Abnormal membrane-bound and soluble programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) expression in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with disease activity.
This study analyzed the changes in membrane-bound PD-L2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and soluble PD-L2 (sPD-L2) levels in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to explore the relationship between PD-L2 expression with disease activity and related test parameters. Our results showed that membrane-bound PD-L2 expression on monocytes was significantly higher and the sPD-L2 levels were significantly lower in SLE patients than in healthy subjects. Patients with active SLE accompanied by lupus nephritis, joint pain, and clinical manifestations of oral ulcers had relatively low secretio...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tong M, Fang X, Yang J, Wu P, Guo Y, Sun J Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Macrophage-derived exosomes in cancers: Biogenesis, functions and therapeutic applications.
Abstract Macrophages are fundamental to promote tumorigenesis, tumor development and metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance through modulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. Recently, increasing studies have shown that exosomes could play a crucial role in orchestrating the crosstalk between macrophages and cancer cells. Exosomes, as one of the extracellular vehicles, deliver a diverse cast of molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, etc. to the targeted cells to exert pleiotropic effects. The macrophage-derived exosomes have heterogeneity in different cancers and play paradoxical roles ...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu J, Wu F, Zhou H Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

An assessment of toll-like receptor 7 and 8 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, AIDS development and response to antiretroviral therapy.
In this study, we assess the influence of TLR7 and TLR8 gene polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility, AIDS development, and treatment outcomes. The TLR7 and TLR8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped through real-time PCR in 222 patients living with HIV-1 and 141 healthy controls. Frequencies of the TLR7-IVS2-151 G/A and TLR7-IVS1 + 1817 G/T genotypes and alleles were not significantly increased in patients with HIV-1 infection compared to healthy controls both in males and females. Whereas, males carrying TLR8 Met allele were twice susceptible to HIV-1 infection compared to subjec...
Source: Immunology Letters - September 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zaidane I, Ouladlahsen A, Bensghir R, Chihab H, Jadid FZ, Fɩhry RE, Baba H, Filali KME, Oudghiri M, Wakrim L, Benjelloun S, Ezzikouri S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin deficiency associated with a MAP2K1-related mutation causing cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.
PMID: 32866538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - August 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Leoni C, Tedesco M, Onesimo R, Giorgio V, Rigante D, Zampino G Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Emerging regulatory roles of opioid peptides, endogenous morphine, and opioid receptor subtypes in immunomodulatory processes: Metabolic, behavioral, and evolutionary perspectives.
Abstract Integrated behavioral paradigms such as nociceptive processing coupled to anti-nociceptive responsiveness include systemically-mediated states of alertness, vigilance, motivation, and avoidance. Within a historical and cultural context, opium and its biologically active compounds, codeine and morphine, have been widely used as frontline anti-nociceptive agents. In eukaryotic cells, opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides were evolutionarily fashioned as regulatory factors in neuroimmune, vascular immune, and systemic immune communication and auto-immunoregulation. The significance of opioidergic regulation o...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Esch T, Kream RM, Stefano GB Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The neuro-immune axis in cancer: relevance of the peripheral nervous system to the disease.
Abstract The peripheral nervous system and the immune system are critically involved in the surveillance of our body, having the ability to sense the environment, recognize danger signals and orchestrate an appropriate response. Despite the fact that these two systems have been historically considered autonomous entities, a large body of evidence has shown how they interact in many homeostatic responses and how these interactions are critically involved in pathologic contexts too, including inflammation, infection and autoimmunity. In the context of cancer, where it is already known that inflammation plays a key r...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cortese N, Rigamonti A, Mantovani A, Marchesi F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Plasticity and regulatory mechanisms of human ILC2 functions.
This study defines possible cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for modulation and inhibition of human ILC2 activity. These results may be useful in the development of strategies aimed to dampen ILC2 function in type-2 mediated diseases. PMID: 32822747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - August 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maggi L, Manuela C, Mazzoni A, Liotta F, Cosmi L, Annunziato F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Low levels of pro-resolving lipid mediators lipoxin-A4, resolvin-D1 and resolvin-E1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of LXs and Rvs in the RA pathogenesis. To this end, we measured the LXA 4, RvD 1, RvE 1 levels, and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-22 and MCP-1 in patients with RA and healthy individuals. We found that the LXA4, RvD1, RvE1 levels of the active RA cases were significantly lower than in remission RA and healthy individuals, but the levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly higher. The decreases in LXs and Rvs were independent of disease activity, suggesting that there might be an impairment of LX and Rvs synthesis o...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Özdemir RBÖ, Gündüz ÖS, Özdemir AT, Akgül Ö Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Plasticity of Monocyte Development and Monocyte Fates.
Abstract Monocytes are circulating myeloid immune precursor cells that are generated in the bone marrow. Mature monocytes are released into the circulation and, in case of need, recruited to peripheral sites of inflammation to differentiate into monocyte-derived effector cells. In absence of overt inflammation, monocytes also extravasate into selected tissues, where they complement tissue-resident macrophage compartments. Adjustment of these homeostatic monocyte infiltrates to local environment is critical to maintain health, as best established for the intestine. Defined gene expression changes that differ betwee...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Trzebanski S, Jung S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immune cell-mediated opioid analgesia.
ml; Abstract Pathological pain is regulated by a balance between pro-algesic and analgesic mechanisms. Interactions between opioid peptide-producing immune cells and peripheral sensory neurons expressing opioid receptors represent a powerful intrinsic pain control in animal models and in humans. Therefore, treatments based on general suppression of immune responses have been mostly unsuccessful. It is highly desirable to develop strategies that specifically promote neuro-immune communication mediated by opioids. Promising examples include vaccination-based recruitment of opioid-containing leukocytes to painful tis...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Machelska H, Celik MÖ Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

A comprehensive review on miR-146a molecular mechanisms in a wide spectrum of immune and non-immune inflammatory diseases.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-strand endogenous and non-coding RNA molecules with a length of about 22 nucleotides, which regulate genes expression, through modulating the translation and stability of their target mRNAs. miR-146a is one of the most studied miRNAs, due to its central role in immune system homeostasis and control of the innate and acquired immune responses. Accordingly, abnormal expression or function of miR-146a results in the incidence and progression of immune and non-immune inflammatory diseases. Its deregulated expression pattern and inefficient function have been reported in a wide sp...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mortazavi-Jahromi SS, Aslani M, Mirshafiey A Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Long-term Omalizumab efficacy in allergic rhinitis.
CONCLUSION: Long-term therapy with Omalizumab was effective and safe in treating severe persistent allergic rhinitis and concomitant asthma. PMID: 32798500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - August 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cavaliere C, Begvarfaj E, Incorvaia C, Sposato B, Brunori M, Ciofalo A, Greco A, de Vincentiis M, Masieri S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Preparation and in vitro activity of single chain antibodies against Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Disease-modifying passive immunotherapies focused on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the results of Aβ passive immunotherapy clinical trials were unsatisfactory, largely due to the low efficacy of whole antibodies due to their relatively large molecular weight and low blood-brain barrier transmittance. Furthermore, the constant region fragments of whole antibodies can trigger inflammatory reactions, which raises safety concerns. Single chain fragment variables (scFvs), containing only the variable region of the hea...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fu L, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Tian W, Zhang W, Jia Y, Zhang L Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

LncRNA GAS5 supresses CD4+ T cell activation by upregulating E4BP4 via inhibiting miR-92a-3p in systemic lupus erythematosus.
In this study, we aimed to explore the role of lncRNA growth arrest specific 5 (GAS5) in the pathogenesis of SLE. We found that lncRNA GAS5 was decreased in CD4+ T cells and plasma from SLE patients. Overepression of GAS5 inhibited activation of normal CD4+ T cells and attenuated the self-reactivity of SLE CD4+ T cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that adenovirus E4 binding protein 4 (E4BP4) was involved in lncRNA GAS5-mediated inhibition of CD4+ T cell activation. GAS5 could upregulate E4BP4 by inhibiting miR-92a-3p. Taken together, our results indicate that the GAS5/miR-92a-3p/E4BP4 pathway plays an important role in i...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu Q, Deng Y, Li C, Xie H, Liu Q, Ming S, Wu D, Luo F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Homeostasis and the functional roles of CD4+ Treg cells in aging.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the reviewed data suggest equal or even increased Treg functionality with age. Thus, age-mediated Treg expansion and higher Treg activity may contribute to elevated immune suppression and increased risk of infections and cancer. PMID: 32717201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - July 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Churov AV, Mamashov KY, Novitskaia AV Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Baicalin induces Mrgprb2-dependent pseudo-allergy in mice.
We examined the allergenic effect of baicalin on RBL-2H3 cells and Mrgprb3-knockdown RBL-2H3 cells. Mrgprb2-expressing HEK293 cells and Mrgprb2-knockout mice were used to evaluate the role of Mrgprb2 in baicalin-induced allergy. Baicalin was found to dose-dependently induce pseudo-allergy both in vitro and in vivo. RBL-2H3 cells were activated by baicalin, whereas in Mrgprb3-knockout RBL-2H3 cells, baicalin showed a negligible effect on cell activation. Furthermore, baicalin activated the Mrgprb2-expressing HEK293 cells. Our data showed that baicalin did not induce allergy in Mpgprb2-knockout mice. We conclude that baicali...
Source: Immunology Letters - July 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang J, Zhang Y, Che D, Zeng Y, Wu Y, Qin Q, Wang N Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Injection of CD40 DNA vaccine ameliorates the autoimmune pathology of Non-obese Diabetic Mice with Sj ögren's Syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: CD40 DNA vaccine inhibits the immune response and reduce inflammation in epithelial tissues SS in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, suggesting that CD40 DNA vaccine could be a new therapeutic approach in treatment of pSS. PMID: 32707129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - July 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhou YB, Yuan X, Wang QK, Zhang H, Wang GS, Li XP, Wang Y, Harris D, Li XM Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Utilization of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in cellular therapies for lymphoid malignancies.
We describe current and future therapeutic application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology with the focus on the production and applications of engineered hematopoietic and immune cells against lymphoid malignancies. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the possible challenges and optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 system for ex- and in vivo applications within recent years. PMID: 32687855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - July 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mehravar M, Roshandel E, Salimi M, Chegeni R, Gholizadeh M, Mohammadi MH, Hajifathali A Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Intermittent fasting, a possible priming tool for host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection: crosstalk among calorie restriction, autophagy and immune response.
Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of deadly Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which emerged as a major threat to public health across the world. Although there is no clear gender or socioeconomic discrimination in the incidence of COVID-19, individuals who are older adults and/or with comorbidities and compromised immunity have a relatively higher risk of contracting this disease. Since no specific drug has yet been discovered, strengthening immunity along with maintaining a healthy living is the best way to survive this disease. As a healthy ...
Source: Immunology Letters - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hannan MA, Rahman MA, Rahman MS, Al Mamun Sohag A, Dash R, Hossain KS, Farjana M, Uddin MJ Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

A review: progress in the development of fish Vibrio spp. vaccines.
Abstract During the past decades, Vibrio spp. infections have been a serious problem that causes fish blight and very large economic losses, especially in China, Japan, Europe, and North America. Hitra disease caused by Vibrio salmonicida and winter ulcer disease caused by Vibrio viscosus have seriously affected cultured salmon in Norway and Iceland. In Asia, Vibriosis has caused huge losses in cultured grass carp and turbot of Chinese and cultured eels of Japan. Antibiotics and other chemical agents are the most common methods currently to prevent and control diseases but they have led to the emergence of drug-re...
Source: Immunology Letters - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ji Q, Wang S, Ma J, Liu Q Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Upregulation of RelB in the miR-122 knockout mice contributes to increased levels of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines in the liver and macrophages.
CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of miR-122 caused an upregulation of proinflammatory chemokines and RelB in the liver. Increased RelB may contribute to increases in these chemokine in the liver. Intriguingly, deletion of miR-122 also enhanced the sensitivity of macrophages and mice to LPS. Our results reveal that reducing RelB expression is a new mechanism by which miR-122 regulates inflammation. PMID: 32622933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - July 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hsu KH, Wei CW, Su YR, Chou T, Lin YL, Yang FC, Tsou AP, Hsu CL, Tseng PH, Chen NJ, Jeng KS, Leu CM Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

JNK signaling in Drosophila immunity and homeostasis.
Abstract As members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) regulate cell responses to a wide range of extrinsic and intrinsic insults, including irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, heat, bacterial antigens, and inflammatory cytokines. Particularly, JNK signaling regulates and promotes many important physiological processes that influence metabolic and tissue homeostasis, cell death/survival, and cell damage repair and ultimately impacts the lifespan of an organism. This diverse functionality causes a variety of tissue-specific and context-spec...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tafesh-Edwards G, Eleftherianos I Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

TGF- β1 maintains Foxp3 expression and inhibits glycolysis in natural regulatory T cells via PP2A-mediated suppression of mTOR signaling.
TGF-β1 maintains Foxp3 expression and inhibits glycolysis in natural regulatory T cells via PP2A-mediated suppression of mTOR signaling. Immunol Lett. 2020 Jun 26;: Authors: Chen X, Feng L, Li S, Long D, Shan J, Li Y Abstract Natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) play a dominant role in maintaining immunological homeostasis and they are known to undergo metabolic reprogramming during immune responses. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, can promote the induction of regulatory T cells. Here, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the stability and ...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen X, Feng L, Li S, Long D, Shan J, Li Y Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Biallelic TRNT1 variants in a child with B cell immunodeficiency, periodic fever and developmental delay without sideroblastic anemia (SIFD variant).
PMID: 32592741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rigante D, Stellacci E, Leoni C, Onesimo R, Radio FC, Pizzi S, Giorgio V, Tornesello A, Tartaglia M, Zampino G Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

CXC chemokine receptor 3 antagonist AMG487 shows potent anti-arthritic effects on collagen-induced arthritis by modifying B cell inflammatory profile.
Abstract Several studies have suggested that chemokine receptors are important mediators of inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). B cells are also known to play an important role in RA pathology. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CXCR3) is considered a potential therapeutic target in different inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the potentially protective effect of AMG487, a selective CXCR3 antagonist, in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CIA mice were treated with AMG487 (5 mg/kg) every 48 h, from day 21 until day 41. We then inv...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bakheet SA, Alrwashied BS, Ansari MA, Nadeem A, Attia SM, Alanazi MM, Aldossari AA, Assiri MA, Mahmood HM, Al-Mazroua HA, Ahmad SF Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The ambiguity of opioids revealed by Immunology is changing the knowledge and the therapeutic approach in cancer and non-cancer pain: A narrative review.
Abstract Herein, we summarize the steps of a common scientific path taken by the two Guest Editors, an Anesthesiologist (EA) and an Immunologist (AS), and started 25 years ago at the National Cancer Institute in Rome. When in 1980 WHO codified the usage of opioids for cancer pain relief, it was matter of debate whether only disease progression rather than opioid tolerance were the driving force of opioid escalation. The selective intratumoral accumulation of morphine observed in an experimental xenograft model - the initial scenario of our scientific collaboration - revealed a surprising interaction between the op...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Santoni A, Arcuri E Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Lymphopenia during the COVID-19 infection: what it shows and what can be learned.
PMID: 32569607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tavakolpour S, Rakhshanderoo T, Wei EX, Rashidian M Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

A Lactococcus lactis-vectored oral vaccine induces protective immunity of mice against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli lethal challenge.
Abstract Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a global primary pathogenic bacterium causing diarrhoea in human and a wide variety of neonatal animals. Lactococcus lactis as non-pathogenic and food-grade lactic acid bacteria has already been explored as a vector for mucosal vaccine. Here, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the live recombinant L. lactis (rL. lactis) vaccine expressing the trivalent enterotoxin protein STa-LTB-STb and the F5 fimbrial antigen (SLS-F5) with OmpH of Yersinia enterocolitica in protection against ETEC. Western blot confirmed the expression of fusion protein SLS-F5-OmpH in...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Song J, Zhao L, Song M Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Protective effect of Ganoderic acid A on adjuvant-induced arthritis.
In conclusion, GAA has an obvious therapeutic effect on joint inflammation of toes in CIA model rats, which may be due to the regulation of JAK3/STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID: 32565114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cao T, Tang C, Xue L, Wang M, Wang D Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes suppress proliferation of T cells by inducing cell cycle arrest through p27kip1/Cdk2 signaling.
In conclusion, the exosomes secreted from MSCs could suppress the activated T cell proliferation through the induction of cell cycle arrest. PMID: 32554049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lee S, Kim S, Chung H, Moon JH, Kang SJ, Park CG Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Yes-associated protein upregulates filopodia formation to promote alveolar epithelial-cell phagocytosis.
In this study, interference with YAP expression inhibited phagocytosis in MLE-12 cells and in primary cultures of AEC. Filopodia formation promoted phagocytosis in AECs, and YAP reduced filopodia formation by AECs. Blocking PI3K signaling resulted in reduced YAP protein expression and inhibition of phagocytosis. The results indicate that YAP expression was regulated by PI3K signaling and promoted phagocytosis in AECs by upregulating filopodia formation. PMID: 32554050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gao P, Mu M, Chen Y, He J, Tao X, Song C Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Interaction analysis of IL-12A and IL-12B gene variants with chronic hepatitis B infection in Tunisian patients.
This study suggested that IL-12A rs568408 and gene-gene interactions of IL-12A rs568408 and IL-12B rs3212227 contributed to the outcome of chronic HBV infection, meanwhile indicating their usefulness as a predictive and diagnostic biomarker of chronic HBV infection. PMID: 32554051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Selma WB, Laribi AB, Alibi S, Saad A, Boukadida J Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Eomesodermin promotes interaction of RelA and NFATc2 with the Ifng promoter and multiple conserved noncoding sequences across the Ifng locus in mouse lymphoma BW5147 cells.
Abstract The T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) regulates the lineage-dependent expression of interferon γ (IFN-γ). We previously showed that Eomes promotes IFN-γ production and interacts with multiple conserved noncoding sequences (CNS) across the Ifng locus in mouse lymphoma BW5147 cells. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ by the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) subunit RelA and nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2, also known as NFAT1) in Eomes-transfected BW5147 cells. Eomes promoted the interaction of RelA and NFATc...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Harada M, Nghia VT, Nakao A, Tanigaki R, Fukuoka N, Nishida A, Kataoka T Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Changes of immune parameters of T lymphocytes and macrophages in EAE mice after BM-MSCs transplanation.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory infiltration, demyelination and axonal injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent which can not only differentiate into many types of cells, but also have immunomodulatory effects. We show here that the transplantation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) prevents the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most common animal model of MS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the immunologic mechanism by which BM-MSC transplantation ameliorates EAE involves inhibiting the proliferation and activation ...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xin Y, Gao J, Hu R, Li H, Li Q, Han F, He Z, Lai L, Su M Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Enhanced expression of TIGIT but not neuropilin-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The aggressive T helper cell responses and regulatory T (Treg) cells dysfunction exist in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The co-inhibitory T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM-domain (TIGIT), neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1), and the co-stimulatory CD226 play a critical role in the inhibition or activation of immune responses. In this project, the expression of TIGIT, CD226, Nrp-1, and their ligands, CD155 and semaphorin 3A (Sema-3A) were investigated in T2DM. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 30 patients with T2DM, and 30 healthy controls (HCs). The frequencies of T...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hoseini-Aghdam M, Sheikh V, Eftekharian MM, Rezaeepoor M, Behzad M Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Liver tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) model.
PMID: 32540487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Badawy AA Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Ferroptosis mediated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis associated with Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease characterized by an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Previous study showed that the immunological impairment elicted the alteration of inflammatory mediators, and ferroptosis was implicated with the lethal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of ferroptosis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC. The animal model was established and the molecular markers of ferroptosis were detected by using western blot. The results suggested that the expression of COX2 and ACSL4 was increased dramatica...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen Y, Zhang P, Chen W, Chen G Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Sequence homology between human PARP14 and the SARS-CoV-2 ADP ribose 1'-phosphatase.
PMID: 32534867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - June 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Thomas E, Saad R Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

How nicotine can inhibit cytokine storm in the lungs and prevent or lessen the severity of COVID-19 infection?
Abstract Statistical surveys of COVID-19 patients indicate, against all common logic, that people who smoke are less prone to the infection and/or exhibit less severe respiratory symptoms than non-smokers. This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection. PMID: 32522666 [PubMe...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kloc M, Ghobrial RM, Kubiak JZ Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The roles of B cell activation factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) in allergic asthma.
Abstract Allergic asthma, which is the most common type of asthma, is mediated by the IgE response, and B cells are key drivers of allergic inflammation in the lungs. B cell activation factor (BAFF) and proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) are members of the TNF superfamily. BAFF and APRIL interact with three receptors, namely the B cell activation factor receptor (BAFF-r), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator; calcium modulator; and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI). The interaction of BAFF and APRIL with their receptors induces B cell activation, differentiation, and antibody product...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Alturaiki W Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Poly dispersed acid-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes target activated T and B cells to suppress acute and chronic GVHD in mouse model.
Abstract Graft versus host disease (GVHD) results from hyper-activation of transplanted lymphocytes against the host antigens. Bone marrow transplantation in humans as well as some cases of blood transfusion and organ transplantation are associated with a strong GVH reaction resulting in GVHD that in many cases may be fatal. We had previously shown that poly-dispersed acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) specifically target activated T and B lymphocytes and kill them. In the present study, efficacy of AF-SWCNTs to suppress the GVH reaction was tested in the mouse model. Acute GVHD was ind...
Source: Immunology Letters - June 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mia MB, Saxena RK Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

IL-21 and IL-5 coordinately induce surface IgA+ cells.
Abstract Intestinal IgA is induced by microbes and food antigens. Peyer's patches (PPs) are known as one of the inductive sites for intestinal IgA production. However, the precise mechanism of IgA induction is as yet unknown. IgA secretion was induced from IgD+ B cells in vitro by stimulus with lipopolysaccharide in the presence of only retinoic acid (RA) and low doses of TGF-β1. Surface IgA+ cells were effectively induced from IgD+ B cells in vitro by the mixture of RA and the cytokines TGF-β1, APRIL, IL-5 and IL-21. rIL-21 upregulated surface IgA+ but impaired the proliferation of stimulated B cells in...
Source: Immunology Letters - May 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hashiguchi M, Kashiwakura Y, Kanno Y, Kojima H, Kobata T Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

miR-155 Indicates the Fate of CD4+ T Cells.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that regulate the translation of target messenger RNA (mRNA) and consequently participate in a variety of biological processes at the posttranscriptional level. miR-155, encoded within a region known as the B cell integration cluster (BIC), plays multifunctional roles in shaping lymphocytes ranging from biological development to adaptive immunity. It has been revealed that miR-155 plays a key role in fine-tuning the regulation of lymphocyte subsets, including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, B cells, and CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Antigen-specific CD4+...
Source: Immunology Letters - May 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen L, Gao D, Shao Z, Zheng Q, Yu Q Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Are there any association between COVID-19 severity and immunosuppressive therapy?
PMID: 32473971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - May 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hormati A, Ghadir MR, Zamani F, Khodadadi J, Khodadust F, Afifian M, Aminnejad R, Ahmadpour S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

The p53 effector Perp mediates the persistence of CD4+ effector memory T-cell undergoing lymphopenia-induced proliferation.
Abstract Under lymphopenic conditions, the rapid spontaneous proliferation produces cells that robustly differentiate into effector memory T (TEM) cells, and the aberrant expansion is preferentially driven by self-antigens. The pool size of effector memory T-cell is governed by a complex homeostatic balance between proliferation and death. Perp is a critical effector involved in the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway and widely expressed in mammalian tissues. We have previously shown that Perp has a prominent role in activation-induced cell death of peripheral Th17 cells. Here, we show that Peripheral Perp-/-CD4+ TEM...
Source: Immunology Letters - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhou Y, Leng X, Mo C, Zou Q, Liu Y, Wang Y Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Immune mechanisms involved in sickle cell disease pathogenesis: current knowledge and perspectives.
Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a single point mutation in the β-chain of the hemoglobin gene that results in the replacement of glutamic acid with valine in the hemoglobin protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that alterations in several other genes, especially immune related genes, may be associated with complications of SCD. In fact, higher chronic inflammatory status is related to more severe clinical symptoms in SCD patients, suggesting crucial roles of the immune system in SCD physiopathology. Nevertheless, although participation of innate immune cells in SCD pathogenesis ha...
Source: Immunology Letters - May 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Azevedo JTC, Malmegrim KCR Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Biosurfactants: Potential applications as immunomodulator drugs.
Abstract Biosurfactants (BSs) molecules are classically branded as emulsifiers of hydrocarbon compounds and are extensively applied in several fields including pharmaceutics, food processing, biodegradation, bioremediation, cosmetics, and pest control management. Due to the amphiphilic and surface-active properties, BS interacts with lipid membranes of the cell and alters its physio-chemical nature. As a result, various biological functions of the target cells are lost. In recent times, several studies have shown antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer potentials of BS molecules. BS primarily destroy bacterial ce...
Source: Immunology Letters - April 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sajid M, Ahmad Khan MS, Singh Cameotra S, Safar Al-Thubiani A Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms in association with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis in an Iranian population.
CONCLUSIONS: AlthoughERAP2 gene rs2910686 polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of AS susceptibility, it might not be involved in regulation of the inflammatory cytokines during AS pathogenesis. PMID: 32360304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology Letters)
Source: Immunology Letters - April 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ebrazeh M, Nojavan M, Abdi-Shayan S, Salimifard S, Dolatshahi E, Aslani S, Hemmatzadeh M, Babaie F, Ghanavatinejad A, Mohammadi H Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Distinct metabolic pathways mediate regulatory T cell differentiation and function.
Abstract Investigation of the cellular metabolic pathways of immune cells, or immunometabolism, is a field of increasing interest. An understanding of immunometabolism provides routes to modifying T cell function for therapeutic purposes. Here, we review immunometabolism with a specific focus on regulatory T cells (Tregs). While T cells are known to switch their metabolic profile from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis upon activation, in vitro-induced Tregs display alternate metabolic characteristics which may be related to their specialised suppressive function. Recent data suggest that the preferen...
Source: Immunology Letters - April 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hashimoto H, McCallion O, Kempkes RWM, Hester J, Issa F Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Variable Immunodeficiency Study. (Evaluation of two European cohorts within a variety of clinical phenotypes).
es E, Sánchez-Ramón S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Given the wide heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), several groups have proposed clinical and immunological classifications to better define follow-up and prognostic algorithms. The present study aims to validate recent clinical and laboratory algorithms, based on different combinations of CVID biomarkers, to provide more personalized treatment and follow-up strategies. METHODS: We analysed clinical and immunological features of 80 patients with suspected or diagnosed CVID, in two reference centres of Portugal and Spain. Clinical ...
Source: Immunology Letters - April 25, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Guevara-Hoyer K, Vasconcelos J, Marques L, Fernandes AA, Ochoa-Grullón J, Marinho A, Sequeira T, Gil C, de la Peña AR, García IS, Recio MJ, Fernández-Arquero M, de Diego RP, Ramos JT, Neves E, Sánchez-Ramón S Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research