Immune reactivity during COVID-19: Implications for treatment.
Abstract Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and fatigue which may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The main hematological laboratory findings associated with the severe form of disease are represented by lymphopenia and eosinopenia which mostly occur in the elderly population characterized by cardiovascular comorbidities and immunosenescence. Besides, increased levels of D-dimer, procalcitonin, and C reactive protein (CRP) seem to be powerful prognostic biomarkers helping to predict the onset of coagulopathy. The host immune response to COVID-19 can lead to an aberrant infla...
Source: Immunology Letters - January 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Napoli C, Benincasa G, Criscuolo C, Faenza M, Liberato C, Rusciano M Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

MicroRNA-144-3p enhances LPS induced septic acute lung injury in mice through downregulating Caveolin-2.
PMID: 33418009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xu R, Shao Z, Cao Q Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immunodeficiency and Thymoma in Good Syndrome: Two Sides of the Same Coin.
ón S Abstract Good Syndrome is a rare clinical entity first described as the conjunction of thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia, and more recently depicted as a complex disease integrating a medical history of thymoma with humoral immunodeficiency (more accurately stated: hypogammaglobulinemia) with or without cellular immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, autoimmunity, paraneoplastic syndromes and aberrations in the immunological profile. This condition has an ominous prognosis with a high mortality rate secondary to recalcitrant infectious diseases. Understanding the possible discordances in clinical pres...
Source: Immunology Letters - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Guevara-Hoyer K, Fuentes-Antrás J, Gastardi JC, Sachez-Ramón S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Distinct cell death markers identified in critical care patient survivors diagnosed with sepsis.
The objective of the current study is to investigate the presence of molecular markers of relevance to apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death in control healthy subjects and septic patient survivors. Sepsis survivors (N = 24) and healthy human volunteers (N = 16) [40 total subjects] were recruited into the study. Clinical intervention included antibiotic treatment regimen administered to patients upon clinical diagnosis of sepsis followed by blood draw 18-24 hr post-antibiotic dose. Serum samples analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...
Source: Immunology Letters - January 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mallarpu CS, Ponnana M, Prasad S, Singarapu M, Kim J, Haririparsa N, Bratic N, Brar H, Chelluri LK, Madiraju C Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Are the emerging SARS-COV-2 mutations friend or foe?
PMID: 33400966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - January 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ero A Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Integrin αvβ6 cooperates with resiquimod to restore antigen-specific immune tolerance in airway allergy.
CONCLUSIONS: Rexos can inhibit experimental AAD via inducing antigen-specific Tregs to restore immune tolerance in the airway tissues, suggesting that Rexos have the translational potential to be used in the treatment of AAD. PMID: 33385440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - December 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ma F, Zhang YY, Yang G, Mo LH, Liu DB, Yang LT, Liu ZG, Ning Y, Yang PC Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Dynamics of TIGIT and PD-1 expression on NK cells during the course of normal pregnancy.
CONCLUSIONS: As pregnancy progressed, the levels of immune checkpoint molecules expressed on pNK cells and T cells changed and the two molecules showed different trends. Furthermore, the secretion of functional molecules from pNK cells was negatively correlated with the trend of TIGIT expression, indicating TIGIT may play an important role in modulating the functions of pNK cells during pregnancy. Further study of TIGIT expression on pNK cells may enhance our understanding of its role in maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance and provide a useful marker for predicting instability during pregnancy. PMID: 33359535 [PubMed...
Source: Immunology Letters - December 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang Y, Li D, Yu T, Hu M, Xing J, Bai S, Qu W, Tong X Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

BML-111, the lipoxin A4 agonist, modulates VEGF or CoCl2-induced migration, angiogenesis and permeability in tumor-derived endothelial cells.
Abstract Tumor angiogenesis plays a vital role in carcinogenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenously-produced family of effective anti-inflammatory with a potent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. However, BML-111, a LXA4 agonist, its governing tumor-derived endothelial cells (Td-EC) mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we utilized VEGF or CoCl2 to mimic tumor microenvironment in vitro to study the effect of BML-111 on angiogenesis and permeability of Td-EC, and preliminarily explore its specific mechanism. Data suggested that BML-111 inhibited viability, migration...
Source: Immunology Letters - December 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lin L, Wang Q, Xu F, Luo X, Xu J, Yan L, Li Q, Hao H Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immuno-Hippo: Research Progress of the Hippo Pathway in Autoimmune Disease.
Abstract Extensive research in Drosophila and mammals has identified the core components of Hippo signaling, which controls gene expression. Studies of Drosophila have demonstrated the highly conserved Hippo pathway controls tissue homeostasis and organ size by regulating the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent work has indicated a potential role of the Hippo pathway in regulating the immune system, which is the key player in autoimmune disease (AID). Therefore, the Hippo pathway may become a novel target for curing AID. Although the pivotal role of both the Hippo pathway in tumorigenesis has ...
Source: Immunology Letters - December 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Guo P, Wang Z, Zhou Z, Tai Y, Zhang A, Wei W, Wang Q Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Improved pulmonary function test (PFT) after 1 One year of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) as adjunct to pharmacotherapy in Mild Allergic Asthmatics.
CONCLUSION: The study supports SLIT as an effective treatment for Immunomodulation in mild allergic asthmatics besides it gives us significant information regarding the safety and efficacy of SLIT in such patients. PMID: 33340589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - December 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Beigh AH, Rasool R, Kawoosa F, Manzoor S, Rashid R, Andrabi KI, Shah ZA, Qureshi T Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The Immune Dysregulation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders.
Abstract Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is established as a heterogeneous collection of disorders of immune dysregulation rather than an infectious complication of antibody deficiency. Approximately 70% of patients have one or more of the non-infectious complications of autoimmunity, enteropathy, polyclonal lymphocytic and malignancy. The CVID-disorders represent a particular challenge as they fall under an umbrella diagnosis governed currently by non-universal diagnostic criteria. The rubric of CVID is shrinking as next generation sequencing is progressively and rapidly identifying the genetic basis for ...
Source: Immunology Letters - December 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fernando SL, Jang HS, Li J Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The impact of ageing on monocytes and macrophages.
In conclusion, we believe that monocytes and macrophages contribute to immunosenescence and inflammageing and as a result have an important role in defective immunity with age. PMID: 33309673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - December 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: De Maeyer RPH, Chambers ES Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Establishment of universal human embryonic stem cell lines.
This article reviews current strategies and methods for establishing such universal or near universally HLA compatible human embryonic stem cell lines. PMID: 33309828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - December 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kong M, Zhou D Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Improved engraftment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in NOG MHC double knockout mice generated using CRISPR/Cas9.
In conclusion, dKO-em mice might constitute a promising PBMC-based humanized mouse model for the development and preclinical testing of novel therapeutics for human diseases. PMID: 33253759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - November 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ka Y, Katano I, Nishinaka E, Welcker J, Mochizuki M, Kawai K, Goto M, Tomiyama K, Ogura T, Yamamoto T, Ito M, Ito R, Takahashi R Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Neuroimmune communication in infection and pain: friends or foes?
Abstract Clinically, a variety of micro-organisms cause painful infections. Before seen as bystanders in the context of infections, recent studies have demonstrated that, as immune cells, nociceptors can sense pathogen-derived products. Nociceptors and immune cells, therefore, have evolved to communicate with each other to control inflammatory and host responses against pathogens in a complementary way. This interaction is named as neuroimmune communication (or axon-axon immune reflex) and initiates after the release of neuropeptides, such as CGRP and VIP by neurons. By this neurogenic response, nociceptors orches...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fattori V, Ferraz CR, Rasquel-Oliveira FS, Verri WA Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Gutmicrobiota, immunity and pain.
Abstract The interplay between microbiota and nervous system has been associated with a variety of diseases, including stress, anxiety, depression and cognition. The growing body of evidences on the essential role of gut microbiota in modulating acute and chronic pain has opened a new frontier for pain management. Gut microbiota is involved in the development of visceral, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Bacterial alterations due to chronic opioid administration have been directly related to the development of drug tolerance, which can be potentially restored by the use of probiotics and antibiotics. In this rev...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Santoni M, Miccini F, Battelli N Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Combining miR-23b exposure with mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhances therapeutic effects on EAE.
Abstract Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the immuno-modulatory capacity to ameliorate autoimmune diseases, such as multiple schlerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. However, BMSC-mediated immunosuppression can be challenging to achieve. The efficacy of BMSC transplantation may be augmented by an adjuvant therapy. Here, we demonstrated that treatment of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, with BMSCs over-expressing microRNA (miR)-23b provided better synergistic and longer-term therapeutic effects than treatment with traditional BMS...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hu R, Li H, Lv W, Zhang S, Meng Y, Liu Y, Bo S, Kong Q, Mu L, Wang G, Zhang Y, Liu X Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immunology and Algology speak a common language - Editorial.
PMID: 33232719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Santoni A, Arcuri E Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Ficolin-3 in Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease.
Abstract Rheumatic fever (RF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are complications of oropharyngeal infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Despite the importance of the complement system against infections and autoimmunity diseases, studies on the role of the lectin pathway in RF and RHD are scarce. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the association of ficolin-3 serum levels, FCN3 polymorphisms and haplotypes with the susceptibility to RF and RHD. We investigated 179 patients with a history of RF (126 RHD and 53 RF only) and 170 healthy blood donors as control group. Ficolin-3 serum concentrations were meas...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Catarino SJ, Andrade FA, Bavia L, Guilherme L, Messias-Reason IJ Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Increased peripheral helper T cells type 17 subset correlates with the severity of psoriasis vulgaris.
In this study, conditions of circulating Tph cell subsets and CD4+CXCR5+ follicular helper T (Tfh) cells in 27 patients with psoriasis and 13 healthy individuals were detected by flow cytometry. The level of plasma chemokine C-X-C ligand (CXCL) 13 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlations between the above indexes and disease severity were explored. In the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis, Tph17 cells had an activated, proliferative phenotype; the quantity of the cells correlated with disease severity. Plasma CXCL13 levels were elevated in psoriasis and associated with disease severity ...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu W, Zhou X, Wang A, Ma J, Bai Y Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Role, function and regulation of the thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein in CD8+ T cell exhaustion.
Abstract Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein (TOX), a member of the high-motility group box (HMG) protein superfamily, is an evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding protein. It functions as a transcription factor that modulates transcriptional programs by binding to DNA in a structure-dependent manner. It has been well established that TOX is required for the development of CD4+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), as well as the autoimmunity mediated by CD8+ T cells. Recently, emerging evidence supports an essential role for TOX in the induction of T cell ex...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cheng Y, Shao Z, Chen L, Zheng Q, Zhang Q, Ding W, Zhang M, Yu Q, Gao D Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Progress in research into the role of abnormal glycosylation modification in tumor immunity.
Abstract In abnormal glycosylation, molecules of glucose or other carbohydrates in living organisms are inappropriately attached to proteins, which causes protein denaturation. Abnormal glycosylation modification is known to directly or indirectly affect the tumor escape process, but very few studies have been performed on whether protein glycosylation changes the structure and function of immune cells and immune molecules and thereby regulates the occurrence and development of tumor escape. Therefore, this article summarizes the effect of the immune system on tumor escape in association with the abnormal glycosyl...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu HM, Ma LL, Cao B, Lin JZ, Han L, Li CY, Xu RC, Zhang DK Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Determination of in vitro and in vivo immune response to recombinant cholesterol oxidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
In conclusion, we demonstrated here that ChoD of Mtb is an active protein, which is able to induce the immune response both in vivo and in vitro. PMID: 33166528 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Szulc-Kielbik I, Brzostek A, Gatkowska J, Kielbik M, Klink M Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Role of adipose-associated lymphoid tissues in the immunological homeostasis of the serosal surface.
ogh P Abstract Although not typical lymphoid organs, analysis of the visceral adipose-associated lymphoid tissues has recently substantially expanded our knowledge about the immunological features of these elusive compartments. Recent data have highlighted their considerable complexity in cellular organization and interactions in several biological processes, including adaptive immune responses, tissue plasticity to accommodate mesenchymal stem cells and progenitors, and providing a suitable microenvironment for serosal tumor propagation. This review aims to present a comprehensive view of the adipose-associated l...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xinkai J, Berta G, Gábris F, Kellermayer Z, Balogh P Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Pulmonary vascular improvement in severe COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab.
Abstract As of October 2020 management of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based on supportive care and off-label or compassionate-use therapies. On March 2020 tocilizumab - an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody - was suggested as immunomodulatory treatment in severe COVID-19 because hyperinflammatory syndrome occurs in many patients similarly to the cytokine release syndrome that develops after CAR-T cell therapy. In our retrospective observational study, 20 severe COVID-19 patients were treated with tocilizumab in addition to standard-of-care therapy (SOC) and compared with 13 COVID-19 patients receivi...
Source: Immunology Letters - November 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Salvati L, Occhipinti M, Gori L, Ciani L, Mazzoni A, Maggi L, Capone M, Parronchi P, Liotta F, Miele V, Annunziato F, Lavorini F, Cosmi L Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Combination treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-1, vitamin B, and curcumin ameliorates the progression of osteoarthritis by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory mediators.
Abstract Disease-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) therapy is not yet available. Several adjuvant therapies have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of OA. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, vitamin B, and curcumin in the treatment of OA. Monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint in rat was used as an animal model of human OA. The combination of L. acidophilus LA-1, vitamin B, and curcumin or a saline solution was given orally. Pain was measured according to the paw withdrawal latency...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jhun J, Min HK, Na HS, Kwon JY, Ryu J, Cho KH, Choi J, Jung K, Lee SY, Kim SJ, Yang CW, Park SH, Cho ML Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Bcl2 like protine-12 (Bcl2L12) facilitates experimental airway allergic inflammation by inducing autocrine eotaxin in eosinophils.
CONCLUSIONS: AAD Eos express high levels of Bcl2L12, the latter is associated with AAD response by regulating the autocrine eotaxin 1 in Eos. Depletion of Bcl2L12 in Eos attenuates experimental AAD, suggesting that to suppress the Bcl2L12 Eos has the translational potential in the treatment of AAD. PMID: 33132183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yang G, Liu JQ, Mo LH, Luo XQ, Li J, Liu ZQ, Liu DB, Liu ZG, Yang PC, Shi JB Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

STAT3 inhibition protects against neuroinflammation and BACE1 upregulation induced by systemic inflammation.
Abstract Abnormal activation of the transcriptional factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was recently associated with Alzheimer Disease (AD). STAT3 phosphorylation is critical for cytokine secretion linked to neuroinflammation. Moreover, STAT3 may act as a transcriptional regulator of BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme-1), the key enzyme in amyloid β (Aβ) production. We have previously shown that neuroinflammation and increased brain BACE1 levels triggered by LPS-induced systemic inflammation in wild-type mice are associated with an enhanced STAT3 activation. Using this LPS mo...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Millot P, San C, Bennana E, Porte B, Vignal N, Hugon J, Paquet C, Hosten B, Mouton-Liger F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Two genetic variants in the promoter region of the CCL5 gene are associated with the risk of acute coronary syndrome and with a lower plasma CCL5 concentration.
Abstract Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a multi-factorial condition with a strong inflammatory component, which is immune-mediated by chemokines. The CCL5 is a chemokine that has been suggested to be an important participant in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque. Therefore, in this work, we evaluated whether three polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the CCL5 gene [CCL5 -28 G/C (rs2280788), CCL5 -109 G/A (rs1800825), and CCL5 -403 G/A (rs2107538)] are significantly associated with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and plasma CCL5 levels. The determination of the gene polymorp...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Herrera-Maya G, Vargas-Alarcon G, Ramirez-Bello J, Perez-Mendez O, Posadas-Sanchez R, Lopez-Marure R, Granados J, Nieto-Lima B, Fragoso JM Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

PD-1 Expression on CD8+CD28- T cells within inflammatory synovium is associated with Relapse: A cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Abstract Defect in T lymphocyte homeostasis could implicate initiation and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since PD-1 plays a key role in the regulation of T lymphocytes, its expression pattern in various CD8 + T cell subsets could be so effective in RA pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the expression of PD-1 and CXCR3 on CD8+CD28- T cells in association with the IFN-γ levels in patients with RA. A total of 42 RA patients, including 10 newly-diagnosed (ND) and 32 relapsed (RL) cases and also 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Phenotypic characterization of CD8 + T cells ...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ajama F, Aghaei M, Mohammadi S, Samiei H, Behnampour N, Memarian A Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor connects dysregulated immune cells to atherosclerosis.
Abstract As a chronic inflammatory disease with autoimmune components, atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed that the development of atherosclerosis is strongly linked to the functional activities of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a chemical sensor that is also important for the development, maintenance, and function of a variety of immune cells. In this review, we focus on the impact of AHR signaling on the different cell types that are closely related to the atherogenesis, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, foam cells, ...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang F, Liang S, Hu J, Xu Y Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

IL-18 variant increases risk of enhanced HBV DNA replication in chronic hepatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest that theIL-18 -607A/C functional polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to enhanced replicative form of HBV DNA in chronic infection. PMID: 33038386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - October 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: BenSelma W, Alibi S, Smach MA, Saad A, Boukadida J Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Psychedelics as a Novel Approach to Treating Autoimmune Conditions.
Abstract With a rise in the incidence of autoimmune diseases (AiD), health care providers continue to seek out more efficacious treatment approaches for the AD patient population. Classic serotonergic psychedelics have recently been gaining public and professional interest as novel interventions to a number of mental health afflictions. Psychedelics have also been shown to be able to modulate immune functions, however, while there has been great interest to researching into their psychotherapeutic applications, there has so far been very little exploration into the potential to treat inflammatory and immune-relate...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Thompson C, Szabo A Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Antigenic competition in the generation of multi-virus-specific cell lines for immunotherapy of human cytomegalovirus, polyomavirus BK, Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus infection in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Markéta P, Eva H Abstract Adoptive transfer of multivirus-specific T cell lines (MVST) is an advanced tool for immunotherapy of virus infections after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Their preparation includes activation of donor virus-specific T cells by the mixture of oligopeptides derived from immunodominant antigens of several most harmful viruses, i.e. human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), polyomavirus BK (BKV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and adenovirus (ADV). The aim of our study was to find out whether antigenic competition may have an impact on the expansion of virus-specific T cells. MVST fr...
Source: Immunology Letters - October 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Roubalová K, Šárka N, Jitka K, Petr H, Markéta P, Eva H Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

How NETosis could drive "Post-COVID-19 syndrome" among survivors.
How NETosis could drive "Post-COVID-19 syndrome" among survivors. Immunol Lett. 2020 Sep 29;: Authors: Sawadogo SA, Dighero-Kemp B, Ouedraogo DD, Hensley L, Sakandé J PMID: 33007368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - September 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sawadogo SA, Dighero-Kemp B, Ouedraogo DD, Hensley L, Sakandé J Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

"Cytokine storm", not only in COVID-19 patients. Mini-review.
"Cytokine storm", not only in COVID-19 patients. Mini-review. Immunol Lett. 2020 Sep 29;: Authors: Lukan N Abstract Cytokine storm is a form of uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction activated by a variety of factors and leading to a harmful homeostatic process, even to patient´s death. Triggers that start the reaction are infection, systemic diseases and rarely anaphylaxis. Cytokine storm is frequently mentioned in connection to medical interventions such as transplantation or administration of drugs. Presented mini-review would like to show current possibilities how to fight or ...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lukan N Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Azithromycin and Glucosamine May Amplify the Type 1 Interferon Response to RNA Viruses in a Complementary Fashion.
Abstract Previous research demonstrates that, in clinically relevant concentrations, azithromycin can boost the ability of RNA viruses to induce type 1 interferon by amplifying the expression and virally-mediated activation of MDA5. O-GlcNAcylation of MAVS, a down-stream target of MDA5, renders it more effective for type 1 interferon induction. High-dose glucosamine administration up-regulates O-GlcNAcylation by increasing the cellular pool of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Hence, it is proposed that joint administration of azithromycin and high-dose glucosamine, early in the course of RNA virus infections, may interact...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: DiNicolantonio JJ, Barroso-Aranda J, McCarty MF Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Regulation of Cellular Immunity by Activating Transcription Factor 4.
Abstract Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a DNA binding transcription factor belonging to the family of basic Leucine zipper proteins. ATF4 can be activated in response to multiple cellular stress signals including endoplasmic reticulum stress in the event of improper protein folding or oxidative stress because of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as hypoxia. There are multiple downstream targets of ATF4 that can coordinate the regulation between survival and apoptosis of a cell based on time and exposure to stress. ATF4, therefore, has a broad range of control that results in the modulation of immune c...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mukherjee D, Bercz LS, Torok MA, Mace TA Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Interplays between inflammasomes and viruses, bacteria (pathogenic and probiotic), yeasts and parasites.
Abstract In recent years, scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of inflammation have discovered an amazing phenomenon - the inflammasome - a component of the innate immune system that can regulate the functional activity of effector cells during inflammation. At present, it is known that inflammasomes are multimolecular complexes (cytosolic multiprotein oligomers of the innate immune system) that contain many copies of receptors recognizing the molecular structures of cell-damaging factors and pathogenic agents. Inflammasomes are mainly formed in myeloid cells, and their main function is participation in th...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Antushevich H Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The effect of anti IL-2/IL-2 complex versus stand-alone low dose of IL-2 on Imiquimod induced psoriasis like skin inflammation model.
CONCLUSION: Anti IL-2/ IL-2 complex could achieve better results than stand-alone low dose of IL-2 therapy and both are promising therapeutic modalities that should be assessed in more preclinical and clinical studies. PMID: 32949628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - September 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Salman S, Attar YAE, Salem ML, Kashef SM, Zidan AA, Abdel-Latif AM Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Successful DAA therapy for chronic hepatitis C reduces HLA-DR on monocytes and circulating immune mediators: a long-term follow-up study.
CONCLUSIONS: Successful DAA therapy did not modify monocyte subsets frequency but reduced monocyte activation at 1y and sustained the downregulation and restoration of circulating immune mediators, indicating that long-term reversal of inflammation status could occur after HCV eradication. PMID: 32946919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - September 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rosário NF, Saraiva GDN, Medeiros T, Gandini M, de Souza Lacerda G, Leite PEC, de Andrade TG, de Azeredo EL, Xavier AR, Silva AA Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Abnormal membrane-bound and soluble programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) expression in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with disease activity.
This study analyzed the changes in membrane-bound PD-L2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and soluble PD-L2 (sPD-L2) levels in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to explore the relationship between PD-L2 expression with disease activity and related test parameters. Our results showed that membrane-bound PD-L2 expression on monocytes was significantly higher and the sPD-L2 levels were significantly lower in SLE patients than in healthy subjects. Patients with active SLE accompanied by lupus nephritis, joint pain, and clinical manifestations of oral ulcers had relatively low secretio...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tong M, Fang X, Yang J, Wu P, Guo Y, Sun J Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Macrophage-derived exosomes in cancers: Biogenesis, functions and therapeutic applications.
Abstract Macrophages are fundamental to promote tumorigenesis, tumor development and metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance through modulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. Recently, increasing studies have shown that exosomes could play a crucial role in orchestrating the crosstalk between macrophages and cancer cells. Exosomes, as one of the extracellular vehicles, deliver a diverse cast of molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, etc. to the targeted cells to exert pleiotropic effects. The macrophage-derived exosomes have heterogeneity in different cancers and play paradoxical roles ...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu J, Wu F, Zhou H Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

An assessment of toll-like receptor 7 and 8 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, AIDS development and response to antiretroviral therapy.
In this study, we assess the influence of TLR7 and TLR8 gene polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility, AIDS development, and treatment outcomes. The TLR7 and TLR8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped through real-time PCR in 222 patients living with HIV-1 and 141 healthy controls. Frequencies of the TLR7-IVS2-151 G/A and TLR7-IVS1 + 1817 G/T genotypes and alleles were not significantly increased in patients with HIV-1 infection compared to healthy controls both in males and females. Whereas, males carrying TLR8 Met allele were twice susceptible to HIV-1 infection compared to subjec...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zaidane I, Ouladlahsen A, Bensghir R, Chihab H, Jadid FZ, Fɩhry RE, Baba H, Filali KME, Oudghiri M, Wakrim L, Benjelloun S, Ezzikouri S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin deficiency associated with a MAP2K1-related mutation causing cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.
PMID: 32866538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - August 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Leoni C, Tedesco M, Onesimo R, Giorgio V, Rigante D, Zampino G Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Emerging regulatory roles of opioid peptides, endogenous morphine, and opioid receptor subtypes in immunomodulatory processes: Metabolic, behavioral, and evolutionary perspectives.
Abstract Integrated behavioral paradigms such as nociceptive processing coupled to anti-nociceptive responsiveness include systemically-mediated states of alertness, vigilance, motivation, and avoidance. Within a historical and cultural context, opium and its biologically active compounds, codeine and morphine, have been widely used as frontline anti-nociceptive agents. In eukaryotic cells, opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides were evolutionarily fashioned as regulatory factors in neuroimmune, vascular immune, and systemic immune communication and auto-immunoregulation. The significance of opioidergic regulation o...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Esch T, Kream RM, Stefano GB Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The neuro-immune axis in cancer: relevance of the peripheral nervous system to the disease.
Abstract The peripheral nervous system and the immune system are critically involved in the surveillance of our body, having the ability to sense the environment, recognize danger signals and orchestrate an appropriate response. Despite the fact that these two systems have been historically considered autonomous entities, a large body of evidence has shown how they interact in many homeostatic responses and how these interactions are critically involved in pathologic contexts too, including inflammation, infection and autoimmunity. In the context of cancer, where it is already known that inflammation plays a key r...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cortese N, Rigamonti A, Mantovani A, Marchesi F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Plasticity and regulatory mechanisms of human ILC2 functions.
This study defines possible cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for modulation and inhibition of human ILC2 activity. These results may be useful in the development of strategies aimed to dampen ILC2 function in type-2 mediated diseases. PMID: 32822747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - August 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maggi L, Manuela C, Mazzoni A, Liotta F, Cosmi L, Annunziato F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Low levels of pro-resolving lipid mediators lipoxin-A4, resolvin-D1 and resolvin-E1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of LXs and Rvs in the RA pathogenesis. To this end, we measured the LXA 4, RvD 1, RvE 1 levels, and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-22 and MCP-1 in patients with RA and healthy individuals. We found that the LXA4, RvD1, RvE1 levels of the active RA cases were significantly lower than in remission RA and healthy individuals, but the levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly higher. The decreases in LXs and Rvs were independent of disease activity, suggesting that there might be an impairment of LX and Rvs synthesis o...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Özdemir RBÖ, Gündüz ÖS, Özdemir AT, Akgül Ö Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Plasticity of Monocyte Development and Monocyte Fates.
Abstract Monocytes are circulating myeloid immune precursor cells that are generated in the bone marrow. Mature monocytes are released into the circulation and, in case of need, recruited to peripheral sites of inflammation to differentiate into monocyte-derived effector cells. In absence of overt inflammation, monocytes also extravasate into selected tissues, where they complement tissue-resident macrophage compartments. Adjustment of these homeostatic monocyte infiltrates to local environment is critical to maintain health, as best established for the intestine. Defined gene expression changes that differ betwee...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Trzebanski S, Jung S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research