A rare case of type II tri-allelic inheritance at vWA, SE33, D8S1179, and D13S317 loci demonstrated by STR analysis in paternity testing
AbstractShort tandem repeat (STR) typing has been regularly used in paternity disputes and forensic human identification linked caseworks. Occasionally, forensic scientists come across aberrant allele patterns during STR typing because of mutations, genetic variations, and other abnormalities. The tri-allelic pattern of STR is rare, particularly, the case where this pattern exists at 4 loci. Here, we report the type II tri-allelic patterns observed at vWA, SE33, D8S1179, and D13S317 loci in the product of conception (POC) sample during the course of our regular paternity case investigation. The DNA extracted from the blood...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - February 6, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Forensically relevant anatomical brain regions cannot be sub-differentiated by RNA expression analysis
AbstractThe contextualization of biological traces generated by severe head injuries can be beneficial for criminal investigations. Here we aimed to identify and validate mRNA candidates for a robust sub-differentiation of forensically and traumatologically relevant brain regions. To this purpose, massively parallel sequencing of whole transcriptomes in sample material taken from four different areas of the cerebral cortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobe) was performed, followed by bioinformatical data analysis, classification, and biostatistical candidate selection. Candidates were evaluated by Multiplex-RT-P...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 31, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Genital lichen sclerosus misdiagnosis: Forensic insights
AbstractIn this case study, we present an instance of genital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus that was initially misdiagnosed as child sexual abuse. A 6-year-old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of vaginal bleeding accompanied by pruritus. The initial suspicion of child abuse was prompted by the presence of blood. However, a thorough physical examination conducted by the forensic department ruled out any traumatic injuries and instead suggested an underlying pathology, ultimately diagnosed as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. This case report underscores the vital role of forensics in excluding abu...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 31, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Death and injuries caused by cattle: A forensic overview
AbstractLethal episodes arising from interactions with cattle may be the result of a response of the animals to simple handling and herding, or from reactions to deliberate provocation or goading intended to incite aggressive behavior for public entertainment purposes. Deaths may be considered to be unprovoked and unanticipated, or provoked and predictable. Cattle cause significant numbers of deaths globally and are considered the most dangerous large animal in Britain. Behavior may be unpredictable even in apparently docile domesticated animals, and attacks may be by a single animal or a herd and result in injuries from k...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 30, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Short-term postmortem interval estimation by detection of apoptosis-related protein in skin
AbstractTime-of-death extrapolation has always been one of the most important issues in forensic practice. For a complicated case in which a corpse is destroyed with little evidence, judging the time of death of the deceased is a major challenge, which also enables criminals to escape legal sanctions. To find a method to roughly judge the time of death of a corpse with only a small amount of skin tissue, in this study, we established an early death model by using mice; furthermore, the postmortem interval was estimated by determining the protein and mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in the skin. In this process, 0  h after dea...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 30, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

New geographic location data on the occurrence and abundance of carrion insects of forensic interest
AbstractThe world ’s forensic entomologists have much in common. They face similar research challenges, apply the same scientific methodology, study the same kinds of evidence, and access global research databases. Nevertheless, some regional heterogeneity inevitably exists. For most countries, and particularly tho se that have complex and diverse ecosystems, the current priority is to stimulate use of forensic entomology by establishing open access databases with time series data using standardised protocols for occurrence, abundance, distribution, niche preferences, life cycle, and identification characteris tics for t...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 30, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Application of the Kvaal method to CBCT reconstructed panoramic images for age estimation
AbstractAs the teeth are more durable than other parts of the skeleton, they provide valuable data for age estimation. Age estimation from adult teeth is mainly based on secondary dentin production. The present study aimed to devise a regression formula for age estimation specific to the Anatolian population using the Kvaal method on CBCT reconstructed panoramic images. In total, 201 individuals aged between 20 and 69 were divided into two groups: data from the study group (n = 101) were used to create the regression formulae, and data from the control group (n = 100) were used to test the formulae. Pearson’s cor...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 25, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Anaphylaxis as probable cause of death in a rare case of fatal Vipera berus bite
AbstractThis case report describes the death of a 52-year-old male who was bitten by a venomous snake,Vipera berus (common European adder), on his left wrist. Despite experiencing symptoms, the patient refused medical care and self-medicated with alcohol instead. He was later found dead in his residence. Autopsy and histological examination revealed evidence of an anaphylactic reaction in response to the snake bite, with additional findings of alcohol intoxication and other underlying medical conditions. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 24, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Closing remarks on “The integration and implications of artificial intelligence in forensic science”
AbstractThis commentary examines the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in forensic science, highlighting its benefits in  enhancing accuracy and efficiency across a number of forensic disciplines, including medicine, anthropology, forensics, and taphonomy. However its use, also raises concerns about privacy, data protection, bias, fairness, and the reliability of AI systems. The commentary emphasises the importance of scrutiny, standardized procedures, and ongoing dialogue to ensure AI is responsibly advanced in forensic science. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 24, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Commentary on “The integration and implications of artificial intelligence in forensic science”
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 22, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A retrospective review of methylamphetamine detected in child deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, Australia
This study investigated methylamphetamine (MA) exposures in the deaths of children ( ≤ 12 years old) reported to the Coroner in the state of Victoria, Australia, between 2011 and 2020. Demographics, autopsy findings including the cause of death, self-reported prenatal or caregiver drug use, child protection services information, and toxicological findings were summarized by des criptive statistics. Validated methods of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used in the analysis of drugs. There were 50 child deaths with MA detected in blood, urine, and/or hair with 64% (n = 32) identified in 2018–202...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 19, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Modeling of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma in children: what can we learn?
AbstractInflicted shaking trauma can cause injury in infants, but exact injury mechanisms remain unclear. Controversy exists, particularly in courts, whether additional causes such as impact are required to produce injuries found in cases of (suspected) shaking. Publication rates of studies on animal and biomechanical models of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma (IHI-ST) in infants continue rising. Dissention on the topic, combined with its legal relevance, makes maintaining an up-to-date, clear and accessible overview of the current knowledge-base on IHI-ST essential. The current work reviews recent (2017 –2023) st...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 18, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Death due to sickle cell crisis: a case report
AbstractSickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hereditary hemoglobinopathy worldwide. It results in characteristic acute and chronic findings on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), macroscopic and microscopic examinations. While the diagnostic imaging and macroscopic features are not specific for SCD on their own, when coupled with microscopic features such as sickled erythrocytes and evidence of chronic venous congestion (i.e., Gamna-Gandy bodies), these clues can help alert forensic pathologists to the presence of SCD. Despite the prevalence of the disease and the constellation of findings alluded to above, SCD ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 15, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Salivary microbiomes: a potent evidence in forensic investigations
In conclusion, the salivary microbiome presents a valuable avenue for forensic science, offering a novel app roach which not only enhances the prospects of solving complex cases but also underscores the rich potential of microbiome analysis in the realm of forensic investigation.Graphical abstract (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 4, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

DNA degradation of bloodstains on cotton fabric caused by different washing procedures
AbstractDNA degradation in biological material needs to be better understood. Bloodstains on washed clothing are disturbed by washing procedures, sometimes transferred to other fabrics, often with latent bloodstains and usually with significantly degraded DNA.  The samples (cotton fabric with bloodstains) are divided into six main groups, depending on the washing method regarding water temperature (95, 60, and 30 °C) and the detergent use. After completing the washing process, samples were stored for a certain period (1 day to 6 months) and subsequen tly analyzed. Analyses were performed using standard protocols and c...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 4, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research