Keck, Steven K.H. Foung, Thomas F. Baumert Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles, the liquid biopsy of the future
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived nano- and micro-size entities containing a specific cargo from the cell of origin. They are abundant in body fluids, emphasizing their potential utility in novel non-invasive liquid biopsies. Based on their specific molecular signature, EVs from body fluids can be used to diagnose liver diseases. This snapshot summarizes the current knowledge on EV classification, characterization, origin and cargo, while reviewing the potential of EVs as novel biomarkers in the context of liver diseases. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Akiko Eguchi, Enis Kostallari, Ariel E. Feldstein, Vijay H. Shah Tags: Hepatology Snapshot Source Type: research

Clinical utility of TREAT-B score in African and non-African HBV-infected patients living in Europe
In light of global socio-political and economic changes, Europe has once more become a target destination for migrants and refugees from many parts of the world, especially from Africa and the Middle East,1 the regions worst affected by the hepatitis B epidemic. European countries need to adapt to these socio-demographic changes and develop appropriate strategies in order to target these populations to achieve HBV elimination. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 11, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kyoko Yoshida, Gerrit Post, Yusuke Shimakawa, Mark Thursz, Ashley Brown, Patrick Ingiliz, Maud Lemoine Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

EASL International Recognition Award Recipient 2019: Prof. Flair Jos é Carrilho
It is a great honour and pleasure to introduce Professor Flair Jos é Carrilho for the 2019 EASL International Recognition Award. To my knowledge, he is the first Latin American hepatologist receiving this award. With this decision, the EASL Executive Committee recognises in Flair the existence of an exceptional generation of Latin American hepatologists who, with tremendous enthusiasm, imagination and effort, have led to the progression of hepatology and improved the care of patients with liver diseases even in a continent facing very difficult conditions. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Vicente Arroyo Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

EASL Recognition Award Recipient 2019: Prof. Deirdre Kelly
“Where is the little Irish girl? Let her look after the children”Professor Dame Sheila Sherlock (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ulrich Baumann Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

EASL Recognition Award Recipient 2019: Prof. Vincenzo Mazzaferro
As underlined by Primo Levi who, like Vincenzo Mazzaferro, studied at the University of Turin, exceptional stories and achievements are a chain of exceptional events, many of which are not under our control.1 But the readers of the first and the friends of the second must add to this the ingredient of the exceptional attention and depth with which ordinary events and encounters are lived. Their decency – common to the writer and the surgeon and verging on shyness – does not allow them to mention it. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pietro Majno-Hurst Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The International Liver CongressTM, Vienna, Austria, 2019
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

EASL NAFLD Summit 2019, Sevilla, Spain
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

EASL: Join the community or renew your membership
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Discover the EASL educational tools
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

JHEP at a glance (May 2019)
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

From the Editor ’s desk…
The association between physical activity and risk of liver cancer is debated. Using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (known as EPIC) which is composed of 467,336 men and women, Baumeister et al. now show that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing liver cancers over the next decade. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was significantly lower for active vs. inactive individuals, and for individuals that performed>2hours/week of vigorous activity vs. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Richard Moreau, Ramon Bataller, Thomas Berg, Sophie Lotersztajn, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Rajiv Jalan Tags: Editorial Desk Source Type: research

Biliary-derived hepatocytes in chronic liver injury: Bringing new troops to the battlefield?
The adult liver represents a paradigm of bona fide regeneration whereby, after damage, it can fully restore its architecture and function. Following mild and moderate injury, this regeneration occurs via hepatocyte proliferation.1 However, in severe chronic liver disease, the regenerative capacity of hepatocytes becomes impaired,2,3 leading to failure of the hepatocyte compartment to fully restore normal structure and function. The question of whether cells of a non-hepatocyte origin, such as biliary cells, can contribute to parenchymal repair in such a setting cannot yet be determined from human tissue samples. (Source: J...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Niya Aleksieva, Stuart J. Forbes Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy and Liver Transplant-free Survival in Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and usually slowly progressive liver disease with autoimmune features, histologically characterized by destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts.[1,2] The disease is primarily diagnosed based on an otherwise unexplained chronic elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels and the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Early identification of individuals with PBC is clinically challenging as symptoms are frequently absent. Identifying and managing patients with PBC is important, however, as the disease may silently progress towards cirrhosis and the survival of aff...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maren H. Harms, Henk R. van Buuren, Christophe Corpechot, Douglas Thorburn, Harry L.A. Janssen, Keith D. Lindor, Gideon M Hirschfield, Albert Par és, Annarosa Floreani, Marlyn J Mayo, Pietro Invernizzi, Pier Maria Battezzati, Frederik Nevens, Cyriel Y. P Source Type: research

Hepatitis B virus reactivation in transplant patients treated for hepatitis C recurrence: Prophylaxis makes the difference
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to cause suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with HBV/HCV coinfection.1 Loss of HBV suppression following interferon (IFN)-based HCV treatment is a well-known phenomenon2 and HBV reactivation in patients treated for HCV with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has recently attracted clinical attention. Indeed, some of the identified cases had serious outcomes, resulting in liver transplantation or death.3,4 Subsequent series of HBV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with DAAs have shown that viral reactivation was relatively common in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lina Mouna, Emilie Rossignol, Mariagrazia Tateo, Audrey Coilly, Jean-Charles Duclos-Vall ée, Christophe Duvoux, François Durand, Albert Tran, Sylvie Radenne, Valerie Canva-Delcambre, Pauline Houssel-Debry, Jérôme Dumortier, Filomena Conti, Victor de L Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A multicenter study of entecavir vs. tenofovir on prognosis of treatment-na ïve chronic hepatitis B in South Korea
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the most common chronic viral infection worldwide, affecting approximately 350 million people.1 Because persistently high hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is associated with an increased risk of compensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),2,3 replication-suppressing antiviral therapy is administered to patients with CHB to prevent liver-disease progression.4 As a matter of fact, oral antiviral agents, particularly entecavir (ETV), reduce the risk of long-term complications such as cirrhosis and HCC, ultimately improving survival compared to controls. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Seung Up Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Han Ah Lee, Mi Na Kim, Yu Rim Lee, Hye Won Lee, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seong Gyu Hwang, Kyu Sung Rim, Soon Ho Um, Won Young Tak, Young Oh Kweon, Beom Kyung Kim, Soo Young Park Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Direct-acting antivirals after successful treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma improve survival in HCV-cirrhotic patients
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death globally, and the leading cause of mortality in cirrhotic patients, with hepatitis C virus (HCV) being the major risk factor in the Western world and Japan.1 Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the definitive treatment for HCC and cirrhotic liver, but this approach cannot be offered to all patients due to limited graft availability and rigorous selection criteria.2 Alternative curative treatment options for patients with compensated cirrhosis are surgical resection and loco-regional ablation of early HCC (i.e. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Giuseppe Cabibbo, Ciro Celsa, Vincenza Calvaruso, Salvatore Petta, Irene Cacciola, Maria Rita Cannav ò, Salvatore Madonia, Margherita Rossi, Bianca Magro, Francesca Rini, Marco Distefano, Licia Larocca, Tullio Prestileo, Giuseppe Malizia, Gaetano Bertino Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Direct acting antivirals after successful treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma improve survival in HCV-cirrhotic patients
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death globally, and the leading cause of mortality in cirrhotic patients, with hepatitis C virus (HCV) being the major risk factor in the Western world and Japan. [1] Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the definitive treatment for HCC and cirrhotic liver, but this approach cannot be offered to all patients due to limited graft availability and rigorous selection criteria. [2] Alternative curative treatment options for patients with compensated cirrhosis are surgical resection and loco-regional ablation of early (i.e., stage 0/A) Barcelona Cl...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Giuseppe Cabibbo, Ciro Celsa, Vincenza Calvaruso, Salvatore Petta, Irene Cacciola, Maria Rita Cannav ò, Salvatore Madonia, Margherita Rossi, Bianca Magro, Francesca Rini, Marco Distefano, Licia Larocca, Tullio Prestileo, Giuseppe Malizia, Gaetano Bertino Source Type: research

A multi-center study of entecavir vs. tenofovir on prognosis of treatment-na ïve chronic hepatitis B in the Republic of Korea
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the common chronic viral infection worldwide, affecting approximately 350million people. [1] Because persistently high hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is associated with an increased risk of compensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), [2,3] replication-suppressing antiviral therapy is administered to CHB patients to prevent liver disease progression.[4] As a matter of fact, oral antiviral agents, particularly entecavir (ETV), reduce the risk of long-term complications such as liver compensated cirrhosis and HCC, ultimately improving survivals compared to controls. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Seung Up Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Han Ah Lee, Mi Na Kim, Yu Rim Lee, Hye Won Lee, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seong Gyu Hwang, Kyu Sung Rim, Soon Ho Um, Won Young Tak, Young Oh Kweon, Beom Kyung Kim, Soo Young Park Source Type: research

Inherited non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia due to monoallelic ABHD5 mutations
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common disorder that is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, and which may progress fromsimple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of this condition reaches 12 –18% in the European countries and 27–38% in the US.1,2 NAFLD is a multifactorial disease and up to 50% of its relative risk has been attributed to genetic susceptibility, with evidence coming from...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Leila Youssefian, Hassan Vahidnezhad, Amir Hossein Saeidian, Sara Pajouhanfar, Soheila Sotoudeh, Parvin Mansouri, Davoud Amirkashani, Sirous Zeinali, Michael A. Levine, Ketty Peris, Roberto Colombo, Jouni Uitto Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Inherited nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia due to monoallelic ABHD5 mutations
The NAFLD and dyslipidemia phenotypes are associated with a heterozygous stop codon mutation in a large Italian family. The affected individuals with monoallelic mutations (Hetero) as well as homozygous individuals (homo) in six additional families show the presence of lipid droplets (red) in leukocytes after incubation with oleic acid (Jordans bodies). (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - April 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Leila Youssefian, Hassan Vahidnezhad, Amir Hossein Saeidian, Sara Pajouhanfar, Soheila Sotoudeh, Parvin Mansouri, Davoud Amirkashani, Sirous Zeinali, Michael A. Levine, Ketty Peris, Roberto Colombo, Jouni Uitto Source Type: research