Alcohol-induced Hsp90 acetylation is a novel driver of liver sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction and alcohol-related liver disease
This study has demonstrated alcohol metabolism in LSECs by CYP2E1 and shown that alcohol-induced Hsp90 acetylation is a driver of LSEC dysfunction and liver injury. This study has also demonstrated that blocking this process through deacetylation of Hsp90 by HDAC6 ameliorates LSEC dysfunction and alcohol-induced liver injury. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - March 3, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yilin Yang, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Reiichiro Kondo, Yirang Jung, Matthew J. McConnell, Jain Jeong, Teruo Utsumi, William C. Sessa, Yasuko Iwakiri Source Type: research

Myofibroblast YAP/TAZ is dispensable for liver fibrosis in mice
Severe fibrosis often leads to significant mortality as a result of liver failure and cirrhosis. Recent evidences arising in the Journal of Hepatology etc shed light on the role of mechanosensing Hippo/YAP/TAZ pathway during hepatic fibrosis1-5. Those studies suggested that YAP/TAZ pathway was activated in various mouse models of liver fibrosis and human fibrotic liver. However, conflicting data exist for both positive and negative regulation of YAP/TAZ pathway in liver fibrogenesis. The study by Liu et al. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - March 2, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liran Xu, Nina Wettschureck, Yongping Bai, Zuyi Yuan, Shengpeng Wang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A step forward to predict the risk of post-hepatectomy portal hypertension
We read with great interest the article by Golse N, et al1. In the study, a mathematical (0D) model of hepatic circulation in combination with entire cardiovascular system was constructed, which could be used in the simulation of hepatectomy and prediction of post hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF).1 A cohort of 47 patients undergoing major hepatectomy were included and assessed using the mathematical model with hepatic flows being determined by preoperative flow MRI, intraoperative flowmetry, or estimation based on cardiac output. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - March 1, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jitao Wang, Dengxiang Liu, Xiaolong Qi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical utility of polygenic risk scores for predicting NAFLD disorders
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) causes severe disorders, such as vascular diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a large proportion of individuals in certain populations, such as overweight or obese individuals, and those with diabetes. These disorders are associated with abnormal fat accumulation in the liver, which may or may not lead to inflammation (steatohepatitis, NASH) and abnormal extracellular matrix deposition (fibrosis) in damaged tissues. Several causes of abnormal fat accumulation in the liver have been identified. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 27, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Alain Dessein Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Reply to: Failure to control variceal bleeding: definition matters.
We thank Baiges et al. [1] for their keen interest and observations regarding our study [2]. We completely agree that the definition of ‘failure to control bleeding’ is difficult to apply in individual clinical cases and in general its interpretation is dependent upon many factors including how sick the patients is, whether they have ongoing bleeding during an endoscopy session or its severity where the patient has a catastrophi c bleed necessitating urgent TIPSS. In our study [2], we defined ‘failure to control bleeding’ strictly as failure to achieve haemostasis despite 2 endoscopies or need for a...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 26, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rahul Kumar, Rajiv Jalan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir + sofosbuvir + ribavirin offers high cure rate for hepatitis C virus retreatment in real-world settings
We read with interest the recent publication by Dietz et al: “Failure on voxilaprevir, velpatasvir, sofosbuvir and efficacy of rescue therapy” and would like to present additional data regarding salvage hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in this difficult-to-cure patient population. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 26, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Michelle T. Martin, Sonalie Patel, Laura Kulik, Christine Chan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The prognostic value of HDL related biomarkers in patients with HBV related ACLF
The authors disclose no conflicts. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 25, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xiajie Wen, Jingjing Tong, Mingjie Yao, Jinhua Hu, Fengmin Lu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Chronic fatigue should not be overlooked in primary biliary cholangitis
none. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 25, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Endrit Shahini, Faiza Ahmed Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Systemic inflammation, coagulation disorders and the AD-ACLF syndrome.
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 25, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Vicente Arroyo, Javier Fern ández, Richard Moreau Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Parasites of the Liver – epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical management in the European context
Lay Summary: Parasites in the liver occur all over the world and are on the rise because of climate change and globalisation. They are responsible for a considerable amount of lives lost, yet often misdiagnosed and mismanaged, even in high-income countries. This review intends to provide important clinical guidance, especially for European practitioners. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 23, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lynn Peters, Sanne Burkert, Beate Gr üner Tags: Review Source Type: research

Activation and transcriptional profile of monocytes and CD8+ T cells are altered in checkpoint inhibitor-related hepatitis
Lay Summary: Some patients who receive immunotherapy treatment for cancer develop a side effect of liver inflammation, which requires cessation of cancer treatment. Herein, we describe ways in which the white blood cells of patients who develop liver inflammation differ from those of patients who receive the same immunotherapy but don ’t experience liver side effects. Some of the pathways we identify here, may allow targeting of treatment to prevent or manage this side effect and facilitate cancer treatment. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 22, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cathrin LC. Gudd, Lewis Au, Evangelos Triantafyllou, Benjamin Shum, Tong Liu, Rooshi Nathwani, Naveenta Kumar, Sujit Mukherjee, Ameet Dhar, Kevin J. Woollard, You Yone, David J. Pinato, Mark R. Thursz, Robert D. Goldin, Martin E. Gore, James Larkin, Wafa Source Type: research

Targeting cell-intrinsic metabolism for anti-fibrogenic therapy
In recent years, major advances have been made regarding our understanding on the mechanisms underlying fibrosis progression and regression, and on how coordinated dialog between parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells impacts on the fibrogenic process. Recent studies have highlighted that metabolic reprogramming of parenchymal cells, immune cells (immunometabolism) and hepatic stellate cells is required to support their energy and anabolic demands for acquisition and/or changes in their phenotype and effector functions. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 22, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Helene Gilgenkrantz, Ariane Mallat, Richard Moreau, Sophie Lotersztajn Tags: Review Source Type: research

Amino acids in acute-on-chronic liver failure: Another piece of the puzzle?
In acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), there is an unmet need for biomarkers to assess prognosis, treatment response and for the identification of leads for targeted therapy. In order to meet these needs, understanding the pathophysiology and sequence of events is required. In particular, the causal and temporal relationships between inflammation and organ dysfunctions need to be elucidated. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Minneke J. Coenraad, Florent Artru Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Translatomic profiling reveals novel self-restricting virus-host interactions during HBV infection
Lay summary:Ribosome profiling coupled with transcriptomic and quantitative proteome analyses of HBV-host interaction revealed an intrinsic RNA element for translational repression and two HBV -encoded self-repressive proteins, HpZ and HBxZ. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shilin Yuan, Guanghong Liao, Menghuan Zhang, Yuanfei Zhu, Kun Wang, Weidi Xiao, Caiwei Jia, Minhui Dong, Na Sun, Axel Walch, Ping Xu, Jiming Zhang, Qiang Deng, Ronggui Hu Source Type: research

Achieving an effective pressure reduction after TIPS: The need for new target
We read with great interest the recent article by Jaume Bosch, proposing new insights into the haemodynamic target used to guide transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)[1]. The author also suggested small diameter TIPS, combined with other procedures or pharmacological therapy when necessary, might favour avoiding hepatic encephalopathy. We would like to compare the outcomes of patients with portal pressure gradient (PPG)> 12 mmHg and those with PPG ≤ 12 mmHg after TIPS creation. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xiaoze Wang, Xuefeng Luo, Li Yang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to: “Obeticholic acid and hepatic bile acids: Excellent study faulty conclusion”
We appreciate the interest of Norman B Javitt1 in our recent study in patients with primary biliary cholangitis concerning the effect of obeticholic acid on the transport of the bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) from blood to bile, using positron emission tomography (PET).2 Dr. Javitt questions the conclusion of our study that obeticholic acid enhances the secretion of endogenous conjugated bile acids in the patients. However, Dr. Jawitt seems not to be familiar with the possibilities for quantification of biological processes in vivo by up-to-date molecular tracer technique using dynamic PET. (Sour...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Susanne Keiding, Kim Frisch, Alan Frederick Hofmann Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Bile formation and Secretion: An update
Bile formation is a fundamental physiological process that is vital to the survival of all vertebrates. However little was known about the mechanisms of this secretion until after WWII. Initial studies involved classic physiologic studies in animal models and man but progressed to include studies in isolated cells and membrane vesicles until the advent of molecular biology which led to the identification of specific transport systems that are the determinants of this secretion. Progress in this field was reviewed in the American Physiologic Society ’s series on “Comprehensive Physiology” in 2013. (Source:...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 19, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: James Lorenzen Boyer, Carol Jean Soroka Tags: Review Source Type: research

Dynamics of liver stiffness in chronic hepatitis B patients with concurrent metabolic-associated fatty liver disease
We read with interest the article by Mak et al.1 and commend their work exploring the diverse relationship between hepatic steatosis and chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Through prospective follow-up of 330 patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and low viraemia, Mak et al. showed persistent severe steatosis (controlled attenuation parameter ≥280 dB/m) was associated with progression of fibrosis category after three years. As modern nucleos(t)ide analogues are able to achieve effective long term viral/biochemical suppression and attenuate fibrosis development,2 the focus of CHB management has shifted to address n...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 19, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Danny Con, Daniel Clayton-Chubb, John Lubel, Rohit Sawhney, Stephen Bloom Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 18, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

CD40-agonist: A new avenue for immunotherapy combinations in cholangiocarcinoma
In this issue of Journal of Hepatology, Diggs et  al. have investigated the antitumor activity of a novel immune-based therapeutic strategy in murine models of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA).1 (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 18, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Raffaella Casolino, Chiara Braconi Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Primary biliary cholangitis associated with sars-cov2 infection
we would like to present the case of a female patient who developed Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) concomitant with Guillain-Barr é Syndrome (GBS) during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2) [1]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 18, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Alessandra Bartoli, Stefano Gitto, Pamela Sighinolfi, Carmela Cursaro, Pietro Andreone Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Intravenous ketamine and progressive cholangiopathy in Covid-19 patients
Ketamine, a nonbarbiturate general anaesthetic drug, has been proposed, off-label, as a second-line agent for maintenance sedation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation, including those with coronavirus infectious diseases 2019 (Covid-19).(1) Cholangiopathy is reported after chronic exposition to ketamine, including in drug users and in burned patients.(2, 3) We observed five Covid-19 patients from five distinct tertiary centers (one in Germany, and four in France) with cholangiopathy after exposure to intravenous ketamine, between March 20, 2020 and April 6, 2020, dur...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 18, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Vincent Mallet, The Keta-Cov research group Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Interleukin-20 exacerbates acute hepatitis and bacterial infection by downregulating I κBζ target genes in hepatocytes
Interleukin-20 (IL-20) and IL-22 belong to the IL-10 family. IL-10 is a well-documented anti-inflammatory cytokine while IL-22 is well-known for its epithelial protection and anti-bacterial function, showing great therapeutic potential for organ damage; but the function of IL-20 remains largely unknown. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 17, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yong He, Dechun Feng, Seonghwan Hwang, Bryan Mackowiak, Xiaolin Wang, Xiaogang Xiang, Robim M. Rodrigues, Yaojie Fu, Jing Ma, Tianyi Ren, Yeni Ait-Ahmed, Mingjiang Xu, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Bin Gao Source Type: research

Integrative genomics highlights opportunities for innovative therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment in gallbladder cancer
Gallbladder cancers (GBCs) together with intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) constitute rare malignancies of the biliary tract.1 Although all biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are associated with dismal outcome, GBC is the most common and aggressive, with an estimated incidence of 2.5 per 100,000 individuals worldwide and a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of less than 5%.2,3 According to the GLOBOCAN 2018 data, GBC accounts for 1.2% of all diagnosed cancers, but 1.7% of all cancer-related deaths. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 16, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Stephanie Roessler, Julien Edeline, Peter Schirmacher, C édric Coulouarn Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

ED Board
Paolo Angeli, Italy (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Register now for The International Liver Congress ™ 2021 to benefit from early fees!
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Join the EASL Community & enjoy reduces fees to all EASL events
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Visit EASL Campus & discover 4,100 + resources on hepatology & liver-related research
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

JHEP at a glance (March 2021)
(Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

From the Editor's Desk...
The evidence supporting the use of proton beam radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is weak. Kim  et al. recruited 144 patients into a non-inferiority phase III randomised trial testing the hypothesis that proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) is non-inferior to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of patients with recurrent or residual HCC. Crossover was allowed if the assigned treatment was not technically feasible and occurred in 6 patients in the PBT arm and 19 in the RFA arm. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 15, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Patrizia Burra, Frank Tacke, Vlad Ratziu, Stefan Zeuzem, Bruno Sangro, Paolo Angeli Tags: From the Editor's Desk Source Type: research

Remaining challenges in HCV elimination
The remarkable advances in HCV therapeutics have raised the prospect of elimination of HCV as a public health threat. However, many remaining barriers must be overcome to achieve this ambitious goal. The emergence of the global COVID-19 pandemic has unfortunately created additional challenges that will likely slow global progress towards elimination. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 12, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Camelia Capraru, Jordan J. Feld Tags: Hepatology Snapshot Source Type: research

MAFLD: Now is the time to capitalize on the momentum
This study in concert with a recent statement by>30 patient advocacy associations led by the European Liver Patients' Association (ELPA) and associations across different disciplines from diabetes to renal medicine and obesity medicine across the globe, highlights the increasing traction that MAFLD has received [7]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 12, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mohammed Eslam, Jacob George Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Illuminate TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Another brick in the wall of tumor niche
More than 20 years ago, a new secreted ligand of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family was identified in mouse peritoneal macrophages, human tonsils and fetal liver. However, in contrast to TNF, TWEAK induced only slightly apoptosis in a panel of cell types including hematopoietic cells, fibroblasts and cancer cells, and was thus named TWEAK for “Tumor necrosis factor-like WEAK inducer of apoptosis”. There are 2 forms of TWEAK, a membrane-bound and a soluble form. Like TNF, TWEAK activates the NF-κB pathway and thereby inflammatory responses. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 11, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Luca Fabris, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Laura Fouassier Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Change from NAFLD to MAFLD increases the awareness of fatty liver disease in primary care physicians and specialists
The recent landmark articles by Eslam et al [1, 2]have attracted substantial attention from various stakeholders[3-9] although concerns have been raised that such a change may lead to confusion, particularly among non-hepatologists [10]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 11, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yasser Fouad, Ahmed Gomaa, Nady semida, Wael Abdel Ghany, Dina Attia Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Antiviral therapy in the palliative setting of HCC (BCLC B and C)
The potential impact of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-B/C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is understudied. HCC patients have been systematically excluded from randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of DAAs. Thus, the benefits of DAAs in patients with HCC are less defined. The presence of active HCC before initiating DAA treatment is reported as a predictor of DAA failure, and almost all the studies with non-HCC patients have demonstrated that improvements in cirrhosis complications were lower or null in patients with DAA failure. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 10, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maria Reig, Giuseppe Cabibbo Tags: Thematic Miniseries on HCV cure Source Type: research

A structurally optimized FXR agonist, MET409, reduced liver fat content over 12 weeks in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists have been validated to benefit patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), although improvements in efficacy and/or tolerability remain elusive. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 10, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Stephen A. Harrison, Mustafa R. Bashir, Kyoung-Jin Lee, Jennifer Shim-Lopez, Jonathan Lee, Brandee Wagner, Nicholas D. Smith, Hubert C. Chen, Eric J. Lawitz Source Type: research

TBX3 functions as a tumor suppressor downstream of activated CTNNB1 mutants during hepatocarcinogenesis
TBX3 is a liver-specific target of the Wnt/ β-Catenin pathway and thought to be an oncogene in promoting liver development. Here, we demonstrate that TBX3 is in fact a tumor suppressor gene, and it restricts liver tumor growth induced by activated CTNNB1 mutants. Mechanistically, we discover that TBX functions via regulating YAP/TAZ pathway. TBX3 therefore likely contributes to the specific pathological phenotypes observed in CTNNB1 mutant human HCCs. Strategies which increase TBX3 expression and/or activities may be effective for HCC treatment. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Binyong Liang, Yi Zhou, Manning Qian, Meng Xu, Jingxiao Wang, Yi Zhang, Xinhua Song, Haichuan Wang, Shumei Lin, Chuanli Ren, Satdarshan P. Monga, Bruce Wang, Matthias Evert, Yifa Chen, Xiaoping Chen, Zhiyong Huang, Diego F. Calvisi, Xin Chen Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of secondary causes of steatohepatitis
The term non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) was originally coined to describe hepatic fat deposition as part of the metabolic syndrome. However, a variety of rare hereditary liver and metabolic diseases, intestinal diseases, endocrine disorders and drugs may cause hepatic steatosis reminiscent of NAFLD, aggravate obesity-/metabolic syndrome-associated lipid deposition, or coexist with NAFLD. In contrast to NAFLD, therapeutic interventions are available for many secondary causes of NAFLD. Accordingly, secondary causes of fatty liver disease should be considered during the diagnostic workup of patients with fatty liver dise...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Roman Liebe, Irene Esposito, Hans H. Bock, Stephan vom Dahl, Jan Stindt, Ulrich Baumann, Tom Luedde, Verena Keitel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Magnesium accumulation upon cyclin M4 silencing activates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein improving NASH
Cyclin M4 (CNNM4) is overexpressed in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes the export of magnesium from the liver. The specific silencing of Cnnm4 ameliorates NASH by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and promoting the activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 8, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jorge Sim ón, Naroa Goikoetxea-Usandizaga, Marina Serrano-Maciá, David Fernández-Ramos, Diego Sáenz de Urturi, Jessica J. Gruskos, Pablo Fernández-Tussy, Sofía Lachiondo-Ortega, Irene González-Recio, Rubén Rodríguez-Agudo, Virginia Gutiérrez-de- Source Type: research

EASL position paper on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with chronic liver diseases, hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients
According to a recent World Health Organization estimate, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which originated in China in 2019, has spread globally, infecting nearly 100 million people worldwide by January 2021. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), particularly cirrhosis, hepatobiliary malignancies, candidates for liver transplantation, and immunosuppressed individuals after liver transplantation appear to be at increased risk of infections in general, which in turn translates into increased mortality. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 6, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Markus Cornberg, Maria Buti, Christiane S. Eberhardt, Paolo Antonio Grossi, Daniel Shouval Tags: Position Paper Source Type: research

End-points in clinical trials for liver cancer and their value in evidence based clinical decision making: an unresolved Gordian knot.
Design and execution of clinical trials use definitions and criteria to permit a homogeneous study development avoiding heterogeneous decisions by investigators at different sites. Ideally, definitions and decision making in clinical practice should mimic those implemented in trials, but this is not the case. Target population is narrowly defined in trials and the goal of them is the evaluation of activity and toxicity, and ultimately, the demonstration of a survival benefit. In practice, treated patients may not fit into the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the trial, the evaluation of activity may also differ and the comm...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 5, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jordi Bruix Tags: Expert Opinion Source Type: research

Age and comorbidity are central to the risk of death from COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients.
The COVID-Hep.net registry was supported by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL; grant number 2020RG03). SECURE-cirrhosis was also supported by the National Institutes of Health grant T32 DK007634 (AMM), North Carolina Translational and Clinical Sciences Institute (CTSA grant number UL1TR002489) and National Institutes of Health, through Grant Award Number UL1TR002489. TM is supported by the Wellcome Trust as a Clinical Research Fellow. EB is supported by the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre and is an NIHR Senior Investigator. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 5, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gwilym J. Webb, Andrew M. Moon, Eleanor Barnes, A. Sidney Barritt, Thomas Marjot Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

IgG, a novel predictor for acute-on-chronic liver failure and survival in patients with decompensated cirrhosis?
With great interest we read the article of Basho and colleagues [1]. Patients with liver cirrhosis often present with hypergammaglobulinemia (HGG) [2], most likely as a response to an increase of gut derived endotoxins in the course of portosystemic shunting [3]. While one could argue that HGG might indicate the presence of increased amounts of systemic endotoxin levels, Basho et al. demonstrated that HGG could identify those with a more intact ability to sufficiently produce IgG antibodies and is therefore an indicator for a preserved immune system and a favorable prognosis. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 3, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tammo L. Tergast, Marie Schultalbers, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Benjamin Maasoumy Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

FOXA3 induction under endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Chronic ER stress in liver have been shown to play a causative role in NAFLD progression, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Forkhead box A3 (FOXA3), a members of FOX family, plays critical roles in metabolic homeostasis, while its possible functions in ER stress and fatty liver progression are unknown. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 3, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Caizhi Liu, Bing Zhou, Meiyao Meng, Wenjun Zhao, Dongmei Wang, Youwen Yuan, Ying Zheng, Jin Qiu, Yu Li, Guoqiang Li, Xuelian Xiong, Hua Bian, Huijie Zhang, Hua Wang, Xinran Ma, Cheng Hu, Lingyan Xu, Yan Lu Source Type: research

Abbreviated MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma screening: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Biannual ultrasound (US) has poor sensitivity in screening of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is accurate for detection of HCC, but a complete MRI (cMRI) is not feasible as a screening tool. Abbreviated MRI (AMRI) is an acceptable alternative. The diagnostic performance of different AMRI protocols in not known. We performed a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of AMRI in HCC screening. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 2, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pankaj Gupta, Raghuraman Soundararajan, Ankur Patel, Praveen Kumar-M, Vishal Sharma, Naveen Kalra Source Type: research

Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: An update
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) is a tumor that exhibits both hepatocytic and biliary differentiation. Classical risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seem to also predispose to the development of cHCC-CCA. The pathological definition of cHCC-CCA has significantly evolved over time. The last 2019 WHO classification highlighted that cHCC-CCA diagnosis should be primarily based on morphology using routine stainings supported by additional immunostainings and refined the subtypes. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 2, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aur élie Beaufrère, Julien Calderaro, Valérie Paradis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis and insights gained from long-term experience of the Spanish DILI registry
Prospective drug-induced liver injury (DILI) registries are important sources of information on idiosyncratic DILI. We aimed to present a comprehensive analysis of 843 DILI patients enrolled into the Spanish DILI Registry over a 20-year time period. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - February 1, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Camilla Stephens, Mercedes Robles-Diaz, Inmaculada Medina-Caliz, Miren Garcia-Cortes, Aida Ortega-Alonso, Judith Sanabria-Cabrera, Andres Gonzalez-Jimenez, Ismael Alvarez-Alvarez, Mahmoud Slim, Miguel Jimenez-Perez, Rocio Gonzalez-Grande, M Carmen Fern á Source Type: research

Reply to: “NNMT aggravates hepatic steatosis but alleviates liver injury in alcoholic liver disease” and “Two sides of NNMT in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver development”.
We are thankful to the Editor for providing us with this opportunity to reply to the letters. We thank Ding et al. and Zhang et al. for their great interest in our recent publication in the Journal of Hepatology and congratulate them for their interesting findings1,2. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - January 30, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Qing Song, Jun Wang, Alexandra Griffiths, Zhenyuan Song Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Erratum to: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz activates PXR to induce hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis [J Hepatol (2019); 70 (5): 930 –940]
It has come to our attention that there was a mistake in Fig.  6 in the published version of our manuscript. The mistake occurred during the publication process and has resulted in the labelling being inverted for the treatments with emtricitabine and efavirenz in the graph in Fig. 6A. Please see the corrected figure below. We apologize for any inconvenience caused. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Hepatology - January 29, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Taesik Gwag, Zhaojie Meng, Yipeng Sui, Robert N. Helsley, Se-Hyung Park, Shuxia Wang, Richard N. Greenberg, Changcheng Zhou Tags: Erratum Source Type: research