Sex assessment from the pelvis: a test of the Phenice (1969) and Klales et al. (2012) methods
AbstractSex assessment is one of the first steps of routine forensic anthropological examinations and it provides a crucial element to identify a set of human skeletal remains. In bioarchaeological contexts, this assessment is also important, as it helps in the reconstruction of past societies. Sex determination can be achieved by using several morphological or metric traits of the skull and postcranial skeleton, which have been found to have varying degrees of accuracy. In 1969 Phenice proposed a methodology focusing on three traits located on the pubis. These traits were described as either having a female or male morpho...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 3, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic discordance —a not unexpected occurrence
AbstractDisagreements between clinical and forensic interpretations of post-mortem findings are sometimes influenced by prior experiences with particular patient cohorts. While patients who present clinically have characteristic indicators of disease (thus enabling diagnosis), symptoms and signs may not have been manifested by those who die suddenly and unexpectedly and present for medicolegal assessment. Thus, the determination of likely or possible lethal mechanisms requires an understanding of occult disease processes and idiosyncratic responses that may be very different from case to case. Summaries of cases should be ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - August 3, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Management of unidentified and unclaimed bodies: a comparison of model from four countries in the Asia Pacific Region
This study aims to address the issues surrounding unidentified and unclaimed bodies including body disposal from a social and legal perspective using case study methodology by comparing four different countries in the Asia Pacific Region through document analysis and interview methods. One of the major findings is evident in 3 out of the 4 models, whereby there is a considerable gap in consolidating the missing person report and information to match with the unidentified bodies received in forensic institutions in an attempt to enhance the identification process which ultimately intends as a closure for the family members....
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 31, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on sexual assault in Western Denmark
This study sets out to investigate whether the 15-month nationwide COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark had an impact on the victim demographics, location of sexual assaults, and relationship between victim and perpetrator in the Western part of Denmark compared to the 15  months prior to the lockdown initiatives. This study is a retrospective study including a total of 596 cases. Cases were identified in the database of the Department of Forensic Medicine Aarhus, including cases labeled “rape,” “attempted rape,” and “later reported.” 315 cases were foun d between March 11th 2020 and June 10th 2021 (lockdown) and 28...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 28, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Semi-computational approach for assessing the damage to human soft tissues: the case of FMJRN versus HP-XTP 9  mm bullet penetration in ballistic soap
This study provides insight into the severity of injuries originated from two different types of bullets of the same caliber by employing ballistic soap as a tissue simulant. In addition, it provides guidance to forensic practitioners on the proper use of ballistic soap for simulating gunshot wounds. The semi-computational approach employed, based on the results obtained from the firing tests, allowed the authors to understand that there is li kely a threshold value of projectile energy density, close to 1 J/mm2, beyond which its penetration into the ballistic soap ceases. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 28, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

More than meets the eye: a scoping review on the non-medical uses of THZ eye drops
This study recognizes that THZ can be used in non-medicinal and criminal uses. There is room for future research and development. More studies should be conducted to better understand the mechanism of action, therapeutic window, a nd toxicity levels among various age groups at different methods of intake and to find an effective treatment in case of overdose. Eyedrop and nasal decongestant bottles should be designed with child proofing to prevent incidental ingestion and should contain warning labels. A fast and alternative t est to GC/MS can be developed to ease the diagnosis of THZ toxicity. Purchases of this medication ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 28, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical expression of HMGB1 and related proteins in the skin as a possible tool for determining post-mortem interval: a preclinical study
AbstractDetermining the post-mortem interval (PMI) is one of forensic pathology ’s primary objectives and one of its most challenging tasks. Numerous studies have demonstrated the accuracy of histomorphology and immunohistochemical investigations in determining the time of death. Nevertheless, the skin, a robust and easy-to-remove tissue, has only been partially analyzed so f ar. By studying 20 adult male mice, we tried to determine whether post-mortem immunohistochemical detection in the skin of HMGB1 proteins and associated components (Beclin1 and RAGE) could be used for this purpose. We discovered that nuclear HMGB1 o...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 25, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Potential biomarkers in hypoglycemic brain injury
AbstractOxidative stress is a major underlying mechanism in hypoglycemic brain injury. Several oxidative stress –related proteins were identified through previous proteomics and literature review. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of these proteins as biomarkers in hypoglycemic brain injury. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: control, acute hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia resuscitation 24 h, and hypoglycemia resuscitation 7 days. The hypoglycemic brain injury rat model was successfully constructed according to the Auer model. Real-time fluorescent quan...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 19, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Comment on: “Bone marrow embolism: should it result from traumatic bone lesions? a histopathological human autopsy study”
AbstractFarid et al., described how 8 of 11 cases of Bone Marrow Embolism were found to be non-traumatic. In our research group we found several shortcomings in the methodology, and within our own Institute we could not replicate the results. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 17, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Postmortem biochemical analysis of soluble ST2 in the pericardial fluid of patients with sudden cardiac death caused by ischemic heart disease: a pilot study
This study preliminarily demonstrated that sST2 in the pericardial fluid was significantly increased in patients with SCD caused by IHD and might be used as a novel auxiliary biomarker for postmortem diagnosis of SCD in forensic practice. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 14, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sex determination by linear measurements of the bony labyrinth in cone-beam and computed tomography: a practical method
ConclusionLinear measurement of the semicircular canals of the vestibule on CBCT or CT could provide easy-to-use sex determination of the majority of females and males with a good predictive value. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 14, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sudden death of a 12-year-old boy with severe myocardial fibrosis due to inapparent chronic myocarditis
AbstractSudden death due to unknown cardiac disease in children is an unusual occurrence. An apparently healthy 12-year-old boy without any physical restrictions collapsed suddenly and died despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The main autopsy finding was extensive scarring of the myocardium, especially the interventricular septum. This extensive scarring was exceptional for the young age. Histologically, replacement-type fibrosis with patchy lymphomonocytic infiltrate and infiltration by macrophages were observed. The case was diagnosed as chronic myocarditis, which may have progressed to dilated cardiomyopathy with inf...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - July 14, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research