Sources of variability in the prospective relation of language to social, emotional, and behavior problem symptoms: Implications for developmental language disorder.
This study investigated whether the relationship between language and SEB problems is stronger at very low levels of language and considered confounders including socioeconomic status, sex, and nonverbal intelligence. These were examined using a population-based survey design, including children with a wide range of language and cognitive profiles, and assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and six standardized language measures (n = 363, weighted n = 6,451). Structural equation models adjusted for prior levels of SEB revealed that the relationship of language at age 5–6 years to SEB at 7–9...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Repetitive behavior with objects in infants developing autism predicts diagnosis and later social behavior as early as 9 months.
We evaluated repetitive behavior with objects in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 9 to 36 months of age, and associations between early repetitive behavior and social engagement. Infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk) or typical development (low-risk) were administered a task eliciting repetitive object use at 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. Infants (n = 147) were classified into 1 of 3 outcome groups at 36 months: Low-Risk Non-ASD (n = 58), High-Risk Non-ASD (n = 72), and ASD (n = 17). Behavior was coded from video for frequencies of unusual visual inspection, spinning, and rotati...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Oculomotor inhibition and location priming in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is widely thought to involve elevated distractibility, which may reflect a general impairment in top-down inhibitory processes. Schizophrenia also appears to involve increased priming of previously performed actions. Here, we used a highly refined eye-tracking paradigm that makes it possible to concurrently assess distractibility, inhibition, and priming. In both healthy control subjects (HCS, N = 41) and people with schizophrenia (PSZ, N = 46), we found that initial saccades were actually less likely to be directed toward a salient “singleton” distractor than toward less salient distractors, refl...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Real-time reports of drinking to cope: Associations with subjective relief from alcohol and changes in negative affect.
Many individuals report drinking alcohol to cope or relieve negative affective states, but existing evidence is inconsistent regarding whether individuals experience negatively reinforcing effects after drinking to cope (DTC). We used ecological momentary assessment to examine the effects of DTC during daily-life drinking episodes in a sample of current drinkers (N = 110; 52 individuals with borderline personality disorder and 58 community individuals). Multilevel models were used to test whether momentary and episode-level endorsement of DTC-depression and DTC-anxiety motives would be related to increased subjective drink...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cortical and subcortical gray matter volume in psychopathy: A voxel-wise meta-analysis.
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of gray matter volume (GMV) in psychopathy have produced inconsistent results and few have been replicated. Therefore, to clarify GMV abnormalities associated with psychopathy as operationalized by Hare (2003), we conducted a meta-analysis of VBM studies using both categorical and dimensional analyses. We identified seven studies eligible for the categorical meta-analysis (136 men with psychopathy vs 150 male controls) and 11 studies (N = 519) eligible for dimensional metaregressions. First, we used seed-based d mapping with permutation of subject images for voxel-based meta-analyses. ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adult separation anxiety: Personality characteristics of a neglected clinical syndrome.
This study tests relationships between ASA symptoms and higher- and lower-order personality traits in a community sample of 565 women. It accounts for systematic error by utilizing informant report, two personality inventories, and data from two time points over three years, and by adjusting for mood state. It also tests longitudinal ASA–personality models. Results indicate that ASA is robustly associated with negative emotionality and its facet of stress reaction, as well as with aggression, alienation, and absorption to somewhat lesser degrees. These relationships are not due to overlap with other traits (except in...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparing healthy adolescent females with and without parental history of eating pathology on neural responsivity to food and thin models and other potential risk factors.
We tested the hypotheses that female adolescents at risk for future eating disorders, based on parental history of binge eating and compensatory weight control behaviors, would show greater reward and attention region response to thin-models and tastes, anticipated tastes, and images of high-calorie foods, lower inhibitory circuitry response to a high-calorie food-specific go/no-go paradigm, and greater limbic circuitry response to negative mood induction. We recruited female adolescents free of binge eating or compensatory behaviors (N = 88; Mage = 14.6 [SD = .9]; 72% White) with versus without parental history of eating ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hopelessness and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: An integrative data analysis.
Although hopelessness has been linked to depression for centuries, the diagnostic criteria for depression are inconsistent with regard to the status of hopelessness. Most research on hopelessness and depression has focused on adults. The current study examined this relation in children and adolescents. Integrative data analyses with a pooled sample (N = 2466) showed that clinical levels of hopelessness multiplied the odds of having a clinical diagnosis of depression 10-fold. Conversely, not having clinical levels of hopelessness multiplied the odds of endorsing no clinical level of depressive symptoms 28-fold. Moreover, re...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predictors of internalized mental health stigma in a help-seeking sample of youth: The roles of psychosis-spectrum symptoms and family functioning.
The objective of this study was to better understand the correlates of internalized stigma among a clinical sample of youth with psychosis-spectrum symptoms. Participants (n = 66; 12–25 years old) were referred by community providers in Maryland, United States. Psychosis-spectrum symptoms were measured via the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS); family-functioning was measured via the Family Assessment Device. Interviewers rated participants’ social/role functioning via the Global Functioning: Social and Role Scales. Internalized stigma was measured using the Internalized Stigma of Mental ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluating the criterion validity of hierarchical psychopathology dimensions across models: Familial aggregation and associations with research domain criteria (sub)constructs.
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) posits that psychopathology is a hierarchy of correlated dimensions. Numerous studies have examined the validity of these dimensions using bifactor models, in which each disorder loads onto both a general and specific factor (e.g., internalizing, externalizing). Although bifactor models tend to fit better than alternative models, concerns have been raised about bifactor model selection, factor reliability, and interpretability. Therefore, we compared the reliability and validity of several higher-order HiTOP dimensions between bifactor and correlated factor models using ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Longitudinal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom networks in childhood and adolescence: Key symptoms, stability, and predictive validity.
The current study visualized attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom networks in a longitudinal sample of participants across childhood and adolescence with exploratory examination of age and gender effects. Eight hundred thirty-six children ages 7–13 years were followed annually for 8 years in total. Across parent and teacher report, results suggested “is easily distracted” and “difficulties sustaining attention” as central symptoms across three testing points (i.e., Year 1, Year 3, and Years 5–8 collapsed). “Difficulties following instructions” and “in...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moral strategies and psychopathic traits.
Psychopathy is a personality construct encompassing impaired interpersonal-affective functioning, combined with the inclination to lead an erratic lifestyle and to engage in antisocial acts. Individuals with elevated psychopathic traits often make decisions that have a negative impact on others. Some findings suggest that a lack of empathy and guilt is a key explanatory factor, while other results point toward a decreased sense of fairness in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits. The goal of the present study was to directly compare these hypotheses. Eighty-six healthy individuals completed the Self-Report Psychop...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

I feel good? Anhedonia might not mean “without pleasure” for people treated for opioid use disorder.
Anhedonia is usually defined as partial or total loss of the capacity for pleasure. People with anhedonia in the context of major depressive disorder may have an unexpected capacity for event-related mood brightening, observable when mood is assessed dynamically (with smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment [EMA]) rather than only statically via questionnaire. We used EMA to monitor mood and pleasant events for 4 weeks in 54 people being treated with opioid agonist medication for opioid-use disorder (OUD), which is also associated with anhedonia, said to manifest especially as loss of pleasure from nondrug reward....
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The associations between polygenic risk, sensation seeking, social support, and alcohol use in adulthood.
In this study, we examined the role of sensation seeking and social support from family and friends in linking genetic risk to alcohol use. We also examined the role of social support in moderating the associations between genetic risk and sensation seeking and alcohol use. Data were drawn from a sample of 2,836 European American adults from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (46% male, mean age = 35.65, standard deviation [SD] = 10.78). Results from path analysis indicated that genome-wide polygenic scores for alcohol consumption (alc-GPS) were associated with higher sensation seeking, which in turn was...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does crude measurement contribute to observed unidimensionality of psychological constructs? A demonstration with DSM–5 alcohol use disorder.
Mental disorders are complex, multifaceted phenomena that are associated with profound heterogeneity and comorbidity. Despite the heterogeneity of mental disorders, most are generally considered unitary dimensions. We argue that certain measurement practices, especially using too few indicators per construct, preclude the detection of meaningful multidimensionality. We demonstrate the implications of crude measurement for detecting construct multidimensionality with alcohol use disorder (AUD). To do so, we used a large sample of college heavy drinkers (N = 909) for whom AUD symptomology was thoroughly assessed (87 items) a...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Consequences of exposure to the thin ideal in mass media depend on moderators in young women: An experimental study.
This study examined the consequences of media exposure to thin ideals compared to pictures of landscapes in healthy young women and women with eating and mixed mental disorders and investigated whether appearance-related cognitive factors and cognitive distortions moderate the effects. Two hundred seventy-five women in a multisite laboratory trial (174 in- or outpatients and 101 healthy women; Mage 22.87 years, SD = 3.94) were exposed to either thin ideals or to landscape pictures and guided through a vivid imagery of these pictures thereafter. Changes in body image dissatisfaction, mood, eating behavior, and physiological...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear conditioning in women with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls: A preliminary study.
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by anxiety-driven behaviors, such as food avoidance and distressing persistent thoughts about weight gain and body image. The present study used a classical fear conditioning procedure to test the processes of fear acquisition and generalization, extinction, and renewal in patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls. An app-based fear conditioning procedure was administered remotely to 64 patients and 60 healthy controls, over two sessions. A human female scream served as the unconditioned stimulus (US) and two neutral shapes were used as either the paired conditioned stimulus (dan...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social comparisons and social anxiety in daily life: An experience-sampling approach.
Judgments about the self compared to internalized standards are central to theoretical frameworks of social anxiety. Yet, empirical research on social comparisons—how people view themselves relative to others—and social anxiety is sparse. This research program examines the nature of everyday social comparisons in the context of social anxiety across 2 experience-sampling studies containing 8,396 unique entries from 273 adults. Hypotheses and analyses were preregistered with the Open Science Foundation (OSF) prior to data analysis. Study 1 was a 3-week daily diary study with undergraduates, and Study 2 was a 2-w...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Posttraumatic stress symptom dimensions and brain responses to startling auditory stimuli in combat veterans.
We examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) of combat veterans (n = 102) to acoustic startle probes delivered during viewing of pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and combat-related pictures. Interview-based assessments yielded dimensional characterizations of PTSD and mTBI. The P3 ERP response to startle probes was reduced during all affective relative to neutral pictures but failed to be associated with a PTSD diagnosis. However, two separable domains of PTSD symptomatology were associated with startle ERPs regardless of the picture conditions. Maladaptive avoidance was associated with smaller N1, P2, and P3 amplitudes, ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A computational account of the mechanisms underlying face perception biases in depression.
Here, we take a computational approach to understand the mechanisms underlying face perception biases in depression. Thirty participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 30 healthy control participants took part in three studies involving recognition of identity and emotion in faces. We used signal detection theory to determine whether any perceptual biases exist in depression aside from decisional biases. We found lower sensitivity to happiness in general, and lower sensitivity to both happiness and sadness with ambiguous stimuli. Our use of highly-controlled face stimuli ensures that such asymmetry is truly p...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rumination about obsessive symptoms and mood maintains obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depressed mood: An experimental study.
Rumination is common in individuals diagnosed with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We sought to clarify the causal role of rumination in the immediate and intermediate maintenance of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and depressed mood. In total, 145 individuals diagnosed with OCD were asked to read aloud their most distressing obsessive thought (OT). OT activation was followed by a thought-monitoring phase in which frequency of the OT was assessed. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions: rumination about obsessive–compulsive symptoms, rumination about mood, or distr...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Face perception predicts affective theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder but not schizophrenia or typical development.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZ) have overlapping symptomatology related to difficulties with social cognition. Yet, few studies have directly compared social cognition in ASD, SCZ, and typical development (TD). The current study examined individual differences in face recognition and its relation to affective theory of mind (ToM) in each diagnostic group. Adults with ASD (n = 31), SCZ (n = 43), and TD (n = 47) between the ages of 18 and 48 years-old with full scale IQ above 80 participated in this study. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) measured affective ToM, and the Be...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Schizotypy 17 years on: Psychotic symptoms in midlife.
Determining the long-term psychosis-related outcomes of late-teen individuals characterized initially by a nonpsychotic, schizotypic feature (elevated perceptual aberrations) can further our understanding of the developmental pathways leading to schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic conditions, and psychotic symptoms later in adulthood. Using the well-known laboratory/psychometric high-risk approach, the present study investigated the associations between nonpsychotic perceptual aberrations measured at age 18, in individuals with no prior history of psychosis, and clinical psychotic symptom outcomes 17 years later in midli...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How changing life roles predict eating disorder pathology over 30-year follow-up.
Epidemiological data support higher prevalence of eating disorders in midlife than previously believed. Yet, few studies have examined risk factors unique to adult development. The present study examined how changes in life roles (educational, marital, and parental status) predicted disordered eating as participants transitioned from their 20s to their 50s. Participants (N = 624 women and N = 276 men) completed baseline assessments in college and at 10-, 20-, and 30-year follow-up, with 72% of women and 67% of men completing 30-year follow-up. Multilevel models examined how changes in life roles predicted changes in disord...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sequencing of symptom emergence in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder and relations of prodromal symptoms to future onset of these disorders.
The objective of this study was to characterize the temporal sequencing of symptom emergence for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD), as well as to test whether prodromal symptoms increase risk for future onset of each type of eating disorder and compare the predictive effects to those of established risk factors. Data from four prevention trials that targeted high-risk young women with body image concerns (N = 1,952; Mage = 19.7, SD = 5.7) and collected annual diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to address these aims. Regarding behav...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Temporal dynamics of insight in body dysmorphic disorder: An ecological momentary assessment study.
We examined insight as a multidimensional, contextually embedded, and dynamic factor using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), further assessing affect and self-esteem as potentially associated states. Thirty individuals with BDD and 30 mentally healthy controls (HCs) completed 6 days of EMA (M = 8.54 assessments per day, N = 3075 assessments in total). Multilevel analyses revealed substantial intraindividual fluctuations of insight dimensions (across 30 min to hours) that were more pronounced for individuals with BDD than for HCs. Poorer insight correlated with higher negative affect, lower positive affect, and lower s...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Modeling a multidimensional model of memory performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A multilevel meta-analytic review.
Even though memory performance is a commonly researched aspect of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a coherent and unified explanation of the role of specific cognitive factors has remained elusive. To address this, the present meta-analysis examined the predictive validity of Harkin and Kessler’s (2011b) executive function, binding complexity, and memory load (EBL) Classification System concerning affected versus unaffected memory performance in OCD. We employed a multilevel meta-analytic approach (Viechtbauer, 2010) to accommodate the interdependent nature of the EBL model and interdependency of effect sizes (30...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Longitudinal associations of cannabis, depression, and anxiety in heterosexual and LGB adolescents.
This study examines the relationships between cannabis, and depression and anxiety symptoms at 13, 15, and 17 years using cross-lagged models in a predominantly White (n = 1,430; 92%) subsample of 1,548 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal study of Child Development. Multigroup analyses were conducted to examine the models according to sexual orientation. Demographic covariates were included as control variables, as well as alcohol, cigarette, and other drug use to examine cannabis specificity. The full sample revealed small bidirectional associations, which remained significant once control variables were included in...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relationship between transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology and traumatic brain injury (TBI): A TRACK-TBI study.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common, comorbid, and often disabling for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identifying transdiagnostic symptom dimensions post-TBI may help overcome limitations of traditional psychiatric diagnoses and advance treatment development. We characterized the dimensional structure of neuropsychiatric symptoms at 2-weeks postinjury in n = 1,732 TBI patients and n = 238 orthopedic-injured trauma controls (OTC) from the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) study. Symptoms were reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Depression che...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - June 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Separating the influences of late talking and dyslexia on brain structure.
Being a late talker constitutes a risk factor for later neurodevelopmental disorders; however, its neurobiological basis remains unexplored. We aimed to determine the unique and mutual correlates of late talking and developmental dyslexia on brain structure and behavioral outcomes in a large sample of 8- to 10-year-old children in a between-groups design (N = 120). Brain structure was examined using voxel-based morphometry (to measure gray matter volume) and surface-based morphometry (to measure gray matter volume, cortical thickness, surface area, and curvature of the cortex). Behaviorally, late talking and dyslexia are i...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - April 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do suicidal desire and facets of capability for suicide predict future suicidal behavior? A longitudinal test of the desire–capability hypothesis.
This study tested the predictive validity of the desire–capability hypothesis. A total of 1,020 self-injuring and/or suicidal adults were recruited worldwide online from suicide, self-injury, and mental health web forums. After baseline assessment, participants completed follow-up assessments at 3, 14, and 28 days after baseline. Participant retention was high (>90%) across all follow-up assessments. Analyses examined the effect of the statistical interaction between suicidal desire and indices of capability for suicide on future nonfatal suicide attempts. Main analyses focused on the fearlessness about death face...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - April 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The distribution of daily affect distinguishes internalizing and externalizing spectra and subfactors.
There has been increasing recognition that classically defined psychiatric disorders cluster hierarchically. However, the degree to which this hierarchical taxonomy manifests in the distribution of one’s daily affective experience is unknown. In 462 young adults, we assessed psychiatric symptoms across internalizing and externalizing disorders and then used cell-phone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess the distribution (mean, standard deviation, skew, kurtosis) of one’s positive and negative affect over 3–4 months. Psychiatric symptoms were modeled using a higher-order factor model that...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - March 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The distinct role of body image aspects in predicting eating disorder onset in adolescents after one year.
Recent research suggests specific body image aspects, namely weight/shape dissatisfaction, overvaluation of weight/shape, weight/shape preoccupation, and fear of weight gain, have distinct roles in eating disorder (ED) onset and maintenance. The aim of this study was to investigate unique associations between these body image aspects and ED onset, distress, and quality of life in a community sample of adolescents prospectively after 1 year. Adolescents (n = 1,327; 51% female; age range 11–19 years) who completed Waves 1 and 2 of the EveryBODY Study and did not meet criteria for an ED at Wave 1 completed measures of E...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - March 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Three recommendations based on a comparison of the reliability and validity of the predominant models used in research on the empirical structure of psychopathology.
The present study compared the primary models used in research on the structure of psychopathology (i.e., correlated factor, higher-order, and bifactor models) in terms of structural validity (model fit and factor reliability), longitudinal measurement invariance, concurrent and prospective predictive validity in relation to important outcomes, and longitudinal consistency in individuals’ factor score profiles. Two simpler operationalizations of a general factor of psychopathology were also examined—a single-factor model and a count of diagnoses. Models were estimated based on structured clinical interview diag...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Symptoms as rapidly fluctuating over time: Revealing the close psychological interconnections among borderline personality disorder symptoms via within-person structures.
This study thus examined the psychological connections between symptoms directly, using borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms as an example. Participants (252; 74 with BPD) reported their momentary BPD symptoms five times daily, and 165 did so again 18 months later. In support of personalized medicine (Wright & Woods, 2020), individuals’ BPD symptom structures differed considerably from each other and from the between-person structure. A novel technique revealed that differences were greater than expected by chance. Within-person structures tended to exhibit more symptom granularity (more factors and low...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The structure of peritraumatic reactions and their relationship with PTSD among disaster survivors.
Peritraumatic reactions such as fear, psychic and somatoform dissociation, tonic immobility, data-driven processing, and mental defeat are important in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, current measures of such reactions overlap conceptually and do not clearly identify distinct peritraumatic processes. It is not known which processes are uniquely associated with PTSD. We investigated the factor structure of six standard peritraumatic measures and their relationship with the four Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neuroticism and reward-related ventral striatum activity: Probing vulnerability to stress-related depression.
Elevated neuroticism may confer vulnerability to the depressogenic effects of stressful life events (SLEs). However, the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that stress-related disruptions in neural reward processing might undergird links between stress and depression. Using data from the Saint Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) study and Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS), we examined whether neuroticism moderates links between stressful life events (SLE) and depression as well as SLEs and ventral striatum (VS) response to reward. In the longitudinal SPAN ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Paranoia is associated with impaired novelty detection and overconfidence in recognition memory judgments.
We examined 2 phenomena that may contribute to this effect: an overreliance on fluency-based processes during recognition, manifesting as a lower threshold for judging items as recently studied, and a propensity to require less information to come to a highly confident judgment. The former would be expected to be particularly pronounced among items that are generally familiar, as opposed to completely novel. Here, we manipulated familiarity in a recognition memory paradigm by using stimuli that varied in their rate of extraexperimental exposure (i.e., real words vs. pseudowords). Further, to determine whether paranoia was ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Journal of Psychopathology and Clinical Science is the future of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology: An editorial.
This editorial describes the rationale behind changing this journal’s title beginning in 2022. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology)
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - January 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How real do you feel? Self- and partner-authenticity in social anxiety disorder.
We examined self- and partner-ratings of authenticity of both partners at 3 time points over the course of the 30-min interaction. Multilevel linear models indicated that individuals with SAD reported lower self-authenticity compared to NSA individuals (both compared to their interaction partners and compared to those from control dyads). In addition, increases in self-authenticity during the interaction were significantly lower for the experimental dyads compared to the control dyads. Specifically, both individuals with SAD and their NSA partners experienced lower increases in self-authenticity compared to NSA individuals...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Disentangling temporal dynamics in attention bias from measurement error: A state-space modeling approach.
Temporal dynamics in attention bias (AB) have gained increasing attention in recent years. It has been proposed that AB is variable over trials within a single test session of the dot-probe task, and that the variability in AB is more predictive of psychopathology than the traditional mean AB score. More important, one of the dynamics indices has shown better reliability than the traditional mean AB score. However, it has been also suggested that the dynamics indices are unable to uncouple random measurement error from true variability in AB, which questions the estimation precision of the dynamics indices. To clarify and ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neuroticism and the longitudinal trajectories of anxiety and depressive symptoms in older adolescents.
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by remarkable volatility and comorbidity in internalizing disorders. Delineating internalizing symptom change in a manner that accounts for symptoms’ shared versus distinctive features is imperative to an understanding of their development. An additional question concerns how vulnerabilities for internalizing disorders relate to development of internalizing symptoms. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between neuroticism and internalizing psychopathology are well-established, yet conclusive evidence on neuroticism’s relation to the progression of sym...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Affective inhibitory control and risk for internalizing problems in adolescents exposed to child maltreatment: A population-based study.
Adolescents’ emotion regulatory capacities modulate the relationship between child maltreatment experiences and psychopathology. Affective inhibitory control constitutes an important part of emotion regulation and involves the ability to regulate automatic or prepotent responses to irrelevant and potentially distracting emotional information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of affective inhibitory control in the relationship between exposure to child maltreatment and internalizing problems in adolescence. A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 9,240; 49% girls; Mage = 14 years...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stronger tilt aftereffects in persons with schizophrenia.
Individuals with schizophrenia may fail to appropriately use temporal context and apply past environmental regularities to the interpretation of incoming sensory information. Here we use the visual system as a test bed for investigating how prior experience shapes perception in individuals with schizophrenia. Specifically, we use visual aftereffects, illusory percepts resulting from prior exposure to visual input, to measure the influence of prior events on current processing. At a neural level, visual aftereffects arise due to attenuation in the responses of neurons that code the features of the prior stimulus (neuronal a...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of mortality salience on bodily scanning behaviors in anxiety-related disorders.
Accumulated empirical evidence suggests that death anxiety is strongly associated with multiple mental health conditions. Despite this, few studies have experimentally explored whether manipulating reminders of death could influence the symptoms of mental illnesses. The present, preregistered study used a mortality salience design to assess whether death reminders could increase anxious behavior (i.e., time spent scanning one’s body, identification with images consistent with poorer health, and intention to visit a medical practitioner) among individuals with relevant disorders. A total of 128 treatment-seeking parti...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social reward, punishment, and prosociality in paranoia.
Paranoia is the exaggerated belief that harm will occur and is intended by others. Although commonly framed in terms of attributing malicious intent to others, recent work has explored how paranoia also affects social decision-making, using economic games. Previous work found that paranoia is associated with decreased cooperation and increased punishment in the Dictator Game (where cooperating and punishing involve paying a cost to respectively increase or decrease a partner’s income). These findings suggest that paranoia might be associated with variation in subjective reward from positive and/or negative social dec...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Repeated measurement of implicit self-associations in clinical depression: Psychometric, neural, and computational properties.
We examined reliability, clinical correlates, and neural and computational substrates of IAT performance. IAT scores showed adequate (.67–.81) split-half reliability and convergent validity with one another and with relevant explicit symptom measures. Test-retest correlations (in vs. outside the functional MRI scanner) were present but modest (.15–.55). In depressed patients, on average, negative implicit self-representations appeared to be weaker or less efficiently processed relative to positive self-representations; elicited greater recruitment of frontoparietal task network regions; and, according to comput...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reciprocal effects of personality and general distress: Neuroticism vulnerability is stronger than scarring.
Internalizing (anxiety and depressive) disorders, and the symptoms that comprise them, are known for being chronic and recurrent. Neuroticism, reflecting dispositional tendencies toward negative affect, is a personality trait that bears durable cross-sectional and prospective associations with internalizing symptoms. There are also indications that extraversion, consisting of tendencies such as the heightened experience of positive emotion, is associated with these symptoms. Some investigators have posited that the experience of internalizing symptoms leaves residual effects, or scars, on personality traits, with the effec...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparison of three models of adverse childhood experiences: Associations with child and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms.
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is prevalent and confers risk for psychopathology later in life. Approaches to understanding the impact of ACEs on development include the independent risk approach, the Dimensional Model of Adversity and Psychopathology (DMAP) distinguishing between threat and deprivation events, and the cumulative risk approach. The present research provides an empirical confirmation of DMAP and a comparison of these three approaches in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms in youth. In Study 1, mental health professionals (N = 57) rated ACEs as threat or deprivation events. ...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - December 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Temporal networks of tobacco withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation treatment.
A recently developed network perspective on tobacco withdrawal posits that withdrawal symptoms causally influence one another across time, rather than simply being indicators of a latent syndrome. Evidence supporting a network perspective would shift the focus of tobacco withdrawal research and intervention toward studying and treating individual withdrawal symptoms and intersymptom associations. Here we construct and examine temporal tobacco withdrawal networks that describe the interplay among withdrawal symptoms across time using experience-sampling data from 1,210 participants (58.35% female, 86.24% White) undergoing s...
Source: Journal of Abnormal Psychology - November 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research