The integration and implications of artificial intelligence in forensic science
AbstractThis commentary explores the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in forensic science and its potential implications. The applications of AI in forensic disciplines such as medicine, forensic anthropology, digital forensics, and taphonomy have enhanced the accuracy and efficiency of identification processes and the analysis of digital evidence. However, this rapid advancement prompts critical considerations in privacy, data protection, bias and fairness, and the accuracy and reliability of AI systems. The inherent challenges of the “black box” nature of AI algorithms call for transparency and accountabil...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 4, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The use of vitreous humour as a potential source of DNA for postmortem identification in forensic science
AbstractVitreous humour (VH) is routinely collected for toxicological analyses. However, only a few studies have examined its possible use in genotyping. Because of its isolation from the rest of the body, later onset of postmortem changes, and availability, VH could be a potential source of DNA for postmortem identification and other molecular analyses in forensic genetics. During forensic autopsies, samples of different VH volumes (5  ml, 4 ml, 3 ml, 2 ml, 1 ml, and 0.5 ml) were taken from 66 cadavers 24–48 h after death. DNA was also isolated from the samples immediately after collection and after a specific ti...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 3, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Estimation of the postmortem interval from histological changes in the lingual tissue: Need for further exploration
(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - January 2, 2024 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Differences in volume, density, electrolyte concentration, and total proteins in the fluid of the paranasal sinuses of freshwater and saltwater drowning victims: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study summarized the available evidence on the differences in volume, density, electrolyte concentration, and total proteins in paranasal sinus fluid between freshwater and saltwater drowning victims. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases and gray literature, resulting in the inclusion of five studies with 234 drowning victims (92 saltwater incidents and 142 freshwater incidents). Meta-analyses using the inverse-of-variance method and a random-effects model were performed, reporting effect sizes as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The findings showed a signifi...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 27, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suicide victims and alcohol-related consumption in Brazil: An observational study and a narrative review of the literature
AbstractDeaths due to external causes, mainly suicide, are a severe public health problem in Brazil. Evidence shows that the tendency to impulsive behavior is exacerbated after alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol and suicide is poorly described in the medical literature. The study aims to analyze the relationship between victims' blood alcohol levels and suicides in some municipalities in Greater S ão Paulo, Brazil. We reviewed the data from the medical records of 805 necropsies performed at the Medical Legal Institute of Sao Paulo in Franco da Rocha, Brazil, from 2001 to 2017. The manner of death was es...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 27, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Differences in volume, density, electrolyte concentration, and total proteins in the fluid of the paranasal sinuses of freshwater and saltwater drowning victims: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study summarized the available evidence on the differences in volume, density, electrolyte concentration, and total proteins in paranasal sinus fluid between freshwater and saltwater drowning victims. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases and gray literature, resulting in the inclusion of five studies with 234 drowning victims (92 saltwater incidents and 142 freshwater incidents). Meta-analyses using the inverse-of-variance method and a random-effects model were performed, reporting effect sizes as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The findings showed a signifi...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 27, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suicide victims and alcohol-related consumption in Brazil: An observational study and a narrative review of the literature
AbstractDeaths due to external causes, mainly suicide, are a severe public health problem in Brazil. Evidence shows that the tendency to impulsive behavior is exacerbated after alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol and suicide is poorly described in the medical literature. The study aims to analyze the relationship between victims' blood alcohol levels and suicides in some municipalities in Greater S ão Paulo, Brazil. We reviewed the data from the medical records of 805 necropsies performed at the Medical Legal Institute of Sao Paulo in Franco da Rocha, Brazil, from 2001 to 2017. The manner of death was es...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 27, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Hepatic venous gas secondary to pulmonary barotrauma: rat model study
AbstractIntrahepatic gas (IHG) is commonly observed during early postmortem examinations of humans with upper or lower airway obstructions. We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary gas could retrogradely spread to the hepatic vein following pulmonary barotrauma (PB). To establish a rat model of pulmonary barotrauma, we utilized a controllable pressure-vacuum pump to apply airway pressure (40, 60, or 80  mmHg). The rats were dissected directly at the end of the experiment, and histological analysis was performed through microscopic examination of the rats. Additionally, the rats were ventilated with ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The wounding potential of assault rifles: analysis of the dimensions of entrance and exit wounds and comparison with conventional handguns. A multicentric study
AbstractThe appearance of a  gunshot wound (GSW) is greatly influenced by the velocity of the projectile, where high-velocity projectiles (HVPs) are defined as ballistic agents reaching a muzzle velocity of >  600 m/s fired from assault rifles. The aim of the study is to present and explain the differences in the dimensions of entrance and exit wounds between the most used handguns and assault rifles and to propose a predictor of HVP, i.e., the ratio of exit and entrance wounds (EX/ENR). The surface ar ea of entrance and exit GSWs and the EX/ENR were calculated. 66 perforating GSWs produced by NATO FMJ 7.62 ×...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Stepping towards pollen DNA metabarcoding: A breakthrough in forensic sciences
AbstractThis review is engaged in determining the capability of plant pollen as a significant source of evidence for the linkage between suspects and crime location in forensic sciences. Research and review articles were collected from Google Scholar, the Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were searched using specific keywords such as “Forensic Palynology,” “Pollen metabarcoding,” “Plant forensics,” and “Pollen” AND “criminal investigation.” Boolean logic was also utilized to narrow the articles to be included in this review article. Through the literature and exploratory research, it has been observe...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Hepatic venous gas secondary to pulmonary barotrauma: rat model study
AbstractIntrahepatic gas (IHG) is commonly observed during early postmortem examinations of humans with upper or lower airway obstructions. We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary gas could retrogradely spread to the hepatic vein following pulmonary barotrauma (PB). To establish a rat model of pulmonary barotrauma, we utilized a controllable pressure-vacuum pump to apply airway pressure (40, 60, or 80  mmHg). The rats were dissected directly at the end of the experiment, and histological analysis was performed through microscopic examination of the rats. Additionally, the rats were ventilated with ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The wounding potential of assault rifles: analysis of the dimensions of entrance and exit wounds and comparison with conventional handguns. A multicentric study
AbstractThe appearance of a  gunshot wound (GSW) is greatly influenced by the velocity of the projectile, where high-velocity projectiles (HVPs) are defined as ballistic agents reaching a muzzle velocity of >  600 m/s fired from assault rifles. The aim of the study is to present and explain the differences in the dimensions of entrance and exit wounds between the most used handguns and assault rifles and to propose a predictor of HVP, i.e., the ratio of exit and entrance wounds (EX/ENR). The surface ar ea of entrance and exit GSWs and the EX/ENR were calculated. 66 perforating GSWs produced by NATO FMJ 7.62 ×...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Stepping towards pollen DNA metabarcoding: A breakthrough in forensic sciences
AbstractThis review is engaged in determining the capability of plant pollen as a significant source of evidence for the linkage between suspects and crime location in forensic sciences. Research and review articles were collected from Google Scholar, the Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were searched using specific keywords such as “Forensic Palynology,” “Pollen metabarcoding,” “Plant forensics,” and “Pollen” AND “criminal investigation.” Boolean logic was also utilized to narrow the articles to be included in this review article. Through the literature and exploratory research, it has been observe...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 26, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Accidental fatal poisoning in a child due to ingestion of Nerium oleander leaf
AbstractNerium oleander is an ornamental plant that belongs to the family Apocynaceae. It contains a cardiac glycoside named oleandrin, which is present in all parts of the oleander plant. Suicidal and medication-related deaths due toNerium oleander poisoning are not uncommon. However, accidental deaths due to oleander leaf ingestion are most commonly encountered. We are reporting a case of an accidental ingestion ofNerium oleander leaf in a child by mistaking it for a guava leaf. The child presented to the casualty with vomiting, poor sensorium, hypotension, and shock. The child developed hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 22, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The role of pathologists in increasing knowledge of safe sleep practices for infants
AbstractRecent studies have evaluated parental knowledge of safe sleeping practices for their infants by using follow-up questionnaires at postnatal obstetric clinic visits. While many parents increase their knowledge of the key features of safe sleeping during antenatal visits, a significant number subsequently fail to adhere to guidelines. An additional way to assess parental understanding of safe and unsafe sleeping practices may be to incorporate information from pathological evaluations of infants who do not survive. Specifically, information from careful investigations of death scenes and meticulous autopsy examinati...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - December 22, 2023 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research