Marine mimicry is afoot
AbstractIt is a relatively common occurrence for forensic pathologists and anthropologists to be presented with what are believed to be human remains as part of their day-to-day practice. Despite this, the literature pertaining to such challenges is not extensive, and much knowledge of this is largely based on experience. As such, we present a case of what appeared to be a severed foot located on a beach, which examination revealed was a marine animal known as a sea squirt (ascidian). While marine scientists have been aware of such mimicry, to our knowledge, this has not been previously described in the forensic pathology ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 10, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Automated wound segmentation and classification of seven common injuries in forensic medicine
AbstractIn forensic medical investigations, physical injuries are documented with photographs accompanied by written reports. Automatic segmentation and classification of wounds on these photographs could provide forensic pathologists with a tool to improve the assessment of injuries and accelerate the reporting process.  In this pilot study, we trained and compared several preexisting deep learning architectures for image segmentation and wound classification on forensically relevant photographs in our database. The best scores were a mean pixel accuracy of 69.4% and a mean intersection over union (IoU) of 48.6% when ev...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 28, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Diatoms pass through the gastrointestinal barrier and lead to false-positive: an animal experiment
AbstractThe diatom test has been used by forensic pathologist as standard for drowning, but the occurrence of false-positive results (presence of diatoms found in the tissues of subjects who died from causes other than drowning) draws criticism regarding the specificity of the test. Diatoms within food or water can be ingested through the gastrointestinal tract. However, the mechanisms of how the diatoms reach distant organs such as the lung, liver, and kidney have not been studied. In this article, we simulated the process of diatoms entering the gastrointestinal tract using gastric lavage on experimental rabbits. Diatoms...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 28, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Automated wound segmentation and classification of seven common injuries in forensic medicine
AbstractIn forensic medical investigations, physical injuries are documented with photographs accompanied by written reports. Automatic segmentation and classification of wounds on these photographs could provide forensic pathologists with a tool to improve the assessment of injuries and accelerate the reporting process.  In this pilot study, we trained and compared several preexisting deep learning architectures for image segmentation and wound classification on forensically relevant photographs in our database. The best scores were a mean pixel accuracy of 69.4% and a mean intersection over union (IoU) of 48.6% when ev...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 28, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Commentary on “Fatal cardiac air embolism after CT-guided percutaneous needle lung biopsy: medical complication or medical malpractice?”
AbstractTo differentiate between medical malpractice and expected, but rare, medical complication in a medicolegal autopsy context is often difficult. Such an assessment requires knowledge about the clinical practice associated with the procedure at hand, and that findings of the autopsy, including medical relevant information such as patient chart, radiological imaging, and statements from witnesses about the medical procedure itself, provides evidence that substantiate either conclusion. In a case report published in the journal such an assessment is discussed by presenting findings and circumstances surrounding the deat...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Pilot study in Hamburg on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and pandemic survey in the German funeral industry
AbstractFuneral home and crematorium workers are an important occupational group in the corona crisis. The occupational setting led to concerns about an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. The seroprevalence in this occupational group is unclear. A questionnaire-based retrospective survey of funeral home and crematorium staff was conducted in December 2020. A second survey of funeral and crematorium staff was conducted 6  months later, in June 2021, to determine changes in pandemic management. Seroprevalence or vaccination status for SARS-CoV-2 was determined at these two time points. In December 2020, a seroprev...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 24, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suicidal sodium nitrite intoxication: a case report focusing on the postmortem findings and toxicological analyses —review of the literature
We describe a case of fatal self-poisoning following the oral ingestion of sodium nitrite with suicidal intent. Postmortem investigations showed signs of methemoglobinemia, such as a gray-brown discoloration of lividity and a chocolate brown discoloration of the blood. Postmortem toxicological investigation revealed methemoglobinemia (35%) in cardiac blood, hypernatremia (159.6  mmol/L) in vitreous humor, and the presence of nitrite in gastric contents (1.15 g/L) and, for the first time in a forensic case, in serum (38 µg/mL). A review of the existing literature regarding cases of sodium nitrite intoxications was perfo...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 23, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Under-reporting of forensic findings: craniocervical emergency imaging in cases of survived hanging
Abstract To determine the diagnostic bias between clinical and forensic radiology in cases of nonfatal hanging and determine and describe typical underreported imaging findings. In a retrospective, single-center study, all patients admitted for attempted suicide with near-hanging or fatal hanging between January 2008 and December 2020 who received CT or MRI of head and neck were reviewed and missed findings in the original report were documented. A binary regression with disagreement as dependent variable was fitted for the imaging modality, fatality, age, and sex. A total of 123 hanging incidents were retrospectively a...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 20, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Diagnostic challenges and forensic implications in a case of infantile fatal myocarditis
We present the case of a 23-month-old child who died less than 24  h after the onset of cardiac symptoms, despite being admitted to the hospital 72 h earlier. Autopsy revealed no significant macroscopic changes, and histologic examination revealed focal lymphocytic myocarditis with myocyte disruption, diffuse alveolar damage in the exudative phase, and generaliz ed lymphocytic immune activation in other organs. Ante-mortem and post-mortem microbiological exams did not clearly prove a causative role of infectious agents. The peculiarity of this case was characterized by the contrast between the severe clinical features a...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - June 19, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research